|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's mitre (Exodus 29:6; 39:30). The same Hebrew word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2 Samuel 1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2 Kings 11:12).
(2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is 'atarah, meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken from the king of Ammon by David (2 Samuel 12:30). The crown worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or three countries. In Revelation 12:3; 13:1, we read of "many crowns," a token of extended dominion.
(3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11; 2:17; 6:8) was called kether; i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn sometimes to represent honour and power (Ezek. 23:42). They were worn at marriages (Cant. 3:11; Isaiah 61:10, "ornaments;" R.V., "a garland"), and at feasts and public festivals.
The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward. The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the "civic crown" on him who saved the life of a citizen. It was made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life (James 1:12; Revelation 2:10) "that fadeth not away" (1 Peter 5:4, Gr. amarantinos; Comp. 1:4). Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to flowers we call "everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."
Crown of thorns
Our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans (Matthew 27:29). The object of Pilate's guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not specially to inflict pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been supposed, the spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round about Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and round branches could easily be platted into the form of a crown. (see THORN
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (p. p.) of Crow.
2. (p. p) of Crow.
3. (n.) A wreath or garland, or any ornamental fillet encircling the head, especially as a reward of victory or mark of honorable distinction; hence, anything given on account of, or obtained by, faithful or successful effort; a reward.
4. (n.) A royal headdress or cap of sovereignty, worn by emperors, kings, princes, etc.
5. (n.) The person entitled to wear a regal or imperial crown; the sovereign; -- with the definite article.
6. (n.) Imperial or regal power or dominion; sovereignty.
7. (n.) Anything which imparts beauty, splendor, honor, dignity, or finish.
8. (n.) Highest state; acme; consummation; perfection.
9. (n.) The topmost part of anything; the summit.
10. (n.) The topmost part of the head (see Illust. of Bird.); that part of the head from which the hair descends toward the sides and back; also, the head or brain.
11. (n.) The part of a hat above the brim.
12. (n.) The part of a tooth which projects above the gum; also, the top or grinding surface of a tooth.
13. (n.) The vertex or top of an arch; -- applied generally to about one third of the curve, but in a pointed arch to the apex only.
14. (n.) Same as Corona.
15. (n.) That part of an anchor where the arms are joined to the shank.
16. (n.) The rounding, or rounded part, of the deck from a level line.
17. (n.) The bights formed by the several turns of a cable.
18. (n.) The upper range of facets in a rose diamond.
19. (n.) The dome of a furnace.
20. (n.) The area enclosed between two concentric perimeters.
21. (n.) A round spot shaved clean on the top of the head, as a mark of the clerical state; the tonsure.
22. (n.) A size of writing paper. See under Paper.
23. (n.) A coin stamped with the image of a crown; hence, a denomination of money; as, the English crown, a silver coin of the value of five shillings sterling, or a little more than USD1.20; the Danish or Norwegian crown, a money of account, etc., worth nearly twenty-seven cents.
24. (n.) An ornaments or decoration representing a crown; as, the paper is stamped with a crown.
25. (n.) To cover, decorate, or invest with a crown; hence, to invest with royal dignity and power.
26. (n.) To bestow something upon as a mark of honor, dignity, or recompense; to adorn; to dignify.
27. (n.) To form the topmost or finishing part of; to complete; to consummate; to perfect.
28. (n.) To cause to round upward; to make anything higher at the middle than at the edges, as the face of a machine pulley.
29. (n.) To effect a lodgment upon, as upon the crest of the glacis, or the summit of the breach.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kroun: The word crown in the Old Testament is a translation of five different Hebrew words, and in the New Testament of two Greek words. These express the several meanings, and must be examined to ascertain the same.
1. In Hebrew:
The five Hebrew words are as follows:
(1) qodhqodh, from qadhadh;
(2) zer, from zarar;
(3) nezer, or nezer, both from nazar;
(4) aTarah, from `atar;
(5) kether, from kathar.
(1) Qodhqodh means "the crown of the head," and is also rendered in the King James Version "top of the head," "scalp," "pate." It comes from qadhadh, meaning "to shrivel up," "contract," or bend the body or neck through courtesy. Both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version, in Deuteronomy 28:35 and 33:16, translation it "crown" instead of "top" as in the King James Version. Jacob in his prophecy concerning his sons says: "The blessings of thy father. shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that is prince among his brethren" (Genesis 49:26 the American Revised Version, margin). Other references are: Deuteronomy 33:20 2 Samuel 14:25; Job 2:7 Isaiah 3:17 Jeremiah 2:16; Jeremiah 48:45. Translated "scalp" in Psalm 68:21 and "pate" in Psalm 7:16.
(2) Zer means a "chaplet," something spread around the top as a molding about the border, and because of its wreath-like appearance called a crown. "That which presses, binds" (BDB). Comes from zarar, meaning "to diffuse" or "scatter." It is used in Exodus 25:11, 24, 25; Exodus 30:3, 1; 37:2, 11, 12, 26, 27.
(3) Nezer means something "set apart"; i.e. a dedication to the priesthood or the dedication of a Nazarite, hence, a chaplet or fillet as a symbol of such consecration. The word in the King James Version is rendered "crown," "consecration," "separation," "hair." Comes from nazar, meaning "to hold aloof" from impurity, even from drink and food, more definitely, "to set apart" for sacred purposes, i.e. "to separate," "devote," "consecrate." It is found in Exodus 29:6; Exodus 39:30 Leviticus 8:9; Leviticus 21:12 2 Samuel 1:10; 2 Kings 11:12 2 Chronicles 23:11; Psalm 89:39; Psalm 132:18 Proverbs 27:24 Zechariah 9:16.
(4) `ATarah means a crown in the usual sense. Comes from `aTar, meaning "to encircle," as in war for offense or defense; also actually and figuratively "to crown." Rendered sometimes "to compass." It is used in 2 Samuel 12:30 1 Chronicles 20:2 Esther 8:15; Job 19:9; Job 31:36 Psalm 21:3 Proverbs 4:9; Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:24; Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 17:6 Songs 3:11; Isaiah 28:1, 3, 1; Isaiah 62:3 Jeremiah 13:18 Lamentations 5:16 Ezekiel 16:12; Ezekiel 21:26; Ezekiel 23:42 Zechariah 6:11, 14; "crowned," Songs 3:11; "crownest," Psalm 65:11; "crowneth," Psalm 103:4. the Revised Version (British and American) translations "crowned," of Psalm 8:5 "hast crowned." the American Standard Revised Version prefers to translation "crowning," in Isaiah 23:8, "the bestower of crowns."
(5) Kether means a "circlet" or "a diadem." From kathar, meaning "to enclose": as a friend, "to crown"; as an enemy, "to besiege." Variously translated "beset round," "inclose round," "suffer," "compass about." Found in Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17, 6:8; "crowned," in Proverbs 14:18.
2. In Greek:
The two Greek words of the New Testament translated crown are:
(1) stephanos, from stepho, and
(2) diadema, from diadeo, "to bind round."
(1) Stephanos means a chaplet (wreath) made of leaves or leaf-like gold, used for marriage and festive occasions, and expressing public recognition of victory in races, games and war; also figuratively as a reward for efficient Christian life and service (see GAMES). This symbol was more noticeable and intricate than the plain fillet. Only in the Re of John is stephanos called "golden." The "crown of thorns" which Jesus wore was a stephanos (woven wreath) of thorns; the kind is not known (Matthew 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2, 5). Luke makes no mention of it. Whether intended to represent royalty or victory, it was caricature crown. Stephanos is found in 1 Corinthians 9:25 Philippians 4:1 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 2 Timothy 4:8 James 1:12 1 Peter 5:4; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:11; Revelation 6:2; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 14:14; plural in Revelation 4:4, 10; Revelation 9:7; "crowned" in 2 Timothy 2:5 Hebrews 2:9; "crownedst" in Hebrews 2:7.
(2) Diadema is the word for "diadem," from dia (about) and deo (bound), i.e. something bound about the head. In the three places where it occurs (Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12) both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version translation it not "crowns" but "diadems," thus making the proper distinction between stephanos and diadema, such as is not done either in the King James Version or the Septuagint (see Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament). According to Thayer the distinction was not observed in Hellenic Greek "Diadems" are on the dragon (Revelation 12:3), the beast (Revelation 13:1) and on the Rider of the White Horse, "the Faithful and True" (Revelation 19:12). In each case the "diadems" are symbolic of power to rule.
3. Use and Significance:
There are five uses of the crown as seen in the Scripture references studied, namely, decoration, consecration, coronation, exaltation, and remuneration. (1) Decoration.
The zer of Exodus, as far as it was a crown at all, was for ornamentation, its position not seeming to indicate any utility purpose. These wavelet, gold moldings, used in the furnishings of the tabernacle of Moses, were placed about
(a) the table of shewbread (Exodus 25:24; Exodus 37:11);
(b) the ark of the covenant (Exodus 25:11; Exodus 37:2);
(c) the altar of incense (Exodus 30:3, 1; Exodus 37:26, 27). The position of these crowns is a debated question among archaeologists. Their purpose other than decoration is not known. The encircling gold might signify gratitude, parity and enduring worth.
The nezer had a twofold use as the crown of consecration:
(a) It was placed as a frontlet on the miter of the high priest, being tied with a blue lace (Exodus 39:30). The priestly crown was a flat piece of pure gold, bearing the inscription, "Holy to Yahweh," signifying the consecration of the priest as the representative of the people (Exodus 29:6 Leviticus 8:9).
(b) Likewise the Hebrew king (2 Kings 11:12) was set apart by God in wearing on his head a royal nezer, whether of silk or gold we do not know. It was set with jewels (Zechariah 9:16) and was light enough to be taken into battle (2 Samuel 1:10).
The ordinary use of the crown. There were three kinds of kingly crowns used in coronation services:
(a) The nezer or consecration crown, above referred to, was the only one used in crowning Hebrew kings. What seems to be an exception is in the case of Joshua, who represented both priest and king (Zechariah 6:11 the American Revised Version, margin).
(b) The `aTarah, and
(c) the kether were used in crowning foreign monarchs.
No king but a Hebrew could wear a nezer-a "Holy to Yahweh" crown. It is recorded that David presumed to put on his own head the `atarah of King Malcam (2 Samuel 12:30 the American Revised Version, margin). The kether or jeweled turban was the crown of the Persian king and queen (Esther 1:11; Esther 2:17; Esther 6:8).
The `atarah, the stephanos and the diadema were used as crowns of exaltation. Stephanos was the usual crown of exaltation for victors of games, achievement in war and places of honor at feasts. The `atarah was worn at banquets (Songs 3:11 Isaiah 28:1, 3), probably taking the form of a wreath of flowers; also as a crown of honor and victory (Ezekiel 16:12; Ezekiel 21:26; Ezekiel 23:42). Stephanos is the crown of exaltation bestowed upon Christ (Revelation 6:2; Revelation 14:14 Hebrews 2:9). "Exaltation was the logical result of Christ's humiliation" (Vincent). The Apocalyptic woman and locusts receive this emblem of exaltation (Revelation 12:1; Revelation 9:7). The symbolic dragon and beast are elevated, wearing diadema, (Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1). The conquering Christ has "upon his head. many diadems" (Revelation 19:12). Seefurther Tertullian, De corona.
Paul, witnessing the races and games, caught the vision of wreath-crowned victors flush with the reward of earnest endeavor. SeeGAMES. He also saw the persistent, faithful Christian at the end of his hard-won race wearing the symbolic stephanos of rejoicing (1 Thessalonians 2:19 the King James Version), of righteousness (2 Timothy 4:8), of glory (1 Peter 5:4), of life (James 1:12 Revelation 2:10). Paul's fellow Christians were his joy and stephanos (Philippians 4:1), "of which Paul might justly make his boast" (Ellicott). Long before Paul, his Hebrew ancestors saw the `aTarah of glory (Proverbs 4:9) and the `aTarah of a good wife, children's children, riches and a peaceful old age (Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:24; Proverbs 16:31; Proverbs 17:6). For Apocrypha references see 1 Maccabees 10:29; 11:35; 13:39.
William Edward Raffety
CROWN OF THORNS
thornz (akdnthinos stephanos): Three of the four evangelists mention the crown of thorns, wherewith the rude Roman soldiers derided the captive Christ (Matthew 27:29 Mark 15:17 John 19:2). All speak of the akanthine (Acanthus) crown, but there is no certainty about the peculiar plant, from the branches of which this crown of cruel mockery was plaited. The rabbinical books. mention no less than twenty-two words in the Bible signifying thorny plants, and the word akantha in the New Testament Greek is a generic and not a specific term. And this word or its adjective is used in the three Gospels, quoted above. It is therefore impossible definitely to determine what was the exact plant or tree, whose thorny branches were selected for this purpose. Tobler (Denkbl., 113, 179) inclines to the Spina Christi, as did Hasselquist. Its botanical name is Zizyphus Spina Christi, It is very common in the East. Its spines are small and sharp, its branches soft, round and pliable, and the leaves look like ivy, with a dark, shiny green color, making them therefore very adaptable to the purpose of the soldiers. Others have designated the Paliurus aculeatus or the Lycium horridum. Both Geikie (Life of Christ, 549) and Farrar (Life of Christ, note 625) point to the Nubk (Zizyphus lotus). Says the latter, "The Nubk struck me, as it has all travelers in Palestine, as being most suitable both for mockery and pain, since its leaves are bright and its thorns singularly strong. But though the Nubk is very common on the shores of Galilee, I saw none of it near Jerusalem." The settlement of the question is manifestly impossible.
Henry E. Dosker
Crown (94 Occurrences)
Matthew 27:29 They braided a crown of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand; and they kneeled down before him, and mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 15:17 They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:20 now added this to crown all the rest, that he threw John into prison. (WEY)
John 19:2 The soldiers twisted thorns into a crown, and put it on his head, and dressed him in a purple garment. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 19:5 Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the man!" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 9:25 Every man who strives in the games exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)
Philippians 4:1 Therefore, my brothers, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Thessalonians 2:19 For what is our hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing? Isn't it even you, before our Lord Jesus at his coming? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Timothy 2:5 Also, if anyone competes in athletics, he isn't crowned unless he has competed by the rules. (Root in WEB KJV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
2 Timothy 4:8 From now on, there is stored up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to me on that day; and not to me only, but also to all those who have loved his appearing. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 2:7 You made him a little lower than the angels. You crowned him with glory and honor. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 2:9 But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 1:12 Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 5:4 When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 2:10 Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 3:11 I am coming quickly! Hold firmly that which you have, so that no one takes your crown. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:2 And behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it had a bow. A crown was given to him, and he came forth conquering, and to conquer. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 12:1 A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:14 I looked, and behold, a white cloud; and on the cloud one sitting like a son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 49:26 The blessings of your father have prevailed above the blessings of your ancestors, above the boundaries of the ancient hills. They will be on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who is separated from his brothers. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Exodus 25:11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 25:24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 25:25 And thou shalt make unto it a border of an hand breadth round about, and thou shalt make a golden crown to the border thereof round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 29:6 and you shall set the turban on his head, and put the holy crown on the turban. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Exodus 30:3 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, the top thereof, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 30:4 And two golden rings shalt thou make to it under the crown of it, by the two corners thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou make it; and they shall be for places for the staves to bear it withal. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
Exodus 37:2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 37:11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereunto a crown of gold round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 37:12 Also he made thereunto a border of an handbreadth round about; and made a crown of gold for the border thereof round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 37:26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, both the top of it, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: also he made unto it a crown of gold round about. (KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 37:27 He made two golden rings for it under its molding crown, on its two ribs, on its two sides, for places for poles with which to carry it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS)
Exodus 39:30 They made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote on it a writing, like the engravings of a signet: "HOLY TO YAHWEH." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 8:9 He set the turban on his head; and on the turban, in front, he set the golden plate, the holy crown; as Yahweh commanded Moses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 21:12 neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon him. I am Yahweh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS)
Deuteronomy 28:35 Yahweh will strike you in the knees, and in the legs, with a sore boil, of which you can not be healed, from the sole of your foot to the crown of your head. (WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 33:16 for the precious things of the earth and its fullness, the good will of him who lived in the bush. Let the blessing come on the head of Joseph, On the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers. (WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 33:20 Of Gad he said, "He who enlarges Gad is blessed. He dwells as a lioness, and tears the arm, yes, the crown of the head. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 9:6 All the men of Shechem assembled themselves together, and all the house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech king, by the oak of the pillar that was in Shechem. (See NIV)
2 Samuel 1:10 So I stood beside him, and killed him, because I was sure that he could not live after that he had fallen. I took the crown that was on his head, and the bracelet that was on his arm, and have brought them here to my lord." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 12:30 He took the crown of their king from off his head; and its weight was a talent of gold, and in it were precious stones; and it was set on David's head. He brought forth the spoil of the city, exceeding much. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 14:25 Now in all Israel there was none to be so much praised as Absalom for his beauty: from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Kings 7:20 And there were crowns on the two pillars near the round part by the network, and there were two hundred apples in lines round every crown. (Root in BBE)
1 Kings 7:31 And the mouth of it within the crown and above was a cubit; and its mouth was rounded, as the work of the base, a cubit and a half; and also upon its mouth was sculpture; but their panels were square, not round. (DBY JPS NAS RSV)
2 Kings 11:12 Then he brought out the king's son, and put the crown on him, and gave him the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, "Long live the king!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 25:17 One of the pillars was eighteen cubits high, with a crown of brass on it; the crown was three cubits high, circled with a network and apples all of brass; and the second pillar had the same. (BBE)
1 Chronicles 20:2 David took the crown of their king from off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there were precious stones in it; and it was set on David's head: and he brought forth the spoil of the city, exceeding much. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 23:11 Then they brought out the king's son, and put the crown on him, and gave him the testimony, and made him king: and Jehoiada and his sons anointed him; and they said, Long live the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:11 to bring Vashti the queen before the king with the royal crown, to show the people and the princes her beauty; for she was beautiful. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 2:17 The king loved Esther more than all the women, and she obtained favor and kindness in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown on her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:8 let royal clothing be brought which the king uses to wear, and the horse that the king rides on, and on the head of which a crown royal is set. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Esther 8:15 Mordecai went out of the presence of the king in royal clothing of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a robe of fine linen and purple; and the city of Susa shouted and was glad. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 2:7 So went Satan forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot unto his crown. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Job 19:9 He has stripped me of my glory, and taken the crown from my head. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 31:36 Surely I would carry it on my shoulder; and I would bind it to me as a crown. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 7:16 The trouble he causes shall return to his own head. His violence shall come down on the crown of his own head. (WEB YLT)
Psalms 8:5 For you have made him a little lower than God, and crowned him with glory and honor. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 21:3 For you meet him with the blessings of goodness. You set a crown of fine gold on his head. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 65:11 You crown the year with your bounty. Your carts overflow with abundance. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 68:21 Only -- God doth smite The head of His enemies, The hairy crown of a habitual walker in his guilt. (YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 89:19 Then your voice came to your holy one in a vision, saying, I have put the crown on a strong one, lifting up one taken from among the people. (BBE RSV)
Psalms 89:39 You have renounced the covenant of your servant. You have defiled his crown in the dust. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 132:18 I will clothe his enemies with shame, but on himself, his crown will be resplendent." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 142:7 Bring my soul out of prison, That I may give thanks unto thy name: The righteous shall compass me about; For thou wilt deal bountifully with me. (See JPS)
Psalms 149:4 For Yahweh takes pleasure in his people. He crowns the humble with salvation. (Root in WEB BBE NIV)
Proverbs 1:9 For they will be a crown of grace for your head, and chain-ornaments about your neck. (BBE)
Proverbs 4:9 She will give to your head a garland of grace. She will deliver a crown of splendor to you." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 10:6 Blessings are on the head of the upright, but the face of sinners will be covered with sorrow. (See NIV)
Proverbs 12:4 A worthy woman is the crown of her husband, but a disgraceful wife is as rottenness in his bones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 14:24 The crown of the wise is their riches, but the folly of fools crowns them with folly. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 16:31 Gray hair is a crown of glory. It is attained by a life of righteousness. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 17:6 Children's children are the crown of old men; the glory of children are their parents. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 27:24 for riches are not forever, nor does even the crown endure to all generations. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Song of Songs 3:11 Go forth, you daughters of Zion, and see king Solomon, with the crown with which his mother has crowned him, in the day of his weddings, in the day of the gladness of his heart. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 3:17 therefore the Lord brings sores on the crown of the head of the women of Zion, and Yahweh will make their scalps bald." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Isaiah 28:1 Woe to the crown of pride of the drunkards of Ephraim, and to the fading flower of his glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fertile valley of those who are overcome with wine! (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 28:3 The crown of pride of the drunkards of Ephraim will be trodden under foot. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 28:5 In that day, Yahweh of Armies will become a crown of glory, and a diadem of beauty, to the residue of his people; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 35:10 Even those whom he has made free, will come back again; they will come with songs to Zion; on their heads will be eternal joy; delight and joy will be theirs, and sorrow and sounds of grief will be gone for ever. (See NIV)
Isaiah 51:11 Those whom the Lord has made free will come back with songs to Zion; and on their heads will be eternal joy: delight and joy will be theirs, and sorrow and sounds of grief will be gone for ever. (See NIV)
Isaiah 61:3 To give them a fair head-dress in place of dust, the oil of joy in place of the clothing of grief, praise in place of sorrow; so that they may be named trees of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, and so that he may have glory. (See NIV)
Isaiah 62:3 You shall also be a crown of beauty in the hand of Yahweh, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 2:16 The children also of Memphis and Tahpanhes have broken the crown of your head. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 7:29 Cut off thy crown, and cast 'it' away, And lift up on high places lamentation, For Jehovah hath rejected, And He leaveth the generation of His wrath. (YLT)
Jeremiah 13:18 Say to the king and to the queen mother, Humble yourselves, sit down; for your headdresses have come down, even the crown of your glory. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 48:45 Those who fled stand without strength under the shadow of Heshbon; for a fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and has devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the tumultuous ones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Jeremiah 52:22 And there was a crown of brass on it: the crown was five cubits high, circled with a network and apples all of brass; and the second pillar had the same. (BBE)
Lamentations 2:15 All who go by make a noise with their hands at you; they make hisses, shaking their heads at the daughter of Jerusalem, and saying, Is this the town which was the crown of everything beautiful, the joy of all the earth? (BBE)
Lamentations 5:16 The crown is fallen from our head: Woe to us! for we have sinned. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 16:12 I put a ring on your nose, and earrings in your ears, and a beautiful crown on your head. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 21:26 thus says the Lord Yahweh: Remove the turban, and take off the crown; this shall be no more the same; exalt that which is low, and abase that which is high. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 23:42 The voice of a multitude being at ease was with her: and with men of the common sort were brought drunkards from the wilderness; and they put bracelets on the hands of them twain, and beautiful crowns on their heads. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 6:11 Yes, take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them on the head of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 6:14 The crowns shall be to Helem, and to Tobijah, and to Jedaiah, and to Hen the son of Zephaniah, for a memorial in the temple of Yahweh. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 9:16 Yahweh their God will save them in that day as the flock of his people; for they are like the jewels of a crown, lifted on high over his land. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)