|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
A park; generally with the article, "the park."
(1.) A prominent headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several connected hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the sea, a distance of some 12 miles or more. At the east end, in its highest part, it is 1,728 feet high, and at the west end it forms a promontory to the bay of Acre about 600 feet above the sea. It lay within the tribe of Asher. It was here, at the east end of the ridge, at a place called el-Mukhrakah (i.e., the place of burning), that Elijah brought back the people to their allegiance to God, and slew the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18). Here were consumed the "fifties" of the royal guard; and here also Elisha received the visit of the bereaved mother whose son was restored by him to life (2 Kings 4:25-37). "No mountain in or around Palestine retains its ancient beauty so much as Carmel. Two or three villages and some scattered cottages are found on it; its groves are few but luxuriant; it is no place for crags and precipices or rocks of wild goats; but its surface is covered with a rich and constant verdure." "The whole mountain-side is dressed with blossom, and flowering shrubs, and fragrant herbs." The western extremity of the ridge is, however, more rocky and bleak than the eastern. The head of the bride in Cant. 7:5 is compared to Carmel. It is ranked with Bashan on account of its rich pastures (Isaiah 33:9; Jeremiah 50:19; Amos 1:2). The whole ridge is deeply furrowed with rocky ravines filled with dense jungle. There are many caves in its sides, which at one time were inhabited by swarms of monks. These caves are referred to in Amos 9:3. To them Elijah and Elisha often resorted (1 Kings 18:19, 42; 2 Kings 2:25). On its north-west summit there is an ancient establishment of Carmelite monks. Vineyards have recently been planted on the mount by the German colonists of Haifa. The modern Arabic name of the mount is Kurmul, but more commonly Jebel Mar Elyas, i.e., Mount St. Elias, from the Convent of Elias.
(2.) A town in the hill country of Judah (Joshua 15:55), the residence of Nabal (1 Samuel 25:2, 5, 7, 40), and the native place of Abigail, who became David's wife (1 Samuel 27:3). Here king Uzziah had his vineyards (2 Chronicles 26:10). The ruins of this town still remain under the name of Kurmul, about 10 miles south-south-east of Hebron, close to those of Maon.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(1) A beautifully wooded mountain range running for about 13 miles in a south-easterly direction from the promontory which drops on the shore of the Mediterranean near Haifa, at the southern extremity of the plain of Acre, to the height of el-Machraqah which overlooks the plain of Esdraelon. On the top of the promontory, at a height of 500 ft. the monastery of Elias stands. From this point there is a gradual ascent until the greatest height is reached at Esfiyeh (1,742 ft.), the peak at el-Machraqah being only some 55 ft. lower. The mountain-usually named with the article, "the Carmel"-still justifies its name, "the garden with fruit trees." The steep slopes on the North and East, indeed, afford little scope for cultivation, although trees and brushwood grow abundantly. But to the South and West the mountain falls away to the sea and the plain in a series of long, fertile valleys, where the "excellency" of Carmel finds full illustration today. There are a few springs of good water; but the main supply is furnished by the winter rains, which are caught and stored in great cisterns. The villages on the slopes have a look of prosperity not too often seen in Syria, the rich soil amply rewarding the toil of the husbandmen. Oak and pine, myrtle and honeysuckle, box and laurel flourish; the sheen of fruitful olives fills many a hollow; and in the time of flowers Carmel is beautiful in a garment of many colors. Evidences of the ancient husbandry which made it famous are found in the cisterns, and the oil and wine presses cut in the surface of the rock. There is probably a reference to the vine culture here in 2 Chronicles 26:10. In the figurative language of Scripture it appears as the symbol of beauty (Songs 7:5), of fruitfulness (Isaiah 35:2), of majesty (Jeremiah 46:18), of prosperous and happy life (Jeremiah 50:19). The languishing of Carmel betokens the vengeance of God upon the land (Nahum 1:4); and her decay, utter desolation (Amos 1:2 Isaiah 33:9).
Asylum and Sanctuary:
Roughly triangular in form, with plains stretching from its base on each of the three sides, the mountain, with its majestic form and massive bulk, is visible from afar. Its position deprived it of any great value for military purposes. It commanded none of the great highways followed by armies: the passes between Esdraelon and Sharon, to the East of Carmel, furnishing the most convenient paths. But the mountain beckoned the fugitive from afar, and in all ages has offered asylum to the hunted in its caves and wooded glens. Also its remote heights with their spacious outlook over land and sea; its sheltered nooks and embowering groves have been scenes of worship from old time. Here stood an ancient altar of Yahweh (1 Kings 18:30). We may assume that there was also a sanctuary of Baal, since the worshippers of these deities chose the place as common ground for the great trim (1 Kings 18). The scene is traditionally located at el-Machraqah, "the place of burnt sacrifice," which is still held sacred by the Druzes. A Latin chapel stands near, with a great cistern. A good spring is found lower down the slope. Just below, on the North bank of the Kishon stands the mound ca11ed Tell el-qissis, "mound of the priest." From the crest of Carmel Elijah descried the coming storm, and, descending the mountain, ran before the chariot of Ahab to the gate of Jezreel (1 Kings 18:42). Under the monastery on the western promontory is a cave, said to be that of Elijah. An older tradition locates the cave of the prophet at ed-Deir, near `Ain es-Sih. It may have been the scene of the events narrated in 2 Kings 1:9. Elisha also was a familiar visitor to Mt. Carmel. It was within the territory allotted to Asher; in later times it passed into the hands of Tyre (BJ, III, iii, 1).
(2) A city of Judah, in the uplands near Hebron, named with Maon and Ziph (Joshua 15:55). Here Saul for some reason not stated set up a monument or trophy (1 Samuel 15:12; literally "hand"). It was the home of Nabal the churlish and drunken flockmaster, whose widow Abigail David married (1 Samuel 25); and also of Hezro, one of David's mighty men (2 Samuel 23:35 1 Chronicles 11:37). It is represented by the modern el-Karmil, about 10 miles to the Southeast of Hebron. Karmil is the pronunciation given me by several natives this spring. There are considerable ruins, the most outstanding feature being square tower dating from the 12th century, now going swiftly to ruin. There are also caves, tombs and a large reservoir.
Carmel (33 Occurrences)
Joshua 12:22 the king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam in Carmel, one; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 15:55 Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Jutah, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 19:26 Allammelech, Amad, Mishal. It reached to Carmel westward, and to Shihorlibnath. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 15:12 Samuel rose early to meet Saul in the morning; and it was told Samuel, saying, "Saul came to Carmel, and behold, he set up a monument for himself, and turned, and passed on, and went down to Gilgal." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 25:2 There was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 25:5 David sent ten young men, and David said to the young men, "Go up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 25:7 Now I have heard that you have shearers. Your shepherds have now been with us, and we did them no hurt, neither was there anything missing to them, all the while they were in Carmel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 25:40 When the servants of David had come to Abigail to Carmel, they spoke to her, saying, "David has sent us to you, to take you to him as wife." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 27:3 David lived with Achish at Gath, he and his men, every man with his household, even David with his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Nabal's wife. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 30:5 David's two wives were taken captive, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 30:29 and Carmel and in the towns of the Jerahmeelites, and in the towns of the Kenites; (BBE)
2 Samuel 2:2 So David went up there, and his two wives also, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 3:3 and his second, Chileab, of Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 23:35 Hezro the Carmelite, Paarai the Arbite, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 18:19 Now therefore send, and gather to me all Israel to Mount Carmel, and four hundred fifty of the prophets of Baal, and four hundred of the prophets of the Asherah, who eat at Jezebel's table." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 18:20 So Ahab sent to all the children of Israel, and gathered the prophets together to Mount Carmel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 18:42 So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he bowed himself down on the earth, and put his face between his knees. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 2:25 He went from there to Mount Carmel, and from there he returned to Samaria. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 4:25 So she went, and came to the man of God to Mount Carmel. It happened, when the man of God saw her afar off, that he said to Gehazi his servant, "Behold, there is the Shunammite. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 19:23 By thy messengers thou hast reproached the LORD, and hast said, With the multitude of my chariots I am come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon, and will cut down the tall cedar trees thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the lodgings of his borders, and into the forest of his Carmel. (KJV WBS YLT)
1 Chronicles 3:1 Now these were the sons of David, who were born to him in Hebron: the firstborn, Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second, Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 11:37 Hezro the Carmelite, Naarai the son of Ezbai, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 26:10 Also he built towers in the desert, and digged many wells: for he had much cattle, both in the low country, and in the plains: husbandmen also, and vine dressers in the mountains, and in Carmel: for he loved husbandry. (KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Song of Songs 7:5 Your head on you is like Carmel. The hair of your head like purple. The king is held captive in its tresses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 33:9 The land mourns and languishes. Lebanon is confounded and withers away. Sharon is like a desert, and Bashan and Carmel are stripped bare. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 35:2 It will blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing. Lebanon's glory Lebanon will be given to it, the excellence of Carmel and Sharon. They will see Yahweh's glory, the excellence of our God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 37:24 By thy servants hast thou reproached the Lord, and hast said, By the multitude of my chariots am I come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon; and I will cut down the tall cedars thereof, and the choice fir trees thereof: and I will enter into the height of his border, and the forest of his Carmel. (KJV WBS YLT)
Jeremiah 46:18 As I live, says the King, whose name is Yahweh of Armies, surely like Tabor among the mountains, and like Carmel by the sea, so shall he come. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 50:19 I will bring Israel again to his pasture, and he shall feed on Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall be satisfied on the hills of Ephraim and in Gilead. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Amos 1:2 He said: "Yahweh will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the pastures of the shepherds will mourn, and the top of Carmel will wither." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Amos 9:3 Though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will search and take them out there; and though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, there I will command the serpent, and it will bite them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Micah 7:14 Feed thy people with thy rod, the flock of thine heritage, which dwell solitarily in the wood, in the midst of Carmel: let them feed in Bashan and Gilead, as in the days of old. (KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Nahum 1:4 He rebukes the sea, and makes it dry, and dries up all the rivers. Bashan languishes, and Carmel; and the flower of Lebanon languishes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)