|Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia|
krim, krimz: This. term is used in English as the equivalent of the Hebrew mishpaT, "judgment," "verdict" (Ezekiel 7:23); zimmah, "a heinous crime" (Job 31:11); 'asham = "a fault," "sin" (Genesis 26:10, English Versions of the Bible "guiltiness"); and Greek aitia, "case," "cause" (Acts 25:27, the Revised Version (British and American) "charges"). In the King James Version John 18:38; John 19:4, 6, the rendition is "fault."
egklema, "indictment," "charge" (Acts 25:16 the King James Version) is changed in the Revised Version (British and American) to "matter." A crime is a transgression against the public right; serious offense against the law; a base weakness or iniquity, all of which are regarded by the Bible as offenses against
(1) God, or
(2) man, or
An injury to the creature is regarded as obnoxious to the Creator. Specific forms of crime are the following:
See separate article.
This term does not occur in the English Versions of the Bible, but, of course, is included in the more general "to kill," or "to slay" (haragh = "to smite with deadly intent" "destroy," "kill," "murder," "put to death"). The law distinguished between unpremeditated and premeditated slaying, pronouncing a curse upon the latter (Deuteronomy 27:25). David expresses the deepest abhorrence of such an act (2 Samuel 4:9-12). Instances are found recorded in Judges 3:15-22 2 Samuel 3:27; 2 Samuel 4:5-7; 13:28, 29; 20:9, 10; 2 Kings 12:20; 2 Kings 19:37 Isaiah 37:38. See also separate article.
According to Webster: "unnatural connection with a beast." This form of vice was treated by the Mosaic law as something exceedingly loathsome and abhorrent, calling for extreme language in its description and rigorous measures in its punishment. Both the beast and the guilty human were to be put to death (Exodus 22:19 Leviticus 18:23; Leviticus 20:15, 16 Deuteronomy 27:21), in order, as the Talmud says, to obliterate all memory of the crime.
See separate article.
Breach of Covenant.
Breach of Covenant (parar 'eth ha-berith).-According to Poucher (HDB, article "Crimes"), this term included:
(1) failure to observe the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:29); work on that day (Leviticus 23:28);
(2) sacrifice of children to Moloch (Leviticus 20:3);
(3) neglect of circumcision (Genesis 17:14 Exodus 4:26);
(4) unauthorized manufacture of the holy oil (Exodus 30:33);
(5) anointing an alien therewith (Exodus 30:33);
(6) neglect of the Passover (Numbers 9:13).
Note also the following: Genesis 17:14 Leviticus 26:15-44 Deuteronomy 29:25; Deuteronomy 31:16, 20. Paul (Romans 1:31) speaks of asunthetoi = "Convenant-breakers."
Breach of Ritual.
A term not found in the Scriptures, but designed to cover a number of acts prohibited by the ceremonial law. They have been exhaustively enumerated by Poucher (HDB, article "Crimes"):
(1) eating blood, whether of fowl or beast (Leviticus 7:27; Leviticus 17:14);
(2) eating fat of the beast of sacrifice (Leviticus 7:25);
(3) eating leavened bread during the Passover (Exodus 12:15, 19);
(4) failure to bring an offering when an animal is slaughtered for food (Leviticus 17:4);
(5) offering sacrifice while the worshipper is under the ban of uncleanness. (Leviticus 7:20, 21; Leviticus 22:3, 4, 9);
(6) making holy ointment for private use (Exodus 30:32, 33);
(7) using the same for perfume (Exodus 30:38);
(8) neglect of purification in general (Numbers 19:13, 10);
(9) slaughtering an animal for food away from the door of the tabernacle (Leviticus 17:4, 9); even the alien must comply, so that the introduction of worship at other places might be avoided;
(10) touching holy things illegally (Numbers 4:16, 20 the Revised Version (British and American) "the sanctuary").
The punishment for the non-observance of these prohibitions was the "cutting off" from the transgressor's people (nikhrath miqqerebh = "cut off from among," i.e. excommunicated).
Breach of Trust.
See TRUST, BREACH OF.
See separate article.
This term does not occur. The corresponding act is defined as "thievery accompanied by breaking," and it places the offender beyond protection from violence (Exodus 22:2). The crime might be committed in various degrees, and to burglarize the "devoted things" was punishable by death (Joshua 7:25), as was also man-stealing (Exodus 21:16 Deuteronomy 24:7).
See separate article.
See separate article.
See separate article.
See separate article.
See separate article.
Evil Speaking (Slander).
See Speaking Evil.
Occurs as the rendition of ma`al = "treachery," "sin," "trespass" (Job 21:34); and of sheqer = "a sham," "deceit," "lying" (2 Samuel 18:13 Psalm 7:14; Psalm 119:118; 144:8, 11 Isaiah 28:15; Isaiah 57:4; Isaiah 59:13; Jeremiah 10:14; Jeremiah 13:25 Hosea 7:1 Micah 2:11). In every case willful perversion of the truth or preference for the untruth is at least presupposed, hence, falsehood always marks an evil disposition, enmity against truth, and hence, against God; consequently is criminal in the fullest sense.
"Swearing to a lie or falsehood" (sheqer) is mentioned in Leviticus 6:3, 1; Leviticus 19:12 Jeremiah 5:2; Jeremiah 7:9 Hosea 10:4 Zechariah 5:4. From these passages and their context, it appears that this crime was considered in the twofold sense of a wrong against
(1) the neighbor, and
(2) against God, for the oath was an appeal to God as a witness to the truthfulness of the statement; hence, to swear falsely was to represent God as supporting a false statement.
Hebrew, zanah = "to commit adultery," especially of the female, and less frequently of mere fornication, seldom of involuntary ravishment; also used figuratively in the sense of idolatry, the Jewish people being regarded as the spouse of Yahweh (2 Chronicles 21:11 Isaiah 23:17 Ezekiel 16:26). Once we find the derivative noun taznuth (Ezekiel 16:29). In the New Testament, with both the literal and the figurative application, we find porneia, and porneuo (Matthew 5:32; Matthew 15:19 John 8:41 Acts 15:20 1 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Corinthians 6:13, 18; 7:02; 10:08; 2 Corinthians 12:21 Galatians 5:19 Ephesians 5:3 Colossians 3:5 1 Thessalonians 4:3 Revelation 2:14, 20, 21; Revelation 9:21; Revelation 14:8; Revelation 17:2, 4). The intensive ekporneuo = "to be utterly unchaste" is found in Jude 1:7. Every form of unchastity is included in the term "fornication."
Found only in Matthew 5:33 in the sense of committing perjury (epiorkeo).
The avocational or at least habitual, notorious practice of unchastity. In most instances the ordinary term for unchaste living, zanah, is employed (Genesis 34:31; Genesis 38:15, 24 Leviticus 21:14 Joshua 2:1 (Rahab); Judges 11:1; Judges 16:1 1 Kings 3:16; Proverbs 7:10; Proverbs 29:3 Jeremiah 5:7 Amos 7:17). For the publicly known woman of the street and the professional devotee in the pagan temple-worship, the term kedheshah, was employed (Genesis 38:21, 22 the King James Version; Hosea 4:14). The Greek porne, occurs in Matthew 21:31; Luke 15:30 1 Corinthians 6:15, 16; Hebrews 11:31 James 2:25. Figurative: Often used metaphorically of idolatry or any defection from the Divine covenant, and applied particularly to Jerusalem (Isaiah 1:21); the Jewish nation (Jeremiah 2:20; Jeremiah 3:1, 6; often in Ezekiel 16 and Ezekiel 23 Micah 1:7); Israel (Hosea 4:15); Nineveh (Nahum 3:4); Tyro, with reference to the various arts employed to renew her commerce (Isaiah 23:16) and to her restored traffic (Isaiah 23:17); and to antiChristian "Babylon" (Revelation 17:5, 15; Revelation 19:2). See also Fornication.
"Manslayer" (ratsach, "to dash in pieces," "to kill," "to murder"; Greek androphonos, with the same meaning): Mentioned in Numbers 35:6, 12 1 Timothy 1:9. The Hebrew law distinguished between the premeditated and the unpremeditated slaying. See separate article.
See separate article.
Ill-treatment of Parents (Exodus 21:15, 17 Leviticus 20:9 Deuteronomy 21:18).
Injuries to the Person (Exodus 21:18 Leviticus 24:19 Deuteronomy 25:11).
Lack of respect for God or His natural representatives, the parents or governmental officers. See also Parents, Crimes against; Blasphemy.
Designated in Hebrew by zimmah, "vice," "wickedness," "refined immorality" (Leviticus 18:17; Leviticus 20:14); also "unnatural vice," tebhel, the same word that is used to designate the unnatural commingling with beasts. Amnon's deed is designated as checedh, indicating the degradation of the tenderness natural between brothers and sisters into a tenderness of an immoral character (2 Samuel 13). The crime of sexual relation of persons within the degrees of relationship forbidden by the Levitical law, as for instance, that of Lot's daughters with their father (Genesis 19:33); the son with his father's concubines, as for instance, Reuben (Genesis 35:22), and Absalom (2 Samuel 16:22; compare 1 Corinthians 5:1); that of the father-in-law with his daughter-in-law (Genesis 38:15; compare Ezekiel 22:11); of the brother with the sister or half-sister, as for instance, Amnon (2 Samuel 13:14); of the brother-in-law with the sister-in-law (Matthew 14:3); with the wife's mother, or the wife's daughter while living in apparent marriage with the mother (Leviticus 20:14; Leviticus 18:17). Illicit relation with the brother's widow is designated (Leviticus 20:21) as a disgraceful deed, literally, "uncleanness" (excepting the levirate marriage). Such acts were forbidden on the ground that the Jews were to avoid the evil practices of the Canaanites and the Egyptians in regard to marriage within the specified limits, because this would naturally result in breaking down the sanctity of the bonds connecting near relatives, and in throwing open the flood gates of immorality among them. It is the Divine plan that the unions based on mutual choice and love, mingled with carnality, shall become clarified more and more into the purer love of close consanguineal relations; not vice versa. Then, too, such provisions would secure higher results in training and in the production of mentally and physically healthy children, the balancing and evening up of contrasts of Nature, and the production of new and improved types. The principle on which the prohibitions are imposed seems to be this: Marriage is forbidden between any person and a direct ancestor or a direct descendant or any close relative, such as brother or sister of either himself or any of his ancestors or any of his immediate descendants.
This crime, in the form in which it has been and is prevalent among barbarous nations, seems to have been quite foreign to the minds of the Hebrews, for they had too lofty a conception of the value of human life, and children were considered a blessing; their absence in the home, a curse (compare Exodus 1:17, 21 Psalm 127 Psalm 128). For this reason, there appeared to be no reason to prohibit it by law, except as the Israelites might be influenced to sacrifice their children to Molech when following the religious customs of the Canaanites.
andrapodistes = "man-stealer," "slave-dealer" (1 Timothy 1:10). This was a mortal offense; but it seems that it, like some other forms of iniquity, was unknown to the Hebrews, except as they came in contact with it through their intercourse with other nations, such as the Romans and the Greeks, whose mythology frequently alludes to such acts. Lying, Malice, Manslaughter, Murder, Oath.
See separate articles.
Parents, Crimes against.
The law enjoined upon the infant all the reverence toward his parents, especially the father, that he could bestow on a merely human being. The reason for this lay in the fact that the heads of families were expected to transmit the Divine law to their household, and thus to stand in the place of God. That the mother was to share this reverence practically on equal terms with the father is shown by the fact that each is mentioned separately whenever obedience and reverence are enjoined upon the child (Deuteronomy 5:16). As the specific crime against Yahweh consisted in blasphemy and open rebellion against the law, so the crime against parents consisted in deliberate disobedience and stubbornness (Deuteronomy 21:18). And here again both the father and the mother are directed to lay hands upon him and bring him unto the elders for punishment. How greatly such conduct was held in horror is seen in many of the Proverbs, especially 30:17. It would be hard to specify all the acts which, in view of the above, would be considered crimes against the parents, but it is evident that everything which would lower their dignity and influence or violate their sense of just recognition must be carefully avoided, as witness the curse visited upon Ham (Genesis 9:20-27).
See False Swearing; Forswear above; also article OATH.
By reason of his position as the recognized mouthpiece of Yahweh, the prophet's word was weighty in influence; hence, to prophesy falsely was equivalent to practicing fraud publicly. Jeremiah described the condition as "wonderful and horrible," which made such things possible (Jeremiah 5:30, 31). See also Jeremiah 23, 12; Jeremiah 29:8, 9 Ezekiel 21:23 Zechariah 10:2 Matthew 7:15; Matthew 24:11, 24 Mark 13:22; Luke 6:26 Acts 13:6 (Bar-Jesus); 2 Peter 2:1 1 John 4:1 Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. See also separate article.
Hebrew and Christian morality never condoned this practice, though the Bible recognizes its existence as a fact even among God's people. The Hebrew father was forbidden (Leviticus 19:29) to give his daughter over to a life of shame (chalal, "to profane a person, place or thing," "to pollute"). See also Fornication, Harlotry, and Whoredom below.
chazak = "to seize," "bind," "restrain," "conquer," "force," "ravish." The punishment for this crime was greater when the act was committed against a betrothed woman (Deuteronomy 22:25-29). See also Seduction.
Removing Landmarks. (Deuteronomy 19:14).
Reviling (Exodus 22:28).
See Irreverence above and article REVILE.
gazal = "to pluck off," "strip," "rob," "take away by force or violence"; forbidden in the law and frequently referred to as despicable (Leviticus 19:13; Leviticus 26:22 1 Samuel 23:1 Proverbs 22:22 Isaiah 10:2, 13; Isaiah 17:14; Ezekiel 33:15; Ezekiel 39:10 Malachi 3:8, 9).
As the Hebrew Sabbath was regarded as a day of rest, all acts absolutely unnecessary were considered a violation, a "breaking" of the Sabbath, which appears sufficiently from the commandment (Exodus 20:8-11); and the head of the household was held responsible for the keeping of this commandment on the part of all sojourners under his roof.
No other law gave the sophistical legalists of later Judaism so much opportunity for hair-splitting distinctions as did this. In answer to the question what labors were forbidden, they mentioned 39 specific forms of work, and then proceeded to define what constituted each particular form. But as even these definitions would not cover all possible questions, special precepts were invented. In order that one might not be caught in the midst of unfinished labors, when the Sabbath began (at sunset), certain forms of work must not be undertaken on Friday. Thus it was forbidden to fry meat, onions or eggs, if there was not sufficient time for them to be fully cooked before evening. No bread, no cakes, must be put into the oven, if there was not sufficient time remaining for their surface to brown before night.
ta`ah, "to dissemble," "seduce," and Ta`ah, with the same meaning; apoplanao, "to lead astray"; planao, "to go astray," "deceive," "err," "seduce"; and goes, "a wizard," "an impostor," "seducer." In all the passages in which the idea of seduction is expressed in the English the term is used not in the modern sense of a trespass against a woman's person, but in the more general and figurative sense of leading into sin generally (2 Kings 21:9 Proverbs 12:26 the King James Version.; Isaiah 19:13 the King James Version; Ezekiel 13:10 Mark 13:22 the King James Version; 2 Timothy 3:13 the King James Version; 1 John 2:26 the King James Version; Revelation 2:20). However, the modern English idea of the word is expressed in the law found in Exodus 22:16, 17.
See separate article.
See Unnatural Vice.
"To bring an evil (ra`) name upon" (Deuteronomy 19:15 1 Kings 22:23 Psalm 34:13; Psalm 41:5; Psalm 50:19; Psalm 109:20; 140:11 Proverbs 15:28; Proverbs 16:30). Evil speaking is considered a crime because it is simply the expression of the evil intents of the heart. This is brought out more clearly in the New Testament (Matthew 7:17, 18; Matthew 12:34, 35 Mark 9:39 Luke 6:45). As such, evil speaking (blasphemia) is represented as entirely unworthy a Christian character (Ephesians 4:31 1 Peter 4:4, 14 2 Peter 2:2, 10, 12 James 4:11 Jude 1:10); and katalaleo = "babble against," "gossip." It will be noticed from the above that evil speaking against those in authority is designated with the same word ("blasphemy") as raillery against God, they being considered God's representatives on earth.
See also EVIL-SPEAKING; SLANDER.
Hebrew ganabh = "to thieve" (literal, or figurative); by implication, "to deceive," "carry away," "secretly bring," "steal away" (Genesis 44:8 Exodus 20:15; Exodus 21:16; Exodus 22:1 Proverbs 6:30; Zechariah 5:3 Genesis 31:20, 26 2 Samuel 15:6; 2 Samuel 19:3 Job 27:20 Proverbs 9:17 ("Stolen waters are sweet"; the forbidden is attractive; compare Romans 7:7)). Greek klepto = "to filch," "steal" (Matthew 6:19, 20; Matthew 19:18 John 10:10 Romans 2:21; Romans 13:9 Ephesians 4:28). See Theft.
No special law is found against this crime, for it is included in the prohibition against killing. Contrary to the practice and the philosophy of paganism, the act was held in deep abhorrence by the Hebrews because of the high value placed on human life. It was held inexcusable that any but the most degraded and satanic should lay hands on their own lives. Only the remorse of the damned could drive one to it, as witness Saul (1 Samuel 31:4) and Judas (Matthew 27:5).
Hebrew genebhah "stealing" (concrete), "something stolen," "theft" (Exodus 22:3, 1); mentioned in connection with other wickedness (klope) in Matthew 15:19 Mark 7:21; and (klemma) in Revelation 9:21. All three words are used abstractly for the act and concretely for the thing stolen.
Unchastity. No other form of sin is mentioned with disapproval and threats more frequently than the various forms of carnal vice, for no other sin is more natural or widespread.
See CHASTITY; LEWDNESS; MARRIAGE.
Unnatural Vice (Sodomy).
Alluded to with delicacy, but positively condemned as an abomination (Genesis 13:13; Genesis 19:5, 7 Leviticus 18:22; Leviticus 20:13). It was the specific form of wickedness through which Sodom became notorious, so that "sodomite" is the regular translation of qadhesh, "a (quasi) sacred person," i.e. (technically) "a (male or female) devotee to licentious idolatry" (Deuteronomy 23:17 1 Kings 14:24; 1 Kings 15:12; 1 Kings 22:46 2 Kings 23:7 Job 36:14 margin).
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Crimes (22 Occurrences)
Acts 25:18 But when they got up they said nothing about such crimes as I had in mind: (BBE NAS NIV)
Acts 25:27 For it seemeth to me unreasonable to send a prisoner, and not withal to signify the crimes laid against him. (KJV WBS)
2 Peter 2:8 (Because the soul of that upright man living among them was pained from day to day by seeing and hearing their crimes): (ASV)
Revelation 18:5 for her sins have reached to the sky, and God has remembered her iniquities. (See NIV)
1 Kings 14:24 And more than this, there were those in the land who were used for sex purposes in the worship of the gods, doing the same disgusting crimes as the nations which the Lord had sent out before the children of Israel. (BBE)
Psalms 35:11 False witnesses got up: they put questions to me about crimes of which I had no knowledge. (BBE)
Psalms 38:4 For my crimes have gone over my head; they are like a great weight which is more than my strength. (BBE)
Psalms 64:6 They plot injustice, saying, "We have made a perfect plan!" Surely man's mind and heart are cunning. (See RSV)
Proverbs 5:22 The evil-doer will be taken in the net of his crimes, and prisoned in the cords of his sin. (BBE)
Ecclesiastes 8:12 Though a sinner commits crimes a hundred times, and lives long, yet surely I know that it will be better with those who fear God, who are reverent before him. (WEB NIV)
Jeremiah 18:23 Yet, Yahweh, you know all their counsel against me to kill me; don't forgive their iniquity, neither blot out their sin from your sight; but let them be overthrown before you; deal you with them in the time of your anger. (See NIV)
Jeremiah 41:11 But when Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces who were with him, heard of all the evil that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had done, (See NIV)
Ezekiel 7:23 Make the chain; for the land is full of bloody crimes, and the city is full of violence. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV)
Hosea 6:9 As gangs of robbers wait to ambush a man, so the company of priests murder in the way toward Shechem, committing shameful crimes. (WEB NIV)
Hosea 7:1 When I would heal Israel, then the iniquity of Ephraim is uncovered, also the wickedness of Samaria; for they commit falsehood, and the thief enters in, and the gang of robbers ravages outside. (See NIV)
Amos 1:3 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Damascus, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because they have been crushing Gilead with iron grain-crushing instruments. (BBE)
Amos 1:6 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Gaza, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because they took all the people away prisoners, to give them up to Edom. (BBE)
Amos 1:9 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Tyre, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because they gave up all the people prisoners to Edom, without giving a thought to the brothers' agreement between them. (BBE)
Amos 1:11 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Edom, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because his sword was turned against his brother, without pity, and his wrath was burning at all times, and he was angry for ever. (BBE)
Amos 2:1 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Moab, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because he had the bones of the king of Edom burned to dust. (BBE)
Amos 2:4 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Judah, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because they have given up the law of the Lord, and have not kept his rules; and their false ways, in which their fathers went, have made them go out of the right way. (BBE)
Amos 2:6 These are the words of the Lord: For three crimes of Israel, and for four, I will not let its fate be changed; because they have given the upright man for silver, and the poor for the price of two shoes; (BBE)