|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
(n.) The act of chastising; pain inflicted for punishment and correction; discipline; punishment.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
chas'-'-n-ing, chas'-tiz-ment: These two words corresponding to Hebrew mucar, and Greek paideia, are distinguished in English use, in that "chastisement" is applied to the infliction of pain, either as a punishment or for recalling to duty, while "chastening," is a wider term, indicating the discipline or training to which one is subjected, without, as in the other term, referring to the means employed to this end. The narrower term occurs in the Revised Version (British and American) but once in the New Testament and then in its verbal form, Luke 23:16: "I will therefore chastise him." the King James Version uses it also in Hebrews 12:8.
The meaning of the word paideia grows with the progress of revelation. Its full significance is unfolded in the New Testament, when reconciliation through Christ has brought into prominence the true fatherhood of God (Hebrews 12:5, 10). In the Old Testament, where it occurs about 40 times, the radical meaning is that simply of training, as in Deuteronomy 8:5: "As a man chasteneth his son, so Yahweh thy God chasteneth thee." But, as in a dispensation where the distinguishing feature is that of the strictest justice, retributive punishment becomes not only an important, but a controlling factor. in the training, as in Leviticus 26:28: "I will chastise you seven times for your sins." In this sense, it is used of chastisements inflicted by man even unjustly: "My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions" (1 Kings 12:11). As, therefore, the thought of the suffering inflicted, or that of the end toward which it is directed, preponderates, the Psalmist can pray: "Neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure" (Psalm 6:1), and take comfort in the words: "Blessed is the man whom thou chastenest" (Psalm 94:12). Hence, it is common in both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) to find the Hebrew mucar, and Greek paideia translated as "instruction." Illustrations are most numerous in Prov.
In the New Testament the Greek paideia is used with a variety similar to its corresponding Hebrew in the Old Testament. Examples of the fundamental idea, namely, that of "training," are found in such passages as Acts 7:22; Acts 22:3, where Moses and Paul are said to have been "instructed," and 2 Timothy 3:16, where Scripture is said to be "profitable. for instruction" (compare 1 Timothy 1:20 2 Timothy 2:25; Titus 2:12 Romans 2:20). A similar, but not identical, thought, is found in Ephesians 6:4: "Nurture them in the chastening and admonition of the Lord." But when paideia is described as bringing pain, the mystery of suffering, which in the Old Testament is most fully treated in the Book of Job, at last finds its explanation. The child of God realizes that he cannot be beneath God's wrath, and hence, that the chastening which he endures is not destructive, but corrective (1 Corinthians 10:13; 1 Corinthians 11:32 2 Corinthians 6:9 Revelation 3:19). In Hebrews 12:5-11, such consolation is afforded, not, as in the above passages, by incidental allusions, but by a full argument upon the basis of Proverbs 3:11, an Old Testament text that has depth and richness that can be understood and appropriated only by those who through Christ have learned to recognize the Omnipotent Ruler of heaven and earth, as their loving and considerate Father. On the basis of this passage, a distinction is often drawn between punishment and chastisement; the former, as an act of justice, revealing wrath, and the latter, as an act of mercy, love. Since to them that are in Christ Jesus, there is no condemnation (Romans 8:1) they can suffer no punishment, but only chastisement. Where there is guilt, there is punishment; but where guilt has been removed, there can be no punishment. There being no degrees of justification, no one can be forgiven in part, with a partial guilt still set to his account for which he must yet give a reckoning, either here or hereafter. If, then, all the righteousness of Christ belongs to him, and no sin whatever remains to be forgiven, either in whole or in part, all life's sorrows are remedial agencies against danger and to train for the kingdom of heaven.
H. E. Jacobs
Chastisement (24 Occurrences)
1 Corinthians 11:32 But when we are judged by the Lord, chastisement follows, to save us from being condemned along with the world. (WEY)
Hebrews 12:8 But if ye be without chastisement, whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards, and not sons. (KJV WBS)
Leviticus 19:20 And if a man lie with a woman for copulation, and she is a bondwoman betrothed to a husband, but not at all ransomed, nor hath freedom been given to her, there shall be a chastisement: they shall not be put to death, for she was not free. (DBY)
Deuteronomy 11:2 Know this day: for I don't speak with your children who have not known, and who have not seen the chastisement of Yahweh your God, his greatness, his mighty hand, and his outstretched arm, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Job 5:17 Lo, the happiness of mortal man, God doth reprove him: And the chastisement of the Mighty despise not, (YLT)
Job 20:3 The chastisement of my shame I hear, And the spirit of mine understanding Doth cause me to answer: (YLT)
Job 33:16 Then he openeth the ears of men, And sealeth their instruction, (See JPS)
Job 34:31 Surely it is meet to be said unto God, I have borne chastisement, I will not offend any more: (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)
Job 36:18 For let not wrath stir thee up against chastisements; Neither let the greatness of the ransom turn thee aside. (Root in ASV DBY)
Psalms 73:14 For all the day long have I been plagued, And chastened every morning. (See JPS)
Psalms 149:7 To execute vengeance upon the nations, and chastisements upon the peoples; (Root in JPS RSV)
Proverbs 3:11 My son, despise not the instruction of Jehovah, neither be weary of his chastisement; (DBY YLT)
Proverbs 7:22 He is going after her straightway, As an ox unto the slaughter he cometh, And as a fetter unto the chastisement of a fool, (YLT)
Proverbs 13:24 Whoso is sparing his rod is hating his son, And whoso is loving him hath hastened him chastisement. (YLT)
Proverbs 15:10 Chastisement 'is' grievous to him who is forsaking the path, Whoso is hating reproof dieth. (YLT)
Proverbs 16:22 Understanding is a well-spring of life unto him that hath it; But the correction of fools is their folly. (See JPS RSV)
Proverbs 22:15 Folly is bound up in the heart of a youth, The rod of chastisement putteth it far from him. (YLT)
Proverbs 23:13 Withhold not from a youth chastisement, When thou smitest him with a rod he dieth not. (YLT)
Isaiah 26:16 O Jehovah, in distress they missed Thee, They have poured out a whisper, Thy chastisement 'is' on them. (YLT)
Isaiah 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Jeremiah 30:14 All your lovers have forgotten you; they don't seek you: for I have wounded you with the wound of an enemy, with the chastisement of a cruel one, for the greatness of your iniquity, because your sins were increased. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Lamentations 4:6 For the iniquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the sin of Sodom, That was overthrown as in a moment, and no hands were laid on her. (See RSV)
Habakkuk 1:12 Aren't you from everlasting, Yahweh my God, my Holy One? We will not die. Yahweh, you have appointed him for judgment. You, Rock, have established him to punish. (See RSV)
Habakkuk 3:9 You uncovered your bow. You called for your sworn arrows. Selah. You split the earth with rivers. (See NAS)