|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (a.) Fertile. See Battel.
2. (n.) A general action, fight, or encounter, in which all the divisions of an army are or may be engaged; an engagement; a combat.
3. (n.) A struggle; a contest; as, the battle of life.
4. (n.) A division of an army; a battalion.
5. (n.) The main body, as distinct from the van and rear; battalion.
6. (n.) To join in battle; to contend in fight; as, to battle over theories.
7. (v. t.) To assail in battle; to fight.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
BETH-HORON, THE BATTLE OF
1. The Political Situation
2. Joshua's Strategy
3. Joshua's Command to the Sun and Moon
4. The Astronomical Relations of the Sun and Moon
5. The "Silence" of the Sun
6. "Yahweh Fought for Israel"
7. The Afternoon's March
8. The Chronicle and the Poem Independent Witnesses
9. Date of the Events
10. The Records Are ntemporaneous with the Events
1. The Political Situation:
The battle which gave to the Israelites under Joshua the command of southern Palestine has always excited interest because of the astronomical marvel which is recorded to have then taken place.
In invading Palestine the Israelites were not attacking a single coherent state, but a country occupied by different races and divided, like Greece at a later period, into a number of communities, each consisting practically of but a single city and the cultivated country around it. Thus Joshua destroyed the two cities of Jericho and Ai without any interference from the other Amorites. The destruction of Jericho gave him full possession of the fertile valley of the Jordan; the taking of Ai opened his way up to the ridge which forms the backbone of the country, and he was able to lead the people unopposed to the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim for the solemn reading of the Law. But when the Israelites returned from this ceremony a significant division showed itself amongst their enemies. Close to Ai, Joshua's most recent conquest, was Beeroth, a small town inhabited by Hivites; and no doubt because in the natural order of events Beeroth might look to be next attacked, the Hivites determined to make terms with Israel. An embassy was therefore sent from Gibeon, their chief city, and Joshua and the Israelites, believing that it came from a distant land not under the Ban, entered into the proposed alliance.
The effect on the political situation was immediate. The Hivites formed a considerable state, relatively speaking; their cities were well placed on the southern highland, and Gibeon, their capital, was one of the most important fortresses of that district, and only 6 miles distant from Jerusalem, the chief Amorite stronghold. The Amorites recognized at once that, in view of this important defection, it was imperative for them to crush the Gibeonites before the Israelites could unite with them, and this they endeavored to do. The Gibeonites, seeing themselves attacked, sent an urgent message to Joshua, and he at the head of his picked men made a night march up from Gilgal and fell upon the Amorites at Gibeon the next day and put them to flight.
2. Joshua's Strategy:
We are not told by which route he marched, but it is significant that the Amorites fled by the way of Beth-horon; that is to say, not toward their own cities, but away from them. A glance at the map shows that this means that Joshua had succeeded in cutting their line of retreat to Jerusalem. He had probably therefore advanced upon Gibeon from the south, instead of by the obvious route past Ai which he had destroyed and Beeroth with which he was in alliance. But, coming up from Gilgal by the ravines in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, he was exposed to a great danger, for the Amorites might have caught him before he had gained a footing on the plateau, and have taken him at a complete disadvantage. It was thus that the eleven tribes suffered such terrible loss at the hands of the Benjamites in this very region during the first inter-tribal war, and probably the military significance of the first repulse from Ai was of the same character; the forces holding the high ground being able to overwhelm their opponent s without any fear of reprisals.
It would seem possible, therefore, that Joshua may have repeated, on a larger scale, the tactics he employed in his successful attack upon Ai. He may have sent one force to draw the Amorites away from Gibeon, and when this was safely done, may have led the rest of his army to seize the road to Jerusalem, and to break up the forces besieging Gibeon. If so, his strategy was successful up to a certain point. He evidently led the Israelites without loss up to Gibeon, crushed the Amorites there, and cut off their retreat toward Jerusalem. He failed in one thing. In spite of the prodigious efforts which he and his men had made, the greater part of the Amorite army succeeded in escaping him and gained a long start in their flight, toward the northwest, through the two Beth-horons.
3. Joshua's Command to the Sun and Moon:
It was at this point that the incident occurred upon which attention has been chiefly fixed. The Book of Jashar (which seems to have been a collection of war songs and other ballads) ascribes to Joshua the command: + `Sun, be thou silent upon (be) Gibeon (compare Revised Version margin); And thou, Moon, in (be) the valley of Aijalon. And the Sun was silent, And the Moon stayed, Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies' (Joshua 10:12, 23). - And the prose narrative continues, "The sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day."
4. The Astronomical Relations of the Sun and Moon:
In these two, the ballad and the prose chronicle, we have several distinct astronomical relations indicated. The sun to Joshua was associated with Gibeon, and the sun can naturally be associated with a locality in either of two positions: it may be overhead to the observer, in which case he would consider it as being above the place where he himself was standing; or on the other hand, he might see the locality on the skyline and the sun rising or setting just behind it. In the present instance there is no ambiguity, for the chronicle distinctly states that the sun was in "the midst of heaven"; literally, in the halving of the heaven, that is to say overhead. This is very important because it assures us that Joshua must have been at Gibeon when he spoke, and that it must have been noonday of summer when the sun in southern Palestine is only about 8 degrees or 12 degrees from the exact zenith. Next, the moon appeared to be associated with the valley of Aijalon; that is, it must have been low down on the horizon in that direction, and since Aijalon is Northwest of Gibeon it must have been about to set, which would imply that it was about half full, in its "third quarter," the sun being, as we have seen, on the meridian. Thirdly, "the sun hasted not to go down," that is to say, it had already attained the meridian, its culmination; and henceforward its motion was downward. The statement that it was noonday is here implicitly repeated, but a further detail is added. The going down of the sun appeared to be slow. This is the work of the afternoon, that is of half the day, but on this occasion the half-day appeared equal in length to an ordinary whole day. There is therefore no question at all of the sun becoming stationary in the sky: the statement does not admit of that, but only of its slower progress.
5. The "Silence" of the Sun:
The idea that the sun was fixed in the sky, in other words, that the earth ceased for a time to rotate on its axis, has arisen from the unfortunate rendering of the Hebrew verb dum, "be silent," by "stand thou still." It is our own word "dumb," both being onomatopoetic words from the sound made when a man firmly closes his lips upon his speech. The primary meaning of the word therefore is "to be silent," but its secondary meaning is "to desist," "to cease," and therefore in some cases "to stand still. "
From what was it then that Joshua wished the sun to cease: from its moving or from its shining? It is not possible to suppose that, engaged as he was in a desperate battle, he was even so much as thinking of the sun's motion at all. But its shining, its scorching heat, must have been most seriously felt by him. At noon, in high summer, the highland of southern Palestine is one of the hottest countries of the world. It is impossible to suppose that Joshua wished the sun to be fixed overhead, where it must have been distressing his men who had already been 17 hours on foot. A very arduous pursuit lay before them and the enemy not only had a long start but must have been fresher than the Israelites. The sun's heat therefore must have been a serious hindrance, and Joshua must have desired it to be tempered. And the Lord hearkened to his voice and gave him this and much more. A great hailstorm swept up from the west, bringing with it a sudden lowering of temperature, and no doubt hiding the sun and putting it to "silence."
6. "Yahweh Fought for Israel":
And "Yahweh fought for Israel," for the storm burst with such violence upon the Amorites as they fled down the steep descent between the Beth-horons, that "they were more who died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword" (Joshua 10:11). This was the culminating incident of the day, the one which so greatly impressed the sacred historian. "There was no day like that before it or after it, that Yahweh hearkened unto the voice of a man" (Joshua 10:14). It was not the hailstorm in itself nor the veiling of the sun that made the day so remarkable. It was that Joshua had spoken, not in prayer or supplication, but in command, as if all Nature was at his disposal; and the Lord had hearkened and had, as it were, obeyed a human voice: an anticipation of the time when a greater Joshua should command even the winds and the sea, and they should obey Him (Matthew 8:23-27).
7. The Afternoon's March:
The explanation of the statement that the sun "hasted not to go down about a whole day" is found in Joshua 10:10, in which it is stated that the Lord discomfited the Amorites before Israel, "and he slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah." The Israelites had of course no time-keepers, no clocks or watches, and the only mode of measuring time available to them was the number of miles they marched. Now from Gibeon to Makkedah by the route indicated is some 30 miles, a full day's march for an army. It is possible that, at the end of the campaign, the Israelites on their return found the march from Makkedah to Gibeon heavy work for an entire day. Measured by the only means available to them, that afternoon seemed to be double the ordinary length. The sun had "hasted not to go down about a whole day."
8. The Chronicle and the Poem Independent Witnesses:
Joshua's reference to the moon in connection with the Valley of Aijalon appears at first sight irrelevant, and has frequently been assumed to be merely inserted to complete the parallelism of the poem. But when examined astronomically it becomes clear that it cannot have been inserted haphazard. Joshua must have mentioned the moon because he actually saw it at the moment of speaking. Given that the sun was "in the midst of heaven," above Gibeon, there was only a very restricted arc of the horizon in which the moon could appear as associated with some terrestrial object; and from Gibeon, the Valley of Aijalon does lie within that narrow arc. It follows therefore that unless the position assigned to the moon had been obtained from actual observation at the moment, it would in all probability have been an impossible one. The next point is especially interesting. The ballad does not expressly state whether the sun was upon Gibeon in the sense of being upon it low down on the distant horizon, or upon it, in the sense of being overhead both to Joshua and to that city. But the moon being above the Valley of Aijalon, it becomes clear that the latter is the only possible solution. The sun and moon cannot both have been setting-though this is the idea that has been generally held, it being supposed that the day was far spent and that Joshua desired it to be prolonged-for then sun and moon would have been close together, and the moon would be invisible. The sun cannot have been setting, and the moon rising; for Aijalon is West of Gibeon. Nor can the sun have been rising, and the moon setting, since this would imply that the time of year was either about October 30 of our present calendar, or about February 12. The month of February was already past, since the Israelites had kept the Feast of the Passover. October cannot have come; for, since Beeroth, Gibeon and Jerusalem were so close together, it is certain that the events between the return of the Israelites to Gilgal and the battle of Beth-horon cannot have been spread over several months, but must have occupied only a few days. The poem therefore contains implicitly the same fact that is explicitly stated in the prose narrative-that the sun was overhead-but the one statement cannot, in those days, have been inferred from the other.
9. Date of the Events:
A third point of interest is that the position of the moon gives an indication of the time of the year. The Valley of Aijalon is 17 degrees North of West of from Gibeon, of which the latitude is 31 degrees 51 minutes North. With these details, and assuming the time to be nearly noon, the date must have been about the 21st day of the 4th month of the Jewish calendar, corresponding to July 22 of our present calendar, with a possible uncertainty of one or two days on either side. The sun's declination would then be about 21 degrees North, so that at noon it was within 11 degrees of the zenith. It had risen almost exactly at 5 AM and would set almost exactly at 7 PM. The moon was now about her third quarter, and in North latitude. about 5 degrees. It had risen about 11 o'clock the previous night, and was now at an altitude of under 7 degrees, and within about half an hour of setting. The conditions are not sufficient to fix the year, since from the nature of the luni-solar cycle there will always be one or two years in each cycle of 19 that will satisfy the conditions of the case, and the date of the Hebrew invasion of Palestine is not known with sufficient certainty to limit the inquiry to any particular cycle.
10. The Records Are Contemporaneous with the Events:
It will be seen however that the astronomical conditions introduced by the mention of the moon are much more stringent than might have been expected. They supply therefore proof of a high order that the astronomical details, both of the poem and prose chronicle, were derived from actual observation at the time and have been preserved to us unaltered. Each, therefore, supplies a strictly contemporaneous and independent record.
This great occurrence appears to be referred to in one other passage of Scripture-the Prayer of Habakkuk. Here again the rendering of the English versions is unfortunate, and the passage should stand: + `The sun and moon ceased (to shine) in their habitation; At the light of Thine arrows they vanished, And at the shining of Thy glittering spear. Thou didst march through the land in indignation, Thou didst thresh the nations in anger' (Habakkuk 3:11, 12).
E. W. Maunder
Battle (282 Occurrences)
Luke 14:31 Or what king, as he goes to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and consider whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? (See NAS)
1 Corinthians 14:8 For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? (KJV WEY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 6:13 Therefore put on the complete armour of God, so that you may be able to stand your ground on the day of battle, and, having fought to the end, to remain victors on the field. (WEY)
Hebrews 11:34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the mouth of the sword, were made powerful out of infirmities, became strong in battle, caused to give way camps of the aliens. (YLT NIV)
James 4:1 Where do wars and fightings among you come from? Don't they come from your pleasures that war in your members? (See NIV)
Revelation 9:7 And the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men. (KJV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 9:9 And they had breastplates, as it were breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many horses running to battle. (KJV WEY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 12:7 And war broke out in Heaven, Michael and his angels engaging in battle with the Dragon. (WEY)
Revelation 13:4 And they offered worship to the Dragon, because it was to him that the Wild Beast owed his dominion; and they also offered worship to the Wild Beast, and said, "Who is there like him? And who is able to engage in battle with him?" (WEY)
Revelation 16:14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. (KJV WEY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Revelation 20:8 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog, and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. (KJV WBS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:8 The king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (the same is Zoar) went out; and they set the battle in array against them in the valley of Siddim; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 13:18 but God led the people around by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea; and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt. (See RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:3 Jehovah 'is' a man of battle; Jehovah 'is' His name. (YLT)
Exodus 32:17 And Joshua heareth the voice of the people in their shouting, and saith unto Moses, 'A noise of battle in the camp!' (YLT)
Numbers 10:9 And when ye go into battle in your land against the adversary who is distressing you, then ye have shouted with the trumpets, and ye have been remembered before Jehovah your God, and ye have been saved from your enemies. (YLT NIV)
Numbers 21:33 They turned and went up by the way of Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan went out against them, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 31:5 So there were delivered, out of the thousands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for war. (See NIV)
Numbers 31:14 And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle. (KJV WBS YLT NIV)
Numbers 31:21 Eleazar the priest said to the men of war who went to the battle, "This is the statute of the law which Yahweh has commanded Moses: (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 31:27 and divide the prey into two parts: between the men skilled in war, who went out to battle, and all the congregation. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 31:28 Levy a tribute to Yahweh of the men of war who went out to battle: one soul of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the cattle, and of the donkeys, and of the flocks: (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 31:36 The half, which was the portion of those who went out to war, was in number three hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred sheep: Daniel (See NIV)
Numbers 32:6 And Moses saith to the sons of Gad and to the sons of Reuben, 'Do your brethren go in to the battle, and ye -- do ye sit here? (YLT)
Numbers 32:20 And Moses saith unto them, 'If ye do this thing: if ye are armed before Jehovah for battle, (YLT NIV)
Numbers 32:27 but your servants will pass over, every man who is armed for war, before Yahweh to battle, as my lord says." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 32:29 Moses said to them, "If the children of Gad and the children of Reuben will pass with you over the Jordan, every man who is armed to battle, before Yahweh, and the land shall be subdued before you; then you shall give them the land of Gilead for a possession: (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 2:9 Yahweh said to me, "Don't bother Moab, neither contend with them in battle; for I will not give you of his land for a possession; because I have given Ar to the children of Lot for a possession." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 2:14 And the days which we have walked from Kadesh-Barnea until that we have passed over the brook Zered, 'are' thirty and eight years, till the consumption of all the generation of the men of battle from the midst of the camp, as Jehovah hath sworn to them; (YLT)
Deuteronomy 2:16 And it cometh to pass, when all the men of battle have finished dying from the midst of the people, (YLT)
Deuteronomy 2:24 "Rise up, take your journey, and pass over the valley of the Arnon: behold, I have given into your hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land; begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 2:32 Then Sihon came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Jahaz. (WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 3:1 Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 3:18 I commanded you at that time, saying, "Yahweh your God has given you this land to possess it: you shall pass over armed before your brothers the children of Israel, all the men of valor. (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:1 When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and see horses, and chariots, and a people more than you, you shall not be afraid of them; for Yahweh your God is with you, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS)
Deuteronomy 20:2 It shall be, when you draw near to the battle, that the priest shall approach and speak to the people, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:3 and shall tell them, "Hear, Israel, you draw near this day to battle against your enemies: don't let your heart faint; don't be afraid, nor tremble, neither be scared of them; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:5 The officers shall speak to the people, saying, "What man is there who has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:6 What man is there who has planted a vineyard, and has not used its fruit? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use its fruit. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:7 What man is there who has pledged to be married a wife, and has not taken her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man take her." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:12 If it will make no peace with you, but will make war against you, then you shall besiege it: (See NIV)
Deuteronomy 21:10 When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and Yahweh your God delivers them into your hands, and you carry them away captive, (WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS)
Deuteronomy 29:7 When you came to this place, Sihon the king of Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, came out against us to battle, and we struck them: (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Joshua 1:14 Your wives, your little ones, and your livestock, shall live in the land which Moses gave you beyond the Jordan; but you shall pass over before your brothers armed, all the mighty men of valor, and shall help them (See NAS)
Joshua 4:12 The children of Reuben, and the children of Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, passed over armed before the children of Israel, as Moses spoke to them. (See NAS)
Joshua 4:13 About forty thousand men, ready and armed for war passed over before Yahweh to battle, to the plains of Jericho. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 6:3 and ye have compassed the city -- all the men of battle -- going round the city once; thus thou dost six days; (YLT)
Joshua 8:14 It happened, when the king of Ai saw it, that they hurried and rose up early, and the men of the city went out against Israel to battle, he and all his people, at the time appointed, before the Arabah; but he didn't know that there was an ambush against him behind the city. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:19 There was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel, except the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon. They took all in battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:20 For it was of Yahweh to harden their hearts, to come against Israel in battle, that he might utterly destroy them, that they might have no favor, but that he might destroy them, as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Joshua 13:22 The children of Israel alse killed Balaam also the son of Beor, the soothsayer, with the sword, among the rest of their slain. (See NIV)
Joshua 14:11 yet 'am' I to-day strong as in the day of Moses' sending me; as my power then, so 'is' my power now, for battle, and to go out, and to come in. (YLT NIV)
Joshua 22:33 And the thing pleased the children of Israel; and the children of Israel blessed God, and did not intend to go up against them in battle, to destroy the land wherein the children of Reuben and Gad dwelt. (KJV WBS)
Judges 3:2 only that the generations of the children of Israel might know, to teach them war, at the least such as before knew nothing of it: (See NIV)
Judges 3:10 and the Spirit of Jehovah is upon him, and he judgeth Israel, and goeth out to battle, and Jehovah giveth unto his hand Chushan-Rishathaim king of Aram, and strong is his hand against Chushan-Rishathaim; (YLT)
Judges 8:13 Gideon the son of Joash returned from the battle from the ascent of Heres. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 18:11 There set forth from there of the family of the Danites, out of Zorah and out of Eshtaol, six hundred men girt with weapons of war. (See NIV)
Judges 18:16 The six hundred men girt with their weapons of war, who were of the children of Dan, stood by the entrance of the gate. (See NIV)
Judges 20:14 The children of Benjamin gathered themselves together out of the cities to Gibeah, to go out to battle against the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 20:18 The children of Israel arose, and went up to Bethel, and asked counsel of God; and they said, "Who shall go up for us first to battle against the children of Benjamin?" Yahweh said, "Judah shall go up first." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 20:20 The men of Israel went out to battle against Benjamin; and the men of Israel set the battle in array against them at Gibeah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 20:22 The people, the men of Israel, encouraged themselves, and set the battle again in array in the place where they set themselves in array the first day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 20:23 The children of Israel went up and wept before Yahweh until even; and they asked of Yahweh, saying, "Shall I again draw near to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother?" Yahweh said, "Go up against him." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 20:28 and Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days), saying, "Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease?" Yahweh said, "Go up; for tomorrow I will deliver him into your hand." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 20:34 There came over against Gibeah ten thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and the battle was sore; but they didn't know that evil was close on them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 20:39 The men of Israel turned in the battle, and Benjamin began to strike and kill of the men of Israel about thirty persons; for they said, "Surely they are struck down before us, as in the first battle." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 20:42 Therefore they turned their backs before the men of Israel to the way of the wilderness; but the battle followed hard after them; and those who came out of the cities destroyed them in its midst. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 21:22 It shall be, when their fathers or their brothers come to complain to us, that we will say to them,'Grant them graciously to us, because we didn't take for each man his wife in battle, neither did you give them to them, otherwise you would now be guilty.'" (WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 4:1 The word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and encamped beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines encamped in Aphek. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 4:2 The Philistines put themselves in array against Israel: and when they joined battle, Israel was struck before the Philistines; and they killed of the army in the field about four thousand men. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 4:12 And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the battle, and came to Shiloh the same day, with his clothes rent and with earth upon his head. (DBY NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 4:16 And the man said to Eli, I am he that came out of the battle, and I have fled to-day out of the battle. And he said, What has taken place, my son? (DBY NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 7:10 As Samuel was offering up the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to battle against Israel; but Yahweh thundered with a great thunder on that day on the Philistines, and confused them; and they were struck down before Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Samuel 13:22 So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 14:20 Saul and all the people who were with him were gathered together, and came to the battle: and behold, every man's sword was against his fellow, and there was a very great confusion. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 14:22 Likewise all the men of Israel who had hid themselves in the hill country of Ephraim, when they heard that the Philistines fled, even they also followed hard after them in the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 14:23 So Yahweh saved Israel that day: and the battle passed over by Beth Aven. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 16:18 And one of the servants answereth and saith, 'Lo, I have seen a son of Jesse the Beth-Lehemite, skilful in playing, and a mighty virtuous man, and a man of battle, and intelligent in word, and a man of form, and Jehovah 'is' with him.' (YLT)
1 Samuel 17:1 Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle; and they were gathered together at Socoh, which belongs to Judah, and encamped between Socoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 17:2 Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and encamped in the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:8 He stood and cried to the armies of Israel, and said to them, "Why have you come out to set your battle in array? Am I not a Philistine, and you servants to Saul? Choose a man for yourselves, and let him come down to me. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:13 The three eldest sons of Jesse had gone after Saul to the battle: and the names of his three sons who went to the battle were Eliab the firstborn, and next to him Abinadab, and the third Shammah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 17:20 David rose up early in the morning, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and he came to the place of the wagons, as the army which was going forth to the fight shouted for the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:21 Israel and the Philistines put the battle in array, army against army. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 17:22 David left his baggage in the hand of the keeper of the baggage, and ran to the army, and came and greeted his brothers. (See NAS NIV)
1 Samuel 17:28 Eliab his eldest brother heard when he spoke to the men; and Eliab's anger was kindled against David, and he said, "Why have you come down? With whom have you left those few sheep in the wilderness? I know your pride, and the naughtiness of your heart; for you have come down that you might see the battle." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:47 and that all this assembly may know that Yahweh doesn't save with sword and spear: for the battle is Yahweh's, and he will give you into our hand." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 17:48 It happened, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew near to meet David, that David hurried, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine. (See NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 18:30 Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it happened, as often as they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was highly esteemed. (See NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 23:8 And Saul summoneth the whole of the people to battle, to go down to Keilah, to lay siege unto David and unto his men. (YLT NIV)
1 Samuel 26:10 David said, "As Yahweh lives, Yahweh will strike him; or his day shall come to die; or he shall go down into battle and perish. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 28:1 And it came to pass in those days, that the Philistines gathered their armies together for warfare, to fight with Israel. And Achish said unto David, Know thou assuredly, that thou shalt go out with me to battle, thou and thy men. (KJV WBS)
1 Samuel 29:4 But the princes of the Philistines were angry with him; and the princes of the Philistines said to him, "Make the man return, that he may go back to his place where you have appointed him, and let him not go down with us to battle, lest in the battle he become an adversary to us. For with what should this fellow reconcile himself to his lord? Should it not be with the heads of these men? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 29:9 Achish answered David, "I know that you are good in my sight, as an angel of God. Notwithstanding the princes of the Philistines have said,'He shall not go up with us to the battle.' (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 30:24 Who will listen to you in this matter? For as his share is who goes down to the battle, so shall his share be who tarries by the baggage: they shall share alike." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 31:3 The battle went sore against Saul, and the archers overtook him; and he was greatly distressed by reason of the archers. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
2 Samuel 1:4 David said to him, "How did it go? Please tell me." He answered, "The people have fled from the battle, and many of the people also have fallen and are dead; and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 1:25 How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! Jonathan is slain on your high places. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 2:17 The battle was very severe that day: and Abner was beaten, and the men of Israel, before the servants of David. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 3:30 So Joab and Abishai his brother killed Abner, because he had killed their brother Asahel at Gibeon in the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)