|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exodus 25:31-40; 37:17-24, and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight.
The tabernacle was a tent without windows, and thus artificial light was needed. This was supplied by the candlestick, which, however, served also as a symbol of the church or people of God, who are "the light of the world." The light which "symbolizes the knowledge of God is not the sun or any natural light, but an artificial light supplied with a specially prepared oil; for the knowledge of God is in truth not natural nor common to all men, but furnished over and above nature."
This candlestick was placed on the south side of the Holy Place, opposite the table of shewbread (Exodus 27:21; 30:7, 8; Leviticus 24:3; 1 Samuel 3:3). It was lighted every evening, and was extinguished in the morning. In the morning the priests trimmed the seven lamps, borne by the seven branches, with golden snuffers, carrying away the ashes in golden dishes (Exodus 25:38), and supplying the lamps at the same time with fresh oil. What ultimately became of the candlestick is unknown.
In Solomon's temple there were ten separate candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right and five on the left of the Holy Place (1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:7). Their structure is not mentioned. They were carried away to Babylon (Jeremiah 52:19).
In the temple erected after the Exile there was again but one candlestick, and like the first, with seven branches. It was this which was afterwards carried away by Titus to Rome, where it was deposited in the Temple of Peace. When Genseric plundered Rome, he is said to have carried it to Carthage (A.D. 455). It was recaptured by Belisarius (A.D. 533), and carried to Constantinople and thence to Jerusalem, where it finally disappeared.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
(n.) An instrument or utensil for supporting a candle.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kan'-d'-l, kan'-d'-l-stik (ner; luchnos; menorah; luchnia):
(1) "Candle" is found in the Old Testament, the King James Version, as the rendering of ner, and in the New Testament for luchnos. In all places except Jeremiah 25:10 and Zephaniah 1:12 (see margin) the Revised Version (British and American) gives the more exact rendering "lamp." See LAMP. Candle, in our sense of the term, was unknown to antiquity.
(2) "Candlestick" stands for what was a common and indispensable article of ancient house furniture, a lamp-stand (menorah). Accordingly we find it mentioned in a case thoroughly representative of the furnishings of an oriental room of the plainer sort, in the account of "the prophet's chamber" given in 2 Kings 4:10. Here we find that the furniture consisted of a "bed," a "table," a "seat," and a "candlestick," or lamp-stand. The excavations of Petrie and Bliss at Lachish (Tell el-Hesy, 104), not to mention others, help to make it clear that a lamp-stand is meant in passages where the Hebrew word, menorah, or its Greek equivalent luchnia, is used. Accordingly throughout the New Testament, the Revised Version (British and American) has consistently rendered luchnia by "stand" (Matthew 5:15 Mark 4:21 Luke 8:16; Luke 11:33).
(3) The "candlestick" of Daniel 5:5 is rather the candelabrum (nebhrashta') of Belshazzar's banqueting-hall. The "golden candlestick" of the tabernacle and the temple requires special treatment.
See CANDLESTICK, THE GOLDEN; TABERNACLE.
(4) Certain figurative uses of "candle" and "candlestick" in the Bible demand attention. The ancient and still common custom of the East of keeping a house lamp burning night and day gave rise to the figure of speech so universally found in oriental languages by which the continued prosperity of the individual or the family is set forth by the perennially burning lamp (see Job 29:3; "when his lamp shined upon my head"; Psalm 18:28 "Thou wilt light my lamp"). The converse in usage is seen in many passages-(see Job 18:6; "His lamp above him shall be put out"; 21:17: "How oft is it that the lamp of the wicked is put out"; Proverbs 24:20; "The lamp of the wicked shall be put out"; Jeremiah 25:10; "Take from them. the light of the lamp"). The same metaphor is used in Revelation 2:5 to indicate the judgment with candlestick out of its place." "The seven golden candlesticks" (Revelation 1:20) which John saw were "the seven churches," the appointed light-bearers and dispensers of the religion of the risen Christ. Hence, the significance of such a threat. George B. Eager which the church of Ephesus was threatened: "I will move thy
CANDLESTICK, THE GOLDEN
kan'-d'-l-stik, gold'-'-n (menorah, literally "lamp-stand"): An important part of the furniture of the tabernacle and temples.
See TABERNACLE; TEMPLE; LAMP.
1. The Tabernacle:
The candlestick is first met with in the descriptions of the tabernacle (Exodus 25:31-39; Exodus 37:17-24). It was, with the utensils connected with it (snuffers, snuff dishes), to be made of pure beaten gold, of one piece, a talent in weight (Exodus 25:39). It consisted of a pedestal or base, of a central stem (the name "candlestick" is specially given to this), of six curving branches-three on each side-and of seven lamps resting on the tops of the branches and stem. Stem and branches were ornamented with cups like almond-blossoms, knops and flowers-four of this series on the stem, and three on each of the branches. Some, however, understand the "cup" to embrace the "knop" and "flower" (calyx and corolla). The shape of the pedestal is uncertain. Jewish tradition suggests three small feet; the representation of the candlestick on the Arch of Titus has a solid, hexagonal base. The position of the candlestick was on the South side of the holy place (Exodus 40:24).
2. Temple of Solomon:
In Solomon's temple the single golden candlestick was multiplied to ten, and the position was altered. The candlesticks were now placed in front of the Holy of Holies, five on one side, five on the other (1 Kings 7:49 2 Chronicles 4:7). Further details are not given in the texts, from which it may be presumed that the model of the tabernacle candlestick was followed.
3. Temple of Zerubbabel:
The second temple reverted to the single golden candlestick. When the temple was plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes, the candlestick was taken away (1 Maccabees 1:21); after the cleansing, a new one was made by Judas Maccabeus (1 Maccabees 4:49, 50).
4. Temple of Herod:
The same arrangement of a single golden candlestick, placed on the South side of the holy place, was continued in Herod's Temple (Josephus, BJ, V, v, 5). It was this which, carried away by Titus, was represented on his Arch at Rome.
5. Use and Symbolism:
The immediate object of the candlestick was to give light in the holy place. The lamps were lighted in the evening and burned till the morning (Exodus 30:7, 8 Leviticus 24:3 1 Samuel 3:3 2 Chronicles 13:11), light being admitted into the temple during the day by the upper windows. Josephus in his Cosmical speculations (BJ, V, v, 5) takes the seven lamps to signify the seven planets. In Zechariah's vision of the golden candlestick (Zechariah 4:2), the seven lamps are fed by two olive trees which are interpreted to be "the two anointed ones," Zerubbabel and Joshua-the civil and spiritual representatives of theocracy. The candlestick here, like the seven candlesticks in Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1, symbolizes the church of God, then in its Old Testament form, the idea conveyed being that God's church is set to be a lightgiver in the world. Compare Christ's words (Matthew 5:14, 16 Luke 12:35), and Paul's (Philippians 2:15).
The oldest known representation of the seven-branched candlestick is on a coin of Antigonus, circa 40 B.C. (see Madden's Coins of the Jews, 102). For literature see TABERNACLE; TEMPLE.
Candlestick (34 Occurrences)
Matthew 5:15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. (KJV WBS)
Mark 4:21 And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? (KJV WBS)
Luke 8:16 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light. (KJV WBS)
Luke 11:33 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light. (KJV WBS)
Hebrews 9:2 For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary. (KJV ASV DBY WBS)
Revelation 2:5 Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent. (KJV ASV WBS)
Exodus 25:31 And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made: his shaft, and his branches, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be of the same. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 25:32 And six branches shall come out of the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side: (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 25:33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, with a knop and a flower in one branch; and three bowls made like almonds in the other branch, with a knop and a flower: so in the six branches that come out of the candlestick. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 25:34 And in the candlesticks shall be four bowls made like unto almonds, with their knops and their flowers. (Root in KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 25:35 And there shall be a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 26:35 And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south: and thou shalt put the table on the north side. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 30:27 And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense, (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 31:8 And the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick with all his furniture, and the altar of incense, (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 35:14 The candlestick also for the light, and his furniture, and his lamps, with the oil for the light, (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 37:17 And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, were of the same: (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 37:18 And six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof: (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 37:19 Three bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three bowls made like almonds in another branch, a knop and a flower: so throughout the six branches going out of the candlestick. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 37:20 And in the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers: (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 39:37 The pure candlestick, with the lamps thereof, even with the lamps to be set in order, and all the vessels thereof, and the oil for light, (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 40:4 And thou shalt bring in the table, and set in order the things that are to be set in order upon it; and thou shalt bring in the candlestick, and light the lamps thereof. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Exodus 40:24 And he put the candlestick in the tent of the congregation, over against the table, on the side of the tabernacle southward. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Leviticus 24:4 He shall order the lamps upon the pure candlestick before the LORD continually. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Numbers 3:31 And their charge shall be the ark, and the table, and the candlestick, and the altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary wherewith they minister, and the hanging, and all the service thereof. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Numbers 4:9 And they shall take a cloth of blue, and cover the candlestick of the light, and his lamps, and his tongs, and his snuffdishes, and all the oil vessels thereof, wherewith they minister unto it: (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Numbers 8:2 Speak unto Aaron and say unto him, When thou lightest the lamps, the seven lamps shall give light over against the candlestick. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Numbers 8:3 And Aaron did so; he lighted the lamps thereof over against the candlestick, as the LORD commanded Moses. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Numbers 8:4 And this work of the candlestick was of beaten gold, unto the shaft thereof, unto the flowers thereof, was beaten work: according unto the pattern which the LORD had showed Moses, so he made the candlestick. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
2 Kings 4:10 Let us make a little chamber, I pray thee, on the wall; and let us set for him there a bed, and a table, and a stool, and a candlestick: and it shall be, when he cometh to us, that he shall turn in thither. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
1 Chronicles 28:15 Even the weight for the candlesticks of gold, and for their lamps of gold, by weight for every candlestick, and for the lamps thereof: and for the candlesticks of silver by weight, both for the candlestick, and also for the lamps thereof, according to the use of every candlestick. (Root in KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
2 Chronicles 13:11 And they burn unto the LORD every morning and every evening burnt sacrifices and sweet incense: the shewbread also set they in order upon the pure table; and the candlestick of gold with the lamps thereof, to burn every evening: for we keep the charge of the LORD our God; but ye have forsaken him. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Daniel 5:5 In the same hour came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king's palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Zechariah 4:2 And said unto me, What seest thou? And I said, I have looked, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon, and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which are upon the top thereof: (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Zechariah 4:11 Then answered I, and said unto him, What are these two olive trees upon the right side of the candlestick and upon the left side thereof? (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)