|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called "Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra 8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" (2 Samuel 22:35; Jeremiah 15:12). The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24; Psalm 18:34) should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass, " as in the R.V.). The vessels of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of "bright brass" mentioned in 1 Kings 7:45; Dan. 10:6.
Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron (Genesis 4:22). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass (1 Kings 7:14). Copper abounded in Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:9; Isaiah 60:17; 1 Chronicles 22:3, 14). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple were made of it (Leviticus 6:28; Numbers 16:39; 2 Chronicles 4:16; Ezra 8:27); also weapons of war (1 Samuel 17:5, 6, 38; 2 Samuel 21:16). Iron is mentioned only four times (Genesis 4:22; Leviticus 26:19; Numbers 31:22; 35:16) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered "brass") is mentioned forty times. (see BRASS.)
We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of Ephesus (2 Timothy 4:14).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A common metal of a reddish color, both ductile and malleable, and very tenacious. It is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. Symbol Cu. Atomic weight 63.3. It is one of the most useful metals in itself, and also in its alloys, brass and bronze.
2. (n.) A coin made of copper; a penny, cent, or other minor coin of copper.
3. (n.) A vessel, especially a large boiler, made of copper.
4. (n.) the boilers in the galley for cooking; as, a ship's coppers.
5. (v. t.) To cover or coat with copper; to sheathe with sheets of copper; as, to copper a ship.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kop'-er (nechosheth): The word is translated "copper" in only one passage (Ezra 8:27 the King James Version). In the American Standard Revised Version of this passage, "brass" has been substituted. Neither describes the actual alloy according to present definitions so well as the word "bronze." Copper was one of the earliest metals to be known and utilized in alloy, but copper, as a single metal, was probably little used. The remains of spears, balances, arms, vases, mirrors, statues, cooking utensils, implements of all kinds, etc., from Bible times are principally of an alloy of copper hardened with tin known today as bronze (see BRASS). In such passages as Deuteronomy 8:9, where reference is made to the native metal or ores, "copper" should be substituted for "brass" as in the American Standard Revised Version (compare Job 40:18). This is true also of coins as chalkos, in Matthew 10:9.
Our modern English word "copper" is derived from an old name pertaining to the island of Cyprus. Copper was known to the ancients as Cyprian brass, probably because that island was one of the chief sources for this metal. The Sinai peninsula and the mountains of northern Syria also contributed to the ancient world's supply (see Tell el-Amarna Letters). No evidences of copper ore in any quantity are found in Palestine proper.
See METAL; MINE.
James A. Patch.
kop'-er-smith (chalkeus): The word is found in New Testament once only, in 2 Timothy 4:14: "Alexander the coppersmith did (margin "showed") me much evil." As the Bible word rendered "copper" (see Ezra 8:27 the King James Version) is translated "brass" by the Revised Version (British and American), so the word here rendered "c." should be rendered "brazier," or "worker in brass."
Copper (55 Occurrences)
Matthew 10:9 "Provide no gold, nor even silver nor copper to carry in your pockets; (WEY BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 7:4 They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) (See NAS)
Mark 12:42 A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins, which equal a quadrans coin. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:59 I tell you, you will by no means get out of there, until you have paid the very last penny. " (See RSV)
Luke 21:2 He saw a certain poor widow casting in two small brass coins. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 25:3 And this is the heave-offering that ye shall take of them: gold, and silver, and copper, (DBY)
Exodus 26:11 And thou shalt make fifty clasps of copper, and put the clasps into the loops, and couple the tent, that it may be one whole. (DBY)
Exodus 26:37 And thou shalt make for the curtain five pillars of acacia-wood, and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold; and thou shalt cast five bases of copper for them. (DBY)
Exodus 27:2 And thou shalt make its horns at the four corners thereof; its horns shall be of itself; and thou shalt overlay it with copper. (DBY)
Exodus 27:3 And thou shalt make its pots to cleanse it of the fat, its shovels, and its bowls, and its forks, and its firepans; for all the utensils thereof thou shalt employ copper. (DBY)
Exodus 27:4 And thou shalt make for it a grating of network of copper; and on the net shalt thou make four copper rings at its four corners; (DBY)
Exodus 27:6 And thou shalt make staves for the altar, staves of acacia-wood, and overlay them with copper. (DBY)
Exodus 27:10 and the twenty pillars thereof, and their twenty bases of copper, the hooks of the pillars and their connecting-rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 27:11 And likewise on the north side in length, hangings a hundred cubits long, and its twenty pillars, and their twenty bases of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their connecting-rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 27:17 All the pillars of the court round about shall be fastened together with rods of silver; their hooks of silver, and their bases of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 27:18 The length of the court shall be a hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty everywhere, and the height five cubits of twined byssus; and their bases of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 27:19 All the utensils of the tabernacle for the service thereof and all the pegs thereof, and all the pegs of the court shall be of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 30:18 Thou shalt also make a laver of copper, and its stand of copper, for washing; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and shalt put water in it. (DBY)
Exodus 31:4 to devise artistic work to work in gold, and in silver, and in copper, (DBY)
Exodus 35:5 Take from among you a heave-offering to Jehovah: every one whose heart is willing, let him bring it, Jehovah's heave-offering gold, and silver, and copper, (DBY)
Exodus 35:16 the altar of burnt-offering, and the copper grating for it, its staves, and all its utensils; the laver and its stand; (DBY)
Exodus 35:24 All they that offered a heave-offering of silver and copper brought Jehovah's heave-offering. And every one with whom was found acacia-wood for all manner of work of the service, brought it. (DBY)
Exodus 35:32 and to devise artistic things: to work in gold, and in silver, and in copper, (DBY)
Exodus 36:18 And he made fifty clasps of copper to couple the tent, that it might be one. (DBY)
Exodus 36:38 and its five pillars with their hooks; and he overlaid their capitals and their connecting-rods with gold; and their five bases were of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 38:2 And he made its horns on the four corners thereof; its horns were of itself; and he overlaid it with copper. (DBY)
Exodus 38:3 And he made all the utensils of the altar: the pots, and the shovels, and the bowls, the forks, and the firepans; all its utensils made he of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 38:4 And he made for the altar a grating of network of copper under its ledge from beneath, to the very middle of it. (DBY)
Exodus 38:5 And he cast four rings for the four corners of the grating of copper, as receptacles for the staves. (DBY)
Exodus 38:6 And he made the staves of acacia-wood, and overlaid them with copper. (DBY)
Exodus 38:8 And he made the laver of copper, and its stand of copper, of the mirrors of the crowds of women who crowded before the entrance of the tent of meeting. (DBY)
Exodus 38:10 their pillars twenty, and their bases twenty, of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their connecting-rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 38:11 And on the north side, a hundred cubits; their pillars twenty, and their bases twenty, of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their connecting-rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 38:17 and the bases of the pillars of copper, the hooks of the pillars and their connecting-rods of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals of silver; and all the pillars of the court were fastened together with rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 38:19 and their pillars four, and their bases four, of copper; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals and their connecting-rods of silver. (DBY)
Exodus 38:20 And all the pegs for the tabernacle and for the court round about were of copper. (DBY)
Exodus 38:29 And the copper of the wave-offering was seventy talents, and two thousand four hundred shekels. (DBY)
Exodus 38:30 And he made with it the bases for the entrance of the tent of meeting, and the copper altar, and the copper grating for it, and all the utensils of the altar. (DBY)
Exodus 39:39 the copper altar, and the copper grating that was for it, its staves and all its utensils; the laver and its stand; (DBY)
Leviticus 6:28 And the earthen vessel wherein it hath been sodden shall be broken; and if it have been sodden in a copper pot, it shall be both scoured and rinsed with water. (DBY)
Numbers 16:39 And Eleazar the priest took the copper censers, which they that were burnt had presented; and they were made broad plates for a covering of the altar: (DBY)
Numbers 31:22 Only the gold, and the silver, the copper, the iron, the tin, and the lead, (DBY)
Deuteronomy 8:9 a land in which you shall eat bread without scarceness, you shall not lack anything in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills you may dig copper. (WEB ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 6:19 And all the silver, and gold, and vessels of copper and iron, shall be holy to Jehovah; they shall come into the treasury of Jehovah. (DBY)
Joshua 6:24 And they burned the city with fire, and all that was therein; only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of copper and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah. (DBY)
Joshua 22:8 and spoke to them, saying, Return unto your tents with much wealth and with very much cattle, with silver, and with gold, and with copper, and with iron, and with clothing, in very great quantity; divide the spoil of your enemies with your brethren. (DBY)
2 Kings 25:14 The cauldrons also and the shovels and the knives and the cups, and all the vessels of copper wherewith they ministered, they took away. (DBY)
Ezra 8:27 Also twenty basons of gold, of a thousand drams; and two vessels of fine copper, precious as gold. (KJV DBY WBS)
Job 28:2 Iron is taken out of the earth, and copper is smelted out of the ore. (WEB ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:4 And I look, and lo, a tempestuous wind is coming from the north, a great cloud, and fire catching itself, and brightness to it round about, and out of its midst as the colour of copper, out of the midst of the fire. (YLT)
Ezekiel 1:27 And I see as the colour of copper, as the appearance of fire within it round about, from the appearance of his loins and upward, and from the appearance of his loins and downward, I have seen as the appearance of fire, and brightness 'is' to it round about. (YLT)
Ezekiel 8:2 and I look, and lo, a likeness as the appearance of fire, from the appearance of His loins and downward -- fire, and from His loins and upward, as the appearance of brightness, as the colour of copper. (YLT)
Ezekiel 22:18 Son of man, the house of Israel is become dross to me: they are all copper, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the midst of the furnace: they are become the dross of silver. (DBY NIV)
Ezekiel 22:20 As they gather silver, and copper, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it, so will I gather you in mine anger and in my fury, and I will lay you on and melt you. (DBY NIV)
Ezekiel 24:11 Then set it empty on its coals, that it may be hot, and its brass may burn, and that its filthiness may be molten in it, that its rust may be consumed. (See RSV NIV)