|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psalm 74:18; Isaiah 52:5; Romans 2:24; Revelation 13:1, 6; 16:9, 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1 Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45; 18:6, etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matthew 26:65; Comp. Matthew 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (Luke 22:65; John 10:36).
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost (Matthew 12:31, 32; Mark 3:28, 29; Luke 12:10) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the expression as designating the sin of attributing to the power of Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally those works which are the result of the Spirit's agency.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) An indignity offered to God in words, writing, or signs; impiously irreverent words or signs addressed to, or used in reference to, God; speaking evil of God; also, the act of claiming the attributes or prerogatives of deity.
2. (n.) Figuratively, of things held in high honor: Calumny; abuse; vilification.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
blas'-fe-mi (blasphemia): In classical Greek meant primarily "defamation" or "evil-speaking" in general; "a word of evil omen," hence, "impious, and irreverent speech against God."
(1) In the Old Testament as substantive and vb.:
(a) (barakh) "Naboth did blaspheme God and the king" (1 Kings 21:10, 13 the King James Version);
(b) (gadhaph) of Senna-cherib defying Yahweh (2 Kings 19:6, 22 = Isaiah 37:6, 23; also Psalm 44:16 Ezekiel 20:27; compare Numbers 15:30), "But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand (i.e. knowingly and defiantly),. the same blasphemeth (so the Revised Version (British and American), but the King James Version "reproacheth") Yahweh; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people." Blasphemy is always in word or deed, injury, dishonor and defiance offered to God, and its penalty is death by stoning;
(c) (charaph) of idolatry as blasphemy against Yahweh (Isaiah 65:7);
(d) (naqabh) "And he that blasphemeth the name of Yahweh, he shall surely be put to death" (Leviticus 24:11, 16);
(e) (na'ats) David's sin is an occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme (2 Samuel 12:14; also Psalm 74:10, 18 Isaiah 52:5; compare Ezekiel 35:12 2 Kings 19:3 the King James Version; Isaiah 37:3).
(2) In the New Testament blasphemy, substantive and vb., may be
(a) of evil-speaking generally, (Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6); The Jews contradicted Paul "and blasphemed," the Revised Version, margin "railed." (So in the King James Version of Matthew 15:19 = Mark 7:22 Colossians 3:8, but in the Revised Version (British and American) "railings"; Revelation 2:9 the Revised Version, margin "reviling"; so perhaps in 1 Timothy 1:20; or Hymeneus and Alexander may have blasphemed Christ by professing faith and living unworthily of it.)
(b) Speaking against a heathen goddess: the town clerk of Ephesus repels the charge that Paul and his companions were blasphemers of Diana (Acts 19:37).
(c) Against God: (i) uttering impious words (Revelation 13:1, 5, 6; Revelation 16:9, 11, 21; 17:3); (ii) unworthy conduct of Jews (Romans 2:24) and Christians (1 Timothy 6:1 Titus 2:5, and perhaps 1 Timothy 1:20); (iii) of Jesus Christ, alleged to be usurping the authority of God (Matthew 9:3 = Mark 2:7 = Luke 5:21), claiming to be the Messiah, the son of God (Matthew 26:65 = Mark 14:64), or making Himself God (John 10:33, 36).
(d) Against Jesus Christ: Saul strove to make the Christians he persecuted blaspheme their Lord (Acts 26:11). So was he himself a blasphemer (1 Timothy 1:13; compare James 2:7).
The Unpardonable Sin:
(3) Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit:
"Every sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy of Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come" (Matthew 12:31, 32 = Mark 3:28, 29 Luke 12:10). As in the Old Testament "to sin with a high hand" and to blaspheme the name of God incurred the death penalty, so the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit remains the one unpardonable sin. These passages at least imply beyond cavil the personality of the Holy Spirit, for sin and blasphemy can only be committed against persons. In Matthew and Mark a particular case of this blasphemy is the allegation of the Pharisees that Jesus Christ casts out devils by Beelzebub. The general idea is that to attribute to an evil source acts which are clearly those of the Holy Spirit, to call good evil, is blasphemy against the Spirit, and sin that will not be pardoned. "A distinction is made between Christ's other acts and those which manifestly reveal the Holy Spirit in Him, and between slander directed against Him personally as He appears in His ordinary acts, and that which is aimed at those acts in which the Spirit is manifest" (Gould, Mark at the place). Luke does not refer to any particular instance, and seems to connect it with the denial of Christ, although he, too, gives the saying that "who shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven." But which of Christ's acts are not acts the Holy Spirit, and how therefore is a word spoken against Him not also blasphemy against the Holy Spirit? John identifies the Holy Spirit with the exalted Christ (John 14:16-18, 26, 28). The solution generally offered of this most difficult problem is concisely put by Plummer (Luke ad loc.): "Constant and consummate opposition to the influence of the Holy Spirit, because of a deliberate preference of darkness to light, render repentance and therefore forgiveness morally impossible." A similar idea is taught in Hebrews 6:4-6, and 1 John 5:16: "A sin unto death." But the natural meaning of Christ's words implies an inability or unwillingness to forgive on the Divine side rather than inability to repent in man. Anyhow the abandonment of man to eternal condemnation involves the inability and defeat of God. The only alternative seems to be to call the kenotic theory into service, and to put this idea among the human limitations which Christ assumed when He became flesh. It is less difficult to ascribe a limit to Jesus Christ's knowledge than to God's saving grace (Mark 13:32; compare John 16:12, 13). It is also noteworthy that in other respects, at least, Christ acquiesced in the view of the Holy Spirit which He found among His contemporaries.
See HOLY SPIRIT.
Blasphemy (15 Occurrences)
Matthew 12:31 Therefore I tell you, every sin and blasphemy will be forgiven men, but the blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven men. (WEB KJV ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:65 Then the high priest tore his clothing, saying, "He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Behold, now you have heard his blasphemy. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 2:7 "Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone?" (See RSV)
Mark 7:22 covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. (WEB KJV WBS)
Mark 14:64 You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 5:21 The scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaks blasphemies? Who can forgive sins, but God alone?" (See NIV)
John 10:33 The Jews answered him, "We don't stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy: because you, being a man, make yourself God." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
John 10:36 do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world,'You blaspheme,' because I said,'I am the Son of God?' (See NIV)
Acts 6:11 Then they secretly induced men to say, "We have heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses and God." (See NIV)
Colossians 3:8 But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth. (KJV DBY WBS)
Revelation 2:9 "I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. (WEB KJV ASV WBS NAS)
Revelation 13:5 A mouth speaking great things and blasphemy was given to him. Authority to make war for forty-two months was given to him. (WEB)
Revelation 13:6 He opened his mouth for blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his dwelling, those who dwell in heaven. (WEB KJV WBS)
2 Kings 19:3 And they said unto him, Thus saith Hezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and blasphemy; for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth. (KJV WBS)
Isaiah 37:3 And they said unto him, Thus saith Hezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy: for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth. (KJV WBS)