|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Exodus 29:2; Judges 6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Genesis 14:18; Judges 7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation (Ruth 2:14).
Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" (Genesis 18:6; Exodus 12:34; Jeremiah 7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened (Exodus 12:15-20; Deuteronomy 16:3). In the towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were also bakers by trade (Hosea 7:4; Jeremiah 37:21). Their ovens were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering it with the embers (1 Kings 19:6). This was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Genesis 18:6.
In Leviticus 2 there is an account of the different kinds of bread and cakes used by the Jews. (see BAKE.)
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the sanctuary (Exodus 25:30; Leviticus 24:8; 1 Samuel 21:1-6; Matthew 12:4).
The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of sorrows" (Psalm 127:2), "bread of tears" (80:5), i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" (Proverbs 4:17) and "of deceit" (20:17) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (v.) To spread.
2. (n.) An article of food made from flour or meal by moistening, kneading, and baking.
3. (n.) Food; sustenance; support of life, in general.
4. (v. t.) To cover with bread crumbs, preparatory to cooking; as, breaded cutlets.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
bred (lechem; artos):
I. DIETARY PREEMINENCE
3. Three Kinds of Flour
(1) Hot Stones
(2) Baking Pans
(1) The Bowl-Oven
(2) The Jar-Oven
(3) The Pit-Oven
5. Forms of Baked Bread
6. Work for Women
IV. SANCTITY AND SYMBOLISM OF BREAD
The art of bread-making is very ancient. It was even known to the Egyptians at a very early day (Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians), to the Hebrews of the Exodus (Nowack, Lehrbuch der hebr. Archaologie) and, of course, to the Greeks and Romans of a later day. Bread played a large part in the vocabulary and in the life of the ancient Hebrews.
I. Dietary Preeminence.
(1) In the East bread is primary, other articles of food merely accessory; while in the West meat and other things chiefly constitute the meal, and bread is merely secondary. Accordingly "bread" in the Old Testament, from Genesis 3:19 onward, stands for food in general.
(2) Moreover in ancient times, as now, most probably, when the peasant, carpenter, blacksmith or mason left home for the day's work, or when the muleteer or messenger set out on a journey, he wrapped other articles of food, if there were any, in the thin loaves of bread, and thus kept them ready for his use as needed.
(3) Often the thin, glutinous loaf, puffed out with air, is seen today, opened on one side and used so as to form a natural pouch, in which meat, cheese, raisins and olives are enclosed to be eaten with the bread (see Mackie in DCG, article "Bread"). The loaf of bread is thus made to include everything and, for this reason also, it may fitly be spoken of as synonymous with food in general. To the disciples of Jesus, no doubt, "Give us this day our daily bread" would naturally be a petition for all needed food, and in the case of the miraculous feeding of the multitude it was enough to provide them with "bread" (Matthew 14:15).
Barley was in early times, as it is today, the main bread-stuff of the Palestine peasantry (see Judges 7:13; where "the cake of barley bread" is said to be "the sword of Gideon"), and of the poorer classes of the East in general (see John 6:13, where the multitude were fed on the miraculous increase of the "five barley loaves," and compare Josephus, BJ, V, x, 2).
But wheat, also, was widely used as a breadstuff then, as it is now, the wheat of the Syrian plains and uplands being remarkable for its nutritious and keeping qualities.
3. Three Kinds of Flour:
Three kinds, or qualities, of flour, are distinguished, according to the way of making:
(1) a coarser sort, rudely made by the use of pestle and mortar, the "beaten corn" of Leviticus 2:14, 16 (the Revised Version (British and American) "bruised");
(2) the "flour" or "meal" of ordinary use (Exodus 29:2 Leviticus 2:2; Leviticus 6:15), and
(3) the "fine meal" for honored guests (see Genesis 18:6, where Abraham commands Sarah to "make ready. three measures of fine meal") with which we may compare the "fine flour" for the king's kitchen (1 Kings 4:22) and the "fine flour" required for the ritual meal offering, as in Leviticus 2:1; Leviticus 5:11; Leviticus 7:12; Leviticus 14:10; Leviticus 23:13; Leviticus 24:5; etc.
After thoroughly sifting and cleaning the grain, the first step in the process was to reduce it to "meal" or "flour" by rubbing, pounding, or grinding. (In Numbers 11:8 it is said of the manna "The people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in mortars.") It has been shown that by a process, which is not yet extinct in Egypt, it was customary to rub the grain between two the "corn-rubbers" or "corn grinders," of which many specimens have been found by Petrie, Bliss, Macalister and others, at Lachish, Gezer and elsewhere (PEFS, 1902, 326; 1903, 118; compare Erman, Egypt, 180, for illustrations of actual use). For detailed descriptions of the other processes, see MORTAR; MILL.
The "flour" was then ordinarily mixed simply with water, kneaded in a wooden basin or kneading-trough (Exodus 8:3) and, in case of urgency, at once made into "cakes" and baked. (See Exodus 12:34, "And the people took their dough before it was leavened.") The Hebrews called such cakes matstsoth, and they were the only kind allowed for use on the altar during Passover, and immediately following the Feast of Unleavened Bread (also called Matstsoth). Commonly however the process was as follows: a lump of leavened dough of yesterday's baking, preserved for the purpose, was broken up and mixed with the day's "batch," and the whole was then set aside and left standing until it was thoroughly leavened (see LEAVEN).
We find in the Old Testament, as in the practice of the East today, three modes of firing or baking bread:
(1) Hot Stones:
That represented by Elijah's cake baked on the hot stones (1 Kings 19:6 the Revised Version, margin; compare "the cakes upon the hearth," Genesis 18:6 the King James Version, and see Robinson, Researches, II, 406). The stones were laid together and a fire was lighted upon them. When the stones were well heated the cinders were raked off, and the cakes laid on the stones and covered with ashes. After a while the ashes were again removed and the cake was turned (see Hosea 7:8) and once more covered with the glowing ashes. It was thus cooked on both sides evenly and made ready for eating (compare the Vulgate, Panis subcineraris, and DeLagarde, Symmicta, II, 188, where egkouthia, is referred to as "the hiding" of the cakes under the ashes). Out of these primitive usages of the pastoral tribes and peasants grew other improved forms of baking.
(2) Baking Pans:
An ancient method of baking, prevalent still among the Bedouin of Syria and Arabia, is to employ a heated convex iron plate, or griddle, what we would call a frying pan, in lieu of the heated sand or stones. The Hebrew "baking-pan" (machabhath, Leviticus 2:5; Leviticus 7:9; compare Ezekiel 4:3) must have been of this species of "griddle." The reference in 1 Chronicles 9:31 is probably to bread baked in this way. There it is said that one of the sons of the priests "had the office of trust over the things that were baked in pans."
tannur (compare Arabic), no doubt were used by the Hebrews, when they settled in Palestine, as they were used by the settled populations of the Orient in general, more and more as they approached civilized conditions. These "ovens" were of various kinds:
(1) The Bowl-Oven:
The simplest used by the ancients were hardly more primitive than the kind quite commonly used in Palestine today. It may be called the "bowl-oven." It consists of a large clay-bowl, which is provided with a movable lid. This bowl is placed inverted upon small stones and then heated with a fuel distinctly oriental, consisting of dried dung heaped over and around it. The bread is baked on the stones, then covered by the inverted oven, which is heated by the firing of the fuel of dung on the outside of the cover.
(2) The Jar-Oven:
The jar-oven is another form of oven found in use there today. This is a large earthen-ware jar that is heated by fuel of grass (Matthew 6:30), stubble (Malachi 4:1), dry twigs or thorns (1 Kings 17:12) and the like, which are placed within the jar for firing. When the jar is thus heated the cakes are stuck upon the hot inside walls.
(3) The Pit-Oven:
The pit-oven was doubtless a development from this type. It was formed partly in the ground and partly built up of clay and plastered throughout, narrowing toward the top. The ancient Egyptians, as the monuments and mural paintings show, laid the cakes upon the outside of the oven (Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians); but in Palestine, in general, if the customs of today are conclusive, the fire was kindled in the inside of the pit-oven. Great numbers of such ovens have been unearthed in recent excavations, and we may well believe them to be exact counterparts of the oven of the professional bakers in the street named after them in Jerusalem "the bakers' street" (Jeremiah 37:21). The largest and most developed form of oven is still the public oven of the town or city of this sort; but the primitive rural types still survive, and the fuel of thorns, and of the grass, "which today is, and tomorrow is cast into the oven," are still in evidence.
5. Forms of Baked Bread:
(1) The large pone or thick, light loaf of the West is unknown in the East. The common oriental cake or loaf is proverbially thin. The thin home-made bread is really named both in Hebrew and Arabic from its thinness as is reflected in the translation "wafer" in Exodus 16:31; Exodus 29:23 Leviticus 8:26 Numbers 6:19 1 Chronicles 23:29. Such bread was called in Hebrew raqiq (raqiq; compare modern Arabic warkuk, from warak = "foliage," "paper").
(2) It is still significantly customary at a Syrian meal to take a piece of such bread and, with the ease and skill of long habit, to fold it over at the end held in the hand so as to make a sort of spoon of it, which then is eaten along with whatever is lifted by it out of the common dish (compare Matthew 26:23). But this "dipping in the common dish" is so accomplished as not to allow the contents of the dish to be touched by the fingers, or by anything that has been in contact with the lips of those who sit at meat (compare Mackie, DCG, article "Bread").
(3) Such "loaves" are generally today about 7 inches in diameter and from half an inch to an inch thick. Such, probably, were the lad's "barley loaves" brought to Christ at the time of the feeding of the 5,000 (John 6:9, 13). Even thinner cakes, of both leavened and unleavened bread, are sometimes made now, as of old, especially at times of religious festivals. Often they are coated on the upper surface with olive oil and take on a glossy brown color in cooking; and sometimes they are sprinkled over with aromatic seeds, which adhere and impart a spicy flavor. They may well recall to us the "oiled bread" of Leviticus 8:26 and "the wafers anointed with oil" of Exodus 29:2 and Leviticus 2:4.
(4) Sometimes large discs of dough about 1 inch thick and 8 inches in diameter are prepared and laid in rows on long, thin boards like canoe paddles, and thus inserted into the oven; then, by a quick, deft jerk of the hand, they are slipped off upon the hot pavement and baked. These are so made and baked that when done they are soft and flexible, and for this reason are preferred by many to the thinner cakes which are cooked stiff and brown.
(5) The precise nature of the cracknels of 1 Kings 14:3 (the American Standard Revised Version "cakes") is not known. A variety of bakemeats (Genesis 40:17, literally "food, the work of the baker") are met with in the Old Testament, but only in a few cases is it possible or important to identify their nature or forms (see Encyclopedia Bibl, coll. 460). A cake used for ritual purposes (Exodus 29:2 and often) seems, from its name, to have been pierced with holes, like the modern Passover cakes (compare Kennedy, 1-vol HDB, article "Bread").
6. Work for Women:
(a) Every oriental household of importance seems to have had its own oven, and bread-making for the most part was in the hands of the women. Even when and where baking, as under advancing civilization, became a recognized public industry, and men were the professional bakers, a large part of the baker's work, as is true today, was to fire the bread prepared and in a sense pre-baked by the women at home.
(b) The women of the East are often now seen taking a hand in sowing, harvesting and winnowing the grain, as well as in the processes of "grinding" (Ecclesiastes 12:3 Matthew 24:41 Luke 17:35), "kneading" (Genesis 18:6 1 Samuel 28:24 2 Samuel 13:8 Jeremiah 7:18) and "baking" (1 Samuel 8:13), and doubtless it was so in ancient times to an equal extent.
IV. Sanctity and Symbolism of Bread.
It would seem that the sanctity of bread remains as unchanged in the Orient as the sanctity of shrines and graves (compare Mackie, DCG, article "Bread," and Robinson's Researches). As in Egypt everything depended for life on the Nile, and as the Nile was considered "sacred," so in Palestine, as everything depended upon the wheat and barley harvest, "bread" was in a peculiar sense "sacred." The psychology of the matter seems to be about this: all life was seen to be dependent upon the grain harvest, this in turn depended upon rain in its season, and so bread, the product at bottom of these Divine processes, was regarded as peculiarly "a gift of God," a daily reminder of his continual and often undeserved care (Matthew 5:45; consider in this connection the Lord's Prayer, "Give us this day our daily bread," Matthew 6:11; compare Luke 11:11). Travelers generally note as a special characteristic of the Oriental of today that, seeing a scrap of bread on the roadside, he will pick it up and throw it to a street dog, or place it in a crevice of the wall, or on a tree-branch where the birds may get it. One thing is settled with him, it must not be trodden under foot in the common dust, for, in the estimat ion of all, it has in it an element of mystery and sacredness as coming from the Giver of all good.
(a) In partaking of the hospitality of the primitive peasants of Palestine today, east and west of the Jordan, one sees what a sign and symbol of hospitality and friendship the giving and receiving of bread is. Among the Arabs, indeed, it has become a proverb, which may be put into English thus: "Eat salt together, be friends forever." Once let the Arab break bread with you and you are safe. You may find the bread the poorest barley loaf, still marked by the indentations of the pebbles, with small patches of the gray ash of the hearth, and here and there an inlaid bit of singed grass or charred thorn, the result of their primitive process of baking; but it is bread, the best that the poor man can give you, "a gift of God," indeed, and it is offered by the wildest Arab, with some sense of its sacredness and with somewhat of the gladness and dignity of the high duty of hospitality. No wonder, therefore, that it is considered the height of discourtesy, yea, a violation of the sacred law of hospitality, to decline it or to set it aside as unfit for use.
(b) Christ must have been influenced by His knowledge of some such feeling and law as this when, on sending forth His disciples, He charged them to "take no bread with them" (Mark 6:8). Not to have expected such hospitality, and not to have used what would thus be freely offered to them by the people, would have been a rudeness, not to say an offense, on the part of the disciples, which would have hindered the reception of the good tidings of the Kingdom.
(c) It has well been pointed out that God's gift of natural food to His people enters in for the praises of the Magnificat (Luke 1:53), and that when Christ called Himself "the bread of life" (John 6:35) He really appealed to all these endeared and indissoluble associations connected in the eastern mind with the meaning and use of bread. Most naturally and appropriately in the inauguration of the New Covenant Christ adopted as His memorial, not a monument of stone or brass, but this humble yet sacred article of food, familiar and accessible to all, to become, with the "wine" of common use, in the Lord's Supper, the perpetual symbol among His disciples of the communion of saints.
Wilkinson. Ancient Egypt, 1878, II, 34; Erman, Aegypten und aegyptisches Leben, 1885, 191; Nowack, Lehrbuch der hebr. Archaologie, 1894; Maimonides, Yadh, Temidhin U-Mucaphin, v, 6-8; Bacher, Monats-schrift, 1901, 299; Mishna B. M., II, 1, 2; Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine, II, 416; Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, I, 131; Josephus, BJ; and Bible Dicts. on "Bread," "Dietary Laws": "Matstsoth," "Challah," etc.
George B. Eager
Bread (433 Occurrences)
Matthew 4:3 The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 4:4 But he answered, "It is written,'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 6:11 Give us today our daily bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:9 Or who is there among you, who, if his son asks him for bread, will give him a stone? (WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 12:4 how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 14:17 And they say to him, We have here but five cakes of bread and two fishes. (BBE NIV)
Matthew 14:19 And he gave orders for the people to be seated on the grass; and he took the five cakes of bread and the two fishes and, looking up to heaven, he said words of blessing, and made division of the food, and gave it to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to the people. (BBE)
Matthew 15:2 "Why do your disciples disobey the tradition of the elders? For they don't wash their hands when they eat bread." (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Matthew 15:26 But he answered, "It is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 15:33 And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? (KJV WEY BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 15:34 And Jesus says to them, How much bread have you? And they said, Seven cakes, and some small fishes. (BBE)
Matthew 15:36 And he took the seven cakes of bread and the fishes; and having given praise, he gave the broken bread to the disciples, and the disciples gave it to the people. (BBE)
Matthew 16:5 The disciples came to the other side and had forgotten to take bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 16:7 They reasoned among themselves, saying, "We brought no bread." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 16:8 Jesus, perceiving it, said, "Why do you reason among yourselves, you of little faith,'because you have brought no bread?' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 16:9 Do you still not see, or keep in mind the five cakes of bread of the five thousand, and the number of baskets you took up? (BBE)
Matthew 16:10 Or the seven cakes of bread of the four thousand, and the number of baskets you took up? (BBE)
Matthew 16:11 How is it that you don't perceive that I didn't speak to you concerning bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 16:12 Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:17 Now on the first day of unleavened bread, the disciples came to Jesus, saying to him, "Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 26:26 As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 2:26 How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 3:20 The multitude came together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 6:8 He commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, except a staff only: no bread, no wallet, no money in their purse, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 6:36 Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat." (WEB KJV DBY WBS)
Mark 6:37 But he answered them, "You give them something to eat." They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 6:38 And he said to them, How much bread have you? go and see. And when they had seen, they said, Five cakes of bread and two fishes. (BBE)
Mark 6:41 And he took the five cakes of bread and the two fishes and, looking up to heaven, he said words of blessing over them; and when the cakes were broken, he gave them to the disciples to put before the people; and he made division of the two fishes among them all. (BBE)
Mark 6:43 They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. (See NIV)
Mark 6:44 Those who ate the bread were 5,000 adult men. (WEY BBE)
Mark 6:52 For it was not clear to them about the bread; but their hearts were hard. (BBE)
Mark 7:2 Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Mark 7:5 The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Mark 7:27 But Jesus said to her, "Let the children be filled first, for it is not appropriate to take the children's bread and throw it to the dogs." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 8:4 His disciples answered him, "From where could one satisfy these people with bread here in a deserted place?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 8:5 And he put the question, How much bread have you? And they said, Seven cakes. (BBE)
Mark 8:6 And he made the people be seated on the earth: and he took the seven cakes and, having given praise, he gave the broken bread to his disciples to put before them; and they put it before the people. (BBE)
Mark 8:14 They forgot to take bread; and they didn't have more than one loaf in the boat with them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 8:16 They reasoned with one another, saying, "It's because we have no bread." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 8:17 Jesus, perceiving it, said to them, "Why do you reason that it's because you have no bread? Don't you perceive yet, neither understand? Is your heart still hardened? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 8:19 When I made a division of the five cakes of bread among the five thousand, what number of baskets full of broken bits did you take up? They said to him, Twelve. (BBE)
Mark 14:1 It was now two days before the feast of the Passover and the unleavened bread, and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might seize him by deception, and kill him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:12 On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples asked him, "Where do you want us to go and make ready that you may eat the Passover?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:20 And he said to them, It is one of the twelve, one who is putting his bread with me into the same plate. (BBE RSV NIV)
Mark 14:22 As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:3 The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 4:4 Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written,'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 6:4 how he entered into the house of God, and took and ate the show bread, and gave also to those who were with him, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests alone?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:33 For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say,'He has a demon.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 9:3 He said to them, "Take nothing for your journey-neither staffs, nor wallet, nor bread, nor money; neither have two coats apiece. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 9:13 But he said, Give them food yourselves. And they said, We have only five cakes of bread and two fishes, if we do not go and get food for all these people. (BBE NIV)
Luke 9:16 And he took the five cakes of bread and the two fishes and, looking up to heaven, he said words of blessing over them, and when they had been broken, he gave them to the disciples to give to the people. (BBE)
Luke 11:3 Give us day by day our daily bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 11:5 He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him,'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, (WEB WEY BBE NIV)
Luke 11:7 "And he from indoors shall answer, "'Do not pester me. The door is now barred, and I am here in bed with my children. I cannot get up and give you bread.' (WEY)
Luke 11:8 I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. (See NIV)
Luke 11:11 "Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? (WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS)
Luke 14:1 It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Luke 14:15 And when one of them that sat at meat with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God. (KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Luke 15:17 But when he came to himself he said,'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, and I'm dying with hunger! (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Luke 22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover, drew near. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:7 The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:19 He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me." (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 24:30 It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 24:35 They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:5 Jesus therefore lifting up his eyes, and seeing that a great multitude was coming to him, said to Philip, "Where are we to buy bread, that these may eat?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:7 Philip answered him, "Two hundred denarii worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that everyone of them may receive a little." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:23 However boats from Tiberias came near to the place where they ate the bread after the Lord had given thanks. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:26 Jesus, answering them, said, Truly I say to you, You come after me, not because you saw signs, but because you were given the bread and had enough. (BBE)
John 6:31 Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness. As it is written,'He gave them bread out of heaven to eat.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:32 Jesus therefore said to them, "Most certainly, I tell you, it wasn't Moses who gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:33 For the bread of God is that which comes down out of heaven, and gives life to the world." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:34 They said therefore to him, "Lord, always give us this bread." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:35 Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:41 The Jews therefore murmured concerning him, because he said, "I am the bread which came down out of heaven." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:48 I am the bread of life. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:50 This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that anyone may eat of it and not die. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:51 I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:58 This is the bread which came down out of heaven-not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 13:18 I don't speak concerning all of you. I know whom I have chosen. But that the Scripture may be fulfilled,'He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 13:26 Jesus therefore answered, "It is he to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it." So when he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. (WEB WEY BBE NIV)
John 13:27 After the piece of bread, then Satan entered into him. Then Jesus said to him, "What you do, do quickly." (WEB WEY BBE NIV)
John 13:30 So Judas took the piece of bread and immediately went out. And it was night. (WEY BBE NIV)
John 21:9 So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 21:13 Then Jesus came and took the bread, gave it to them, and the fish likewise. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:42 They continued steadfastly in the apostles' teaching and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and prayer. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:46 Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 12:3 When he saw that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded to seize Peter also. This was during the days of unleavened bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 20:6 We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and came to them at Troas in five days, where we stayed seven days. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 20:7 On the first day of the week, when the disciples were gathered together to break bread, Paul talked with them, intending to depart on the next day, and continued his speech until midnight. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 20:11 When he had gone up, and had broken bread, and eaten, and had talked with them a long while, even until break of day, he departed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 27:35 When he had said this, and had taken bread, he gave thanks to God in the presence of all, and he broke it, and began to eat. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 5:8 Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old yeast, neither with the yeast of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 10:16 The cup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a sharing of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, isn't it a sharing of the body of Christ? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 10:17 Because there is one loaf of bread, we, who are many, are one body; for we all partake of the one loaf of bread. (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Corinthians 11:23 For I received from the Lord that which also I delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 11:26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 11:27 Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup in a manner unworthy of the Lord will be guilty of the body and the blood of the Lord. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 11:28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread, and drink of the cup. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 9:10 Now may he who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food, supply and multiply your seed for sowing, and increase the fruits of your righteousness; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)