|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) The exchange or buying and selling of commodities; esp. the exchange of merchandise, on a large scale, between different places or communities; extended trade or traffic.
2. (n.) Social intercourse; the dealings of one person or class in society with another; familiarity.
3. (n.) Sexual intercourse.
4. (n.) A round game at cards, in which the cards are subject to exchange, barter, or trade.
5. (v. i.) To carry on trade; to traffic.
6. (v. i.) To hold intercourse; to commune.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
I. Old Testament Times.
1. Early Overland Commerce:
There were forces in early Hebrew life not favorable to the development of commerce. Intercourse with foreigners was not encouraged by Israel's social and religious customs. From the days of the appearance of the Hebrews in Canaan, however, some commercial contact with the peoples around was inevitable. There were ancient trade routes between the East and the West, as well as between Egypt and the Mesopotamian valley. Palestine lay as a bridge between these objective points. There were doubtless traveling merchants from very remote times, interchanging commodities of other lands for those of Palestine Some of the Hebrew words for "trading" and "merchant" indicate this (compare cachar, "to travel," rakhal, "to go about"). In the nomadic period, the people were necessarily dependent upon overland commerce for at least a part of their food supply, such as grain, and doubtless for articles of clothing, too. Frequent local famines would stimulate such trade. Companies or caravans carrying on this overland commerce are seen in Genesis 37:25, 28, "Ishmaelites" and "Midianites, merchantmen," on their way to Egypt, with spices, balm and myrrh. Jacob caused his sons to take certain products to Egypt as a present with money to Joseph in return for grain: balsam, spices, honey, myrrh, nuts, almonds (Genesis 43:11 f). The presence of a "Bab mantle" among the spoils of Ai (Joshua 7:21) indicates commerce between Canaan and the East.
2. Sea Traffic:
While there are slight indications of a possible sea trade as early as the days of the Judges (Judges 5:17; compare Genesis 49:13), we must wait till the days of the monarchy of David and especially Solomon for the commerce of ships. Land traffic was of course continued and expanded (1 Kings 10:15, 28, 29 2 Chronicles 1:16). Sea trade at this time made large strides forward. The Philistines were earlier in possession of the coast. Friendship with Hiram king of Tyre gave Solomon additional advantages seaward (1 Kings 5; 1 Kings 9:26; 1 Kings 10:19-29 2 Chronicles 8:17; 2 Chronicles 9:14), since the Phonicians were pre-eminently the Miditerranean traders among all the people of Palestine Later, commerce declined, but Jehoshaphat attempted to revive it (1 Kings 22:48 2 Chronicles 20:36), but without success. Tyre and Sidon as great commercial centers, however, long impressed the life of Israel (Isaiah 23 Ezekiel 26-27). Later, in the Maccabean period, Simon acquired Joppa as a Jewish port (1 Maccabees 14:5), and so extended Mediterranean commerce.
3. Land Traffic in the Time of the Kings:
During the peaceful reign of Solomon, there came, with internal improvements and foreign friendships, a stimulus to traffic with Egypt and the Far East over the ancient trade routes as well as with Phoenicia on the northwest. He greatly added to his wealth through tariffs levied upon merchantmen (1 Kings 10:15). Trade with Syria in the days of Omri and Ahab is indicated by the permission Benhadad gave to Israelites to open streets, or trading quarters, in Damascus, as Syrians had in Samaria (1 Kings 20:34). The prophets disclose repeatedly the results of foreign commerce upon the people in the days of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, and of Jeroboam II, under whom great material prosperity was attained, followed by simple luxury (Isaiah 2:6, 7, 16 Hosea 12:1, 7, 8 Amos 6:3-6). The people in their greed of gain could not observe Sabbaths and feast days (Amos 8:5); compare Sabbath trading and its punishment in the days of the restoration (Nehemiah 13:15-22). "Canaanite" became the nickname for traffickers (Zechariah 14:21; compare Isaiah 23:8).
II. New Testament Times.
After the conquests of Alexander 333 B.C., trade between East and West was greatly stimulated. Colonies of Jews for trade purposes had been established in Egypt and elsewhere. The dispersion of the Jews throughout the Greek and Roman world added to their interest in commerce. The Mediterranean Sea, as a great Roman lake, under Roman protection, became alive with commercial fleets. The Sea of Galilee with its enormous fish industry became the center of a large trading interest to all parts. The toll collected in Galilee must have been considerable. Matthew was called from his collectorship to discipleship (Matthew 9:9); Zaccheus and other publicans became rich collecting taxes from large commercial interests like that of balsam. Jesus frequently used the commerce of the day as illustration (Matthew 13:45; Matthew 25:14-30). Along the Palestinian coast there were several ports where ships touched: Lydda, Joppa, Caesarea; and further north Ptolemais, Tyre, Sidon and Antioch (port Seleucia).
The apostle Paul made use of ships touching at points on the coast of Asia Minor, and the islands along the coast, and also doing coast trade with Greece, Italy and Spain, to carry on his missionary emterprises (Acts 13:4-13; Acts 16:11; 18:18; 20:13-16; 21:1-8; 27:1-44; 28:1-14). The rapidity with which the gospel spread throughout the Roman world in the 1st century was due no little to the use of the great Roman highways, built partly as trade routes; as well as to the constant going to and fro of tradesmen of all sorts; some of whom like Aquila and Priscilla (Acts 18:2, 18, 26), Lydia, (Acts 16:14, 40) and Paul himself (who was a traveling tent-maker) were active in disseminating the new faith among the Gentiles. In James 4:13 we have a good representation of the life of a large number of Jews of this period, who would "go into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and sell, and get gain" (the King James Version).
See also TRADE.
Edward Bagby Pollard
Commerce (3 Occurrences)
Matthew 22:5 But they made light of it, and went, one to his own land, and another to his commerce. (DBY)
Isaiah 23:17 And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that Jehovah will visit Tyre, and she shall return to her hire, and shall play the harlot with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. (See JPS)
Ezekiel 16:34 And the contrary is in thee from other women in thy unlawful commerce, whereas none followeth thee to commit lewdness: and in that thou givest a reward, and no reward is given to thee, therefore thou art contrary. (WBS)