|Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia|
kor'-ner ston (pinnah, zawith; akrogoniaios): Part of the public or imposing buildings, to which importance has been attached in all ages and in many nations, both on account of its actual service and its figurative meaning. Ordinarily its use in the Bible is figurative, or symbolical. No doubt the original meaning was some important stone, which was laid at the foundation of a building.
(1) With the Canaanites, who preceded Israel in the possession of Palestine, corner-stone laying seems to have been a most sacred and impressive ceremonial. Under this important stone of temples, or other great structures, bodies of children or older persons would be laid, consecrating the building by such human sacrifice (see FORTIFICATION, II, 1). This was one of many hideous rites and practices which Israel was to extirpate. It may throw light on the curse pronounced upon the rebuilding of Jericho (Joshua 6:26; see PEFS, January, 1904, July, 1908).
(2) Old Testament references.-The Hebrew word pinnah, "corner," is found or implied in every occurrence of this idea. Derived from a root signifying "to turn," it means "turning," and therefore "edge" or "corner." Ordinarily it is used with 'ebhen, "stone" (Psalm 118:22); or it may occur alone, having acquired for itself through frequent use the whole technical phrase-idea (Zechariah 10:4 the King James Version).
While all the passages indicate the stone at the corner, there appear to be two conceptions:
(a) the foundation-stone upon which the structure rested (Job 38:6 Isaiah 28:16 Jeremiah 51:26); or
(b) the topmost or cap-stone, which linked the last tier together (Psalm 118:22 Zechariah 4:7); in both cases it is an important or key-stone, and figurative of the Messiah, who is "the First and the Last."
In Job 38:6 it beautifully expresses in figures the stability of the earth, which Yahweh created. In Zechariah 10:4 the leader or ruler in the Messianic age is represented by the corner-stone. The ancient tradition of the one missing stone, when the temple was in building, is reflected in or has been suggested by Psalm 118:22 (Midrash quoted by Pusey under Zechariah 4:7). It is probable that we should read in Psalm 144:12 not "corner-stones," but "corner-pillars," or supports (compare Greek Caryatides) from a different Hebrew word, zawith, Brown, Driver, and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, under the word
(3) New Testament passages.- Psalm 118:22 is quoted and interpreted as fulfilled in Jesus Christ in a number of passages: Matthew 21:42 Mark 12:10 Luke 20:17 Acts 4:11 and 1 Peter 2:7; it is also the evident basis for Ephesians 2:20. Isaiah 28:16 is quoted twice in the New Testament: Romans 9:33, from Septuagint combined with the words of Isaiah 8:14, and in 1 Peter 2:6, which is quoted with some variation from Septuagint. The Old Testament passages were understood by the rabbis to be Messianic, and were properly so applied by the New Testament writers.
See also HOUSE.
Cornerstone (13 Occurrences)
Matthew 21:42 "Have you never read in the Scriptures," said Jesus, "'The Stone which the builders rejected has been made the Cornerstone: this Cornerstone came from the Lord, and is wonderful in our eyes'? (WEY)
Mark 12:10 "Have you not read even this passage," He added, "'The stone which the builders rejected has become the Cornerstone: (WEY)
Mark 12:11 this Cornerstone came from the Lord, and is wonderful in our esteem?'" (WEY)
Luke 20:17 But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written,'The stone which the builders rejected, the same was made the chief cornerstone?' (WEB WEY)
Acts 4:11 This Jesus is the Stone treated with contempt by you the builders, but it has been made the Cornerstone. (WEY)
Ephesians 2:20 being built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief cornerstone; (WEB WEY RSV NIV)
1 Peter 2:6 Because it is contained in Scripture, "Behold, I lay in Zion a chief cornerstone, chosen, and precious: He who believes in him will not be disappointed." (WEB WEY RSV NIV)
1 Peter 2:7 For you who believe therefore is the honor, but for those who are disobedient, "The stone which the builders rejected, has become the chief cornerstone," (WEB WEY)
Job 38:6 Whereupon were its foundations fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone, (WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 19:13 The princes of Zoan have become fools. The princes of Memphis are deceived. They have caused Egypt to go astray, who are the cornerstone of her tribes. (WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 28:16 Therefore thus says the Lord Yahweh, "Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious cornerstone of a sure foundation. He who believes shall not act hastily. (WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 51:26 And they take not out of thee a stone for a corner, And a stone for foundations, For desolations age-during art thou, An affirmation of Jehovah. (See NIV)
Zechariah 10:4 From him will come forth the cornerstone, from him the nail, from him the battle bow, from him every ruler together. (WEB NAS RSV NIV)