|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deuteronomy 6:10; Numbers 13:19). Phoenician artists (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Kings 5:6, 18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the temple after the Exile (Ezra 3:7).
In Genesis 11:3, 9, we have the first recorded instance of the erection of buildings. The cities of the plain of Shinar were founded by the descendants of Shem (10:11, 12, 22).
The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents (Genesis 47:3); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much building was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor (1 Kings 9:15, 24). Many of the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various buildings.
Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem (Luke 21:5).
The instruments used in building are mentioned as the plumb-line (Amos 7:7), the measuring-reed (Ezek. 40:3), and the saw (1 Kings 7:9).
Believers are "God's building" (1 Corinthians 3:9); and heaven is called "a building of God" (2 Corinthians 5:1). Christ is the only foundation of his church (1 Corinthians 3:10-12), of which he also is the builder (Matthew 16:18).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (p. pr. & vb. n.) of Build.
2. (n.) The act of constructing, erecting, or establishing.
3. (n.) The art of constructing edifices, or the practice of civil architecture.
4. (n.) That which is built; a fabric or edifice constructed, as a house, a church, etc.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
bild, bild'-ing (banah, binyah, once (Ezekiel 41:13); oikodomeo).
1. Building Conditions:
The building conditions existing at the time of the Hebrew conquest were rude and untutored, and, with the exception of the work of the Solomonic period, there was still little or no effort made to introduce a higher state, until the time when Greek influence began to be felt (circa 3rd century B.C.). In localities where stone was not available, mud bricks were used, and their perishable nature being realized, stone slab facing came into use. These slabs were a protection against the weather and had no constructive value. Probably the hand of the "jerry" builder can be seen in an attempt to make such bad construction appear to be solid stone.
In stone localities buildings were of stone, but the class of building was only that of the rude stone waller. Random rubble masonry, unskillfully laid, was the prevailing characteristic. Occasionally a piece of carefully dressed masonry is found, but it is the exception and is often a re-use of an earlier type akin to "sawed stone" (1 Kings 7:9). The remains of Jewish walls of the period of the early kings in Jerusalem show skill which does not appear to have existed elsewhere. The boss and margin stones, with wide mud joint, were, in part, the actual masonry of the early fortifications, and were re-used and imitated over and over again. The type crops up in feeble imitation at different sites throughout the country, but hammer-picked and rough hammer-dressed stones are also common. The fine comb pick and marginal dressing of the walls of the Temple area belong to the Herodian period (see Bliss and Dickie, "Excavations at Jerusalem," 273, PEFS, 1898). The absence of lime is a striking characteristic. There is no distinctive type which can be named exclusively Jewish, although there is good reason for believing that the boss and margin type has a Jewish origin. Wilson (Golgotha, 124) points out that the projecting bosses had a defensive value, in breaking the force of the battering-ram, and here again the necessity of defense shows its vitality in the existence of such a well-engineered detail. The absence of the finer qualities of building craft can be traced to the same source.
Foundations of fortifications were usually on rock which was sometimes squared for a bed, but more often leveled up with small stones. A portion of the South wall of Jerusalem, certainly late (5th century A.D.), was laid on a foundation of small rubble resting on debris, accumulated over an earlier wall. (See Plate IV, Excavations at Jerusalem, p. 29.) In smaller buildings, the foundations were usually laid on the debris of earlier structures. At Lachish mud brick walls were laid on a foundation of stone. A peculiar method of spreading a layer of sand under the foundations was also noted (see A Mound of Many Cities, 125-26).
4. Modern Methods:
The native wall of today is less rudely built and is bedded in lime mortar. It is a broad wall usually about 3 ft. thick, with inner and outer faces of large stones, filled in between with small rubble without proper bond, somewhat in the manner of ancient building. To make up for the want of bond, it is a common habit to insert a piece of steel joint across the return angle (see BEAM). The building and hewing methods, in all probability, are the same as they were in early Jewish times. Hewers sit at their work, with the plane of the stone on which they operate, lying obliquely from them. Stones are conveyed from the quarry, if at a distance from the building site, on donkeys, thence on men's backs to the top of the wall, by rude gangways. Every man digs his "own cistern" (Isaiah 36:16), which is sunk in the rock under the site of the house, and used as a quarry from which stones for the building are supplied. If water is scarce, the cistern is sunk first, and the winter rains are allowed to collect and provide the necessary water for the building.
To build up is often used in the sense of giving increase and prosperity, or of stablishing and strengthening. Thus in Job 22:23 Psalm 69:35 Jeremiah 18:9. A kindred sense is to restore what was decayed, as in Isaiah 58:12. To "build an house" for a person is to grant him children or a numerous posterity (Ruth 4:11; of David, 2 Samuel 7:27 1 Chronicles 17:10). Spiritually, the word is used of one's work in life, or of the formation of character and habits. The main thing here is the foundation. Those who build on Christ's word build on rock; those who reject this word build on sand (Matthew 7:24-27). Christ is the sole true foundation; the work which a man builds on this will be tried by fire (1 Corinthians 3:9-15). The church is compared to a building (1 Corinthians 3:9 1 Peter 2:4-6) reared on the foundation of apostles and prophets (their truths or teaching), Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner-stone (Ephesians 2:20-22). Believers are "builded up" in Christ (Colossians 2:7), and are exhorted to build themselves up on their most holy faith (Jude 1:20).
See ARCHITECTURE; HOUSE; FORTIFICATION.
A. C. Dickie
Building (249 Occurrences)
Matthew 21:42 Jesus says to them, Did you never see in the Writings, The stone which the builders put on one side, the same has been made the chief stone of the building: this was the Lord's doing, and it is a wonder in our eyes? (BBE)
Matthew 27:40 and saying, 'Thou that art throwing down the sanctuary, and in three days building 'it', save thyself; if Son thou art of God, come down from the cross.' (YLT)
Mark 12:10 Have you not seen this which is in the Writings: The stone which the builders put on one side, the same was made the chief stone of the building: (BBE)
Mark 14:66 And while Peter was down in the open square of the building, one of the servant-girls of the high priest came; (BBE)
Mark 15:16 And the men of the army took him away into the square in front of the building which is the Praetorium, and they got together all the band. (BBE)
Mark 15:29 And all the passers-by reviled Him. They shook their heads at Him and said, "Ah! you who were for destroying the Sanctuary and building a new one in three days, (WEY)
Luke 6:48 He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 6:49 But he who gives hearing, without doing, is like a man building a house on the earth without a base for it; and when the force of the river came against it, straight away it came down; and the destruction of that house was great. (BBE)
Luke 14:28 For which of you, desirous of building a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost, if he have what is needed to complete it; (DBY)
Luke 14:30 And saying, This man made a start at building and is not able to make it complete. (BBE)
Luke 17:28 The same was true in the time of Lot: they were eating and drinking, buying and selling, planting and building; (WEY BBE YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 20:17 But he, looking on them, said, Is it not in the Writings, The stone which the builders put on one side, the same has become the chief stone of the building? (BBE)
John 2:20 The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
John 2:21 But his words were about that holy building which was his body. (BBE)
Acts 4:11 He is the stone which you builders had no use for, but which has been made the chief stone of the building. (BBE)
Acts 15:16 After these things I will come back, and will put up the tent of David which has been broken down, building up again its broken parts and making it complete: (BBE)
Acts 21:34 And some said one thing and some another, among the people: and as he was not able to get a knowledge of the facts because of the noise, he gave orders for Paul to be taken into the army building. (BBE)
Acts 21:37 And when Paul was about to be taken into the building, he said to the chief captain, May I say something to you? And he said, Have you a knowledge of Greek? (BBE)
Acts 22:24 The chief captain gave orders for him to be taken into the army building, saying that he would put him to the test by whipping, so that he might have knowledge of the reason why they were crying out so violently against him. (BBE)
Acts 23:16 But Paul's sister's son had word of their design, and he came into the army building and gave news of it to Paul. (BBE)
Romans 10:3 Ignorant of the righteousness which God provides and building their hopes upon a righteousness of their own, they have refused submission to God's righteousness. (WEY)
Romans 14:19 Therefore let us aim at whatever makes for peace and mutual upbuilding of character. (Root in WEY YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 15:2 Let each one of us please his neighbor for that which is good, to be building him up. (WEB)
Romans 15:20 making it my ambition, however, not to tell the Good News where Christ's name was already known, for fear I should be building on another man's foundation. (WEY NIV)
1 Corinthians 3:9 For we are God's fellow workers. You are God's farming, God's building. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 3:10 In discharge of the task which God graciously entrusted to me, I--like a competent master-builder--have laid a foundation, and others are building upon it. But let every one be careful how and what he builds. (WEY BBE NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 3:11 For there is no other base for the building but that which has been put down, which is Jesus Christ. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 3:12 And whether the building which any one is erecting on that foundation be of gold or silver or costly stones, of timber or hay or straw-- (WEY)
1 Corinthians 3:14 If any one's work--the building which he has erected--stands the test, he will be rewarded. (WEY)
1 Corinthians 14:12 So also you, since you are zealous for spiritual gifts, seek that you may abound to the building up of the assembly. (WEB YLT RSV)
1 Corinthians 14:26 What then, brethren? Whenever you assemble, there is not one of you who is not ready either with a song of praise, a sermon, a revelation, a 'tongue,' or an interpretation. Let everything be done with a view to the building up of faith and character. (WEY YLT)
2 Corinthians 5:1 For we know that if the earthly house of our tent is dissolved, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 10:8 For though I should boast somewhat abundantly concerning our authority, (which the Lord gave for building you up, and not for casting you down) I will not be disappointed, (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 12:19 Ye have long been supposing that we excuse ourselves to you: we speak before God in Christ; and all things, beloved, for your building up. (DBY YLT NAS RSV)
2 Corinthians 13:10 For this cause I write these things while absent, that I may not deal sharply when present, according to the authority which the Lord gave me for building up, and not for tearing down. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 2:20 You are a building which has been reared on the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, the cornerstone being Christ Jesus Himself, (WEY)
Ephesians 2:21 in whom the whole building, fitted together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Ephesians 4:12 for the perfecting of the saints, to the work of serving, to the building up of the body of Christ; (WEB WEY ASV BBE YLT NAS RSV)
Ephesians 4:16 from whom all the body, being fitted and knit together through that which every joint supplies, according to the working in measure of each individual part, makes the body increase to the building up of itself in love. (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS)
Ephesians 4:29 Let no corrupt speech proceed out of your mouth, but such as is good for building up as the need may be, that it may give grace to those who hear. (WEB YLT NIV)
Colossians 2:7 having the roots of your being firmly planted in Him, and continually building yourselves up in Him, and always being increasingly confirmed in the faith as you were taught it, and abounding in it with thanksgiving. (WEY)
1 Thessalonians 5:11 So then, go on comforting and building up one another, as you have been doing. (BBE)
1 Timothy 1:4 nor to give heed to fables and endless genealogies, that cause questions rather than the building up of God that is in faith: -- (YLT)
Titus 1:1 Paul, a bondservant of God and an Apostle of Jesus Christ for building up the faith of God's own people and spreading a full knowledge of the truths of religion, (WEY)
Hebrews 6:1 For this reason let us go on from the first things about Christ to full growth; not building again that on which it is based, that is, the turning of the heart from dead works, and faith in God, (BBE)
Hebrews 9:11 But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; (KJV WBS)
1 Peter 2:7 And the value is for you who have faith; but it is said for those without faith, The very stone which the builders put on one side, was made the chief stone of the building; (BBE)
1 Peter 3:20 who in ancient times had been disobedient, while God's longsuffering was patiently waiting in the days of Noah during the building of the Ark, in which a few persons--eight in number--were brought safely through the water. (WEY RSV)
Jude 1:20 But you, beloved, keep building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Spirit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Revelation 21:18 And the building of the wall of it was of jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass. (KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Genesis 4:17 and Cain knoweth his wife, and she conceiveth, and beareth Enoch; and he is building a city, and he calleth the name of the city, according to the name of his son -- Enoch. (YLT NIV)
Genesis 10:11 From that land he went out into Assyria, building Nineveh with its wide streets and Calah, (BBE)
Genesis 11:5 And the Lord came down to see the town and the tower which the children of men were building. (BBE WBS NIV)
Genesis 11:8 So Yahweh scattered them abroad from there on the surface of all the earth. They stopped building the city. (WEB ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:17 You will take them in, planting them in the mountain of your heritage, the place, O Lord, where you have made your house, the holy place, O Lord, the building of your hands. (BBE)
Exodus 36:3 And they took from Moses all the offerings which the children of Israel had given for the building of the holy place. And still they went on giving him more free offerings every morning. (BBE)
Numbers 13:22 They went up into the South and came to Hebron; and Ahiman and Sheshai and Talmai, the children of Anak, were living there. (Now the building of Hebron took place seven years before that of Zoan in Egypt.) (BBE)
Numbers 21:27 So the makers of wise sayings say, Come to Heshbon, building up the town of Sihon and making it strong: (BBE)
Numbers 32:24 So get to work building your towns for your little ones, and safe places for your sheep; and do as you have said. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 6:10 And when the Lord your God has taken you into the land which he gave his oath to your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, that he would give you; with great and fair towns which were not of your building; (BBE)
Deuteronomy 13:16 And take all the goods into the middle of its open space, burning the town and all its property with fire as an offering to the Lord your God; it is to be a waste for ever; there is to be no more building there. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 22:8 If you are building a house, make a railing for the roof, so that the blood of any man falling from it will not come on your house. (BBE)
Joshua 6:26 Then Joshua gave the people orders with an oath, saying, Let that man be cursed before the Lord who puts his hand to the building up of this town: with the loss of his first son will he put the first stone of it in place, and with the loss of his youngest son he will put up its doors. (BBE)
Joshua 19:50 By the orders of the Lord they gave him the town for which he made request, Timnath-serah in the hill-country of Ephraim: there, after building the town, he made his living-place. (BBE)
Joshua 22:16 This is what all the meeting of the people of the Lord has said, What is this wrong which you have done against the God of Israel, turning back this day from the Lord and building an altar for yourselves, and being false to the Lord? (BBE YLT NAS RSV)
Joshua 22:19 However, if the land of your possession is unclean, then pass over to the land of the possession of Yahweh, in which Yahweh's tabernacle dwells, and take possession among us; but don't rebel against Yahweh, nor rebel against us, in building an altar other than the altar of Yahweh our God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 22:29 Never let it be said that we were false to the Lord, turning back this day from him and building an altar for burned offerings and meal offerings and offerings of beasts, in addition to the altar of the Lord our God which is before his House. (BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 24:13 And I gave you a land on which you had done no work, and towns not of your building, and you are now living in them; and your food comes from vine-gardens and olive-gardens not of your planting. (BBE)
Judges 1:26 And he went into the land of the Hittites, building a town there and naming it Luz: which is its name to this day. (BBE)
Judges 18:28 And they had no saviour, because it was far from Zidon, and they had no business with Aram; and it was in the valley which is the property of Beth-rehob. And building up the town again they took it for their living-place. (BBE)
Judges 21:23 So the men of Benjamin did this, and got wives for themselves for every one of their number, taking them away by force from the dance; then they went back to their heritage, building up their towns and living in them. (BBE)
1 Samuel 8:12 And he will make them captains of thousands and of fifties; some he will put to work ploughing and cutting his grain and making his instruments of war and building his war-carriages. (BBE)
2 Samuel 5:9 So David took the strong tower for his living-place, naming it the town of David. And David took in hand the building of the town all round, starting from the Millo. (BBE)
1 Kings 3:1 Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of Yahweh, and the wall of Jerusalem all around. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 5:18 Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders did the work of cutting them, and put edges on them, and got the wood and the stone ready for the building of the house. (BBE NIV)
1 Kings 6:1 In the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year that Solomon was king of Israel, in the month Ziv, which is the second month, the building of the Lord's house was started. (BBE)
1 Kings 6:5 And against the wall of the house he built a side-structure round about, against the walls of the house round about, both of the temple and of the sanctuary; and he made side-chambers round about; (See NIV)
1 Kings 6:7 The house, when it was in building, was built of stone made ready at the quarry; and there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS NIV)
1 Kings 6:12 "Concerning this house which you are building, if you will walk in my statutes, and execute my ordinances, and keep all my commandments to walk in them; then will I establish my word with you, which I spoke to David your father. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 6:14 So Solomon made the building of the house complete.) (BBE)
1 Kings 6:38 In the eleventh year, in the month Bul, which is the eighth month, was the house finished throughout all its parts, and according to all its fashion. So was he seven years in building it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 7:1 Solomon was building his own house thirteen years, and he finished all his house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV)
1 Kings 8:16 From the day when I took my people Israel out of Egypt, no town in all the tribes of Israel has been marked out by me for the building of a house for the resting-place of my name; but I made selection of David to be king over my people Israel. (BBE)
1 Kings 9:1 It happened, when Solomon had finished the building of the house of Yahweh, and the king's house, and all Solomon's desire which he was pleased to do, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 9:15 Now, this was the way of Solomon's system of forced work for the building of the Lord's house and of the king's house, and the Millo and the wall of Jerusalem and Megiddo and Gezer. ... (BBE)
1 Kings 11:27 The way in which his hand came to be lifted up against the king was this: Solomon was building the Millo and making good the damaged parts of the town of his father David; (BBE DBY)
1 Kings 11:38 And if you give attention to the orders I give you, walking in my ways and doing what is right in my eyes and keeping my laws and my orders as David my servant did; then I will be with you, building up for you a safe house, as I did for David, and I will give Israel to you. (BBE)
1 Kings 15:17 And Baasha, king of Israel, went up against Judah, building Ramah, so that no one was able to go out or in to Asa, king of Judah. (BBE)
1 Kings 15:21 It happened, when Baasha heard of it, that he left off building Ramah, and lived in Tirzah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
1 Kings 15:22 Then King Asa got all Judah together, making every man come; and they took away the stones and the wood with which Baasha was building Ramah, and King Asa made use of them for building Geba in the land of Benjamin, and Mizpah. (BBE DBY RSV)
1 Kings 16:24 He got the hill Samaria from Shemer for the price of two talents of silver, and he made a town there, building it on the hill and naming it Samaria, after Shemer the owner of the hill. (BBE)
2 Kings 12:7 Then King Jehoash sent for Jehoiada the priest, and the other priests, and said to them, Why have you not made good what is damaged in the house? now take no more money from your neighbours, but give it for the building up of the house. (BBE)
2 Kings 12:12 And to the wall-builders and the stone-cutters, and to get wood and cut stone for building up the broken parts of the house of the Lord, and for everything needed to put the house in good order. (BBE)
2 Kings 12:14 But it was all given to the workmen who were building up the house. (BBE)
2 Kings 17:9 And the children of Israel did secretly against the Lord their God things which were not right, building high places for themselves in all their towns, from the tower of the watchmen to the walled town. (BBE)
2 Kings 22:6 To the woodworkers and the builders and the stone-cutters; and for getting wood and cut stones for the building up of the house. (BBE)
2 Kings 23:11 And he took away the horses which the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the way into the house of the Lord, by the room of Nathan-melech, the unsexed servant, which was in the outer part of the building, and the carriages of the sun he put on fire. (BBE)
2 Kings 25:1 Now in the ninth year of his rule, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came against Jerusalem with all his army and took up his position before it, building earthworks all round the town. (BBE)
2 Kings 25:9 He burnt the house of Yahweh, and the king's house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, even every great house, burnt he with fire. (See NIV)
1 Chronicles 6:32 and they are ministering before the tabernacle of the tent of meeting, in song, till the building by Solomon of the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem; and they stand according to their ordinance over their service. (YLT)