|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(1.) A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Genesis 10:8; 1 Chronicles 1:10). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13, R.V.). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezek. 29:10, A.V. "Ethiopia, " Hebrews Cush), with which it is generally associated (Psalm 68:31; Isaiah 18:1; Jeremiah 46:9, etc.). It stands also associated with Elam (Isaiah 11:11), with Persia (Ezek. 38:5), and with the Sabeans (Isaiah 45:14). From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks (29:10; Comp. 30:4-6) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isaiah 18:1; Zephaniah 3:10, Hebrews Cush). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh. The Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation.
(2.) A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Psalm 7. "Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'"
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
1. The Ancestor of Many Nations:
(1) The first of the sons of Ham, from whom sprang Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabtecah. He was also the father of Nimrod, who rounded Babel (Babylon) and the other great states of Shinar or Babylonia (Genesis 10:6-8). The meaning of the name is uncertain.
(2) The name of the country around which the Gihon flowed (Genesis 2:13), rendered "Ethiopia" in the King James Version, but in view of the distance of that country from the other rivers mentioned, this seems to be an unlikely identification.
2. A District of the Garden of Eden:
Fried. Delitzsch has suggested (Wo lag das Paradies? 74) that the watercourse in question is the canal Gu-hande or Arahtu, which, coming from the South, entered Babylon a little to the East of the Euphrates, and, flowing alongside the Festival-Street, entered the Euphrates to the North of Nebuchadrezzar's palace. Koldewey (Tempel von Babylon und Borsippa, 38) regards the Gu-hande as the section of the Euphrates itself at this point. There is no indication, however, that the district which it enclosed was ever called Kusu or Cush, and the suppression of the final syllable of Gu-hande would remain unexplained. Moreover, the identification of Cush with a possible Cas, for Kasdu, "Chaldea," seems likewise improbable, especially as that name could only have been applied, in early times, to the district bordering on the Persian Gulf (see CHALDEA).
3. Probably not in Asia Minor:
Another theory is, that the Cush of Genesis 2:13 is the Kusu of certain Assyrian letters, where it seems to designate a district in the neighborhood of Cappadocia. This identification apparently leads us back to an ancient tradition at one time current in the East, but later forgotten, which caused the Pyramus river to assume the name of Jihun (i.e. Gihon). This stream rises in the mountains Northeast of the Gulf of Alexandretta, and, taking a southwesterly course, flows into the Mediterranean near Karatash. Though nearer than the Ethiopian Cush, this is still too far West, and therefore unsatisfactory as an identification-all the streams or waterways of the Garden of Eden ought to flow through the same district.
See EDEN; ETHIOPIA; TABLE OF NATIONS.
T. G. Pinches
kush (kush; Septuagint Chousei, Psalm 7 title): A Benjamite, perhaps he that "was without cause" the "adversary" of David (compare Psalm 7:4).
Cush (31 Occurrences)
Genesis 2:13 The name of the second river is Gihon: the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 10:6 The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 10:7 The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 10:8 Cush became the father of Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 19:9 And when he heard it said of Tirhakah king of Cush, Behold, he hath come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again to Hezekiah, saying, (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 1:8 The sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 1:9 The sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raama, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 1:10 Cush became the father of Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is Ahasuerus who reigned from India even to Cush, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces:) (WBS YLT NIV)
Esther 8:9 Then were the king's scribes called at that time in the third month, that is, the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day of it; and it was written, according to all that Mordecai commanded, to the Jews, and to the lieutenants, and the deputies and rulers of the provinces which are from India to Cush, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, to every province according to the writing of it, and to every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language. (WBS YLT NIV)
Job 28:19 The topaz of Cush shall not equal it, neither shall it be valued with pure gold. (WBS YLT NIV)
Psalms 6:10 All mine enemies shall be put to shame and sore troubled: They shall turn back, they shall be put to shame suddenly. Psalm 7 Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto Jehova, concerning the words of Cush a Benjamite. (ASV)
Psalms 7:1 A meditation by David, which he sang to Yahweh, concerning the words of Cush, the Benjamite. Yahweh, my God, I take refuge in you. Save me from all those who pursue me, and deliver me, (WEB JPS BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Psalms 68:31 Princes shall come out of Egypt; Cush shall soon stretch out her hands to God. (WBS YLT NIV)
Psalms 87:4 I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Cush; this man was born there. (WBS YLT NIV)
Isaiah 11:11 It will happen in that day that the Lord will set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant that is left of his people from Assyria, from Egypt, from Pathros, from Cush, from Elam, from Shinar, from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 18:1 Ha! land shadowing with wings, which art beyond the rivers of Cush, (DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 20:3 And the LORD said, As my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Cush; (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 20:5 And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Cush their expectation, and of Egypt their glory. (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 37:9 And he heard it said concerning Tirhakah king of Cush, He is come forth to make war with thee. And when he heard it, he sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying, (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 43:3 For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Savior: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Cush and Seba for thee. (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 45:14 Thus saith the LORD, The labor of Egypt, and merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down to thee, they shall make supplication to thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God. (WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Jeremiah 46:9 Go up, you horses; and rage, you chariots; and let the mighty men go forth: Cush and Put, who handle the shield; and the Ludim, who handle and bend the bow. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)
Ezekiel 27:10 Cush and Lud and Put were in your army, your men of war, hanging up their body-covers and head-dresses of war in you: they gave you your glory. (BBE)
Ezekiel 29:10 Behold, therefore, I am against thee, and against thy rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from the tower of Syene even to the border of Cush. (WBS YLT NIV)
Ezekiel 30:4 And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Cush, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down. (WBS YLT NIV)
Ezekiel 30:5 Cush, and Phut, and Lud, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the children of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword. (DBY WBS YLT NIV)
Ezekiel 30:9 In that day shall messengers go forth from me in ships to make the careless Cushites afraid, and great pain shall come upon them, as in the day of Egypt: for lo, it cometh. (Root in WBS YLT NIV)
Ezekiel 38:5 Persia, Cush, and Put with them, all of them with shield and helmet; (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Nahum 3:9 Cush and Egypt were her boundless strength. Put and Libya were her helpers. (WEB WBS YLT NIV)
Zephaniah 3:10 From beyond the rivers of Cush, my worshipers, even the daughter of my dispersed people, will bring my offering. (WEB DBY WBS YLT NIV)