|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Desire of all nations
(Haggai 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (v. t.) To long for; to wish for earnestly; to covet.
2. (v. t.) To express a wish for; to entreat; to request.
3. (v. t.) To require; to demand; to claim.
4. (v. t.) To miss; to regret.
5. (n.) The natural longing that is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of any good, and impels to action or effort its continuance or possession; an eager wish to obtain or enjoy.
6. (n.) An expressed wish; a request; petition.
7. (v. t.) Anything which is desired; an object of longing.
8. (v. t.) Excessive or morbid longing; lust; appetite.
9. (v. t.) Grief; regret.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
de-zir': The verb "to desire" in the Scriptures usually means "to long for," "to ask for," "to demand," and may be used in a good or bad sense (compare Deuteronomy 7:25 the King James Version). the Revised Version (British and American) frequently renders the more literal meaning of the Hebrew. Compare Job 20:20, "delight"; Proverbs 21:20, "precious"; Psalm 40:6, "delight"; aiteo (except Colossians 1:9), and erotao (except Luke 7:36) are rendered "to ask" and zeteo, "to seek" (compare Luke 9:9 et. al.). The Hebrew kacaph, literally, "to lose in value," is translated (Zep 2:1) by "hath no shame" (the Revised Version, margin "longing," the King James Version "not desired"). The literal translation "to lose in value," "to degenerate," would be more in harmony with the context than the translations offered. The Hebrew chemdah (2 Chronicles 21:20, "without being desired"), means according to the Arabic "to praise," "to give thanks." The context brings in contrast the burial of the king Jehoram with that of his fathers. In the latter case there was "burning," i.e. recognition and praise, but when Jehoram died, there was no chemdah, i.e. there was no praise for his services rendered to the kingdom. For "desire" in Ecclesiastes 12:5, see CAPERBERRY.
A. L. Breslich
DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
This phrase occurs only in Haggai 2:7 (King James Version, the English Revised Version "desirable things," the American Revised Version, margin "things desired"), and is commonly applied to the Messiah.
At the erection of the temple in Ezra's time, the older men who had seen the more magnificent house of Solomon were disappointed and distressed at the comparison. The prophet, therefore, is directed to encourage them by the assurance that Yahweh is with them nevertheless, and in a little while will shake the heavens, the earth, the sea, the dry land and the nations, and "the desire of all nations" shall come, and the house shall be filled with glory, so that "the later glory of this house shall be greater than the former."
(1) Many expositors refer the prophecy to the first advent of Christ. The shaking of the heavens, the earth, the sea and the dry land is the figurative setting of the shaking of the nations, while this latter expression refers to those changes of earthly dominion coincident with the overthrow of the Persians by the Greeks, the Greeks by the Romans, and so on down to the beginning of our era. The house then in process of construction was filled with glory by the later presence of the Messiah, which glory was greater than the Shekinah of Solomon's time. Objections are presented to this view as follows: First, there is the element of time. Five centuries, more or less, elapsed between the building of Ezra's temple and the first advent of Christ, and the men of Ezra's time needed comfort for the present. Then there is the difficulty of associating the physical phenomena with any shaking of the nations occurring atthe first advent. Furthermore, in what sense, it is asked, could Christ, when He came, be said to be the desire of all nations? And finally, what comfort would a Jew find in this magnifying of the Gentiles?
(2) These difficulties, though not insuperable, lead others to apply the prophecy to the second advent of Christ. The Jews are to be restored to Jerusalem, and another temple is to be built (Ezekiel 40-48). The shaking of the nations and the physical phenomena find their fulfillment in the "Great Tribulation" so often spoken of in the Old Testament and Revelation, and which is followed by the coming of Christ in glory to set up His kingdom (Malachi 3:1 Matthew 24:29, 30 and other places). Some of the difficulties spoken of in the first instance apply here also, but not all of them, while others are common to both interpretations. One such common difficulty is that Ezra's temple can hardly be identified with that of the time of Herod and Christ, and certainly not with that of Ezekiel; which is met, however, by saying that all the temples, including Solomon's, are treated as but one "house"-the house of the Lord, in the religious sense, at least, if not architecturally. Another such difficulty touches the question of time, which, whether it includes five centuries or twenty, is met by the principle that to the prophets, "ascending in heart to God and the eternity of God, all times and all things of this world are only a mere point." When the precise time of particular events is not revealed, they sometimes describe them as continuous, and sometimes blend two events together, having a near or partial, and also a remote or complete fulfillment. "They saw the future in space rather than in time, or the perspective rather than the actual distance." It is noted that the Lord Jesus so blends together the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, A.D. 70, and the days of the anti-Christ at the end of this age, that it is difficult to separate them, and to say which belongs exclusively to either (Matthew 24). That the words may have an ultimate fulfillment in the second advent of Christ receives strength from a comparison of Haggai 2:21, 22 with Hebrews 12:26, 27. The writer of that epistle condenses the two passages in Haggai 2:6, 7 and Haggai 2:21, 22, implying that it was one and the same shaking, of which the former verses denote the beginning, and the latter the end. The shaking, in other words, began introductory to the first advent and will be finished at the second. Concerning the former, compare Matthew 3:17; Matthew 27:51; Matthew 28:2 Acts 2:2; Acts 4:31, and concerning the latter, Matthew 24:7 Revelation 16:20; Revelation 20:11 (Bengel, quoted by Canon Faussett).
(3) Other expositors seek to cut the Gordian knot by altogether denying the application to the Messiah, and translating "the desire of all nations" by "the beauty," or "the desirable things of all nations," i.e. their precious gifts (see Isaiah 60:5, 11; Isaiah 61:6). This application is defended in the following way:
(a) The Hebrew word means the quality and not the thing desired;
(b) the Messiah was not desired by all the nations when He came;
(c) the verb "shall come" is plural, which requires the noun to be understood in the plural, whereas if the Messiah be intended, the noun is singular;
(d) "The silver is mine," etc. (Haggai 2:8) accords with the translation "the desirable things of all nations";
(e) the agreement of the Septuagint and Syriac versions with such rendering.
All these arguments, however, can be fairly met by counter-arguments, leaving the reader still in doubt.
(a) An abstract noun is often put for the concrete;
(b) the result shows that while the Jews rejected Christ, the Gentiles received and hence, desired Him;
(c) where two nouns stand together after the manner of "the desire" and "nations," the verb agrees in number sometimes with the latter, even though the former be its nominative;
(d) the 8th verse of the prophecy can be harmonized about as easily with one view as the other;
(e) the King James Version is sustained by the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) and early Jewish rabbis.
James M. Gray
Desire (565 Occurrences)
Matthew 5:6 Happy are those whose heart's desire is for righteousness: for they will have their desire. (BBE)
Matthew 5:28 But I say to you that everyone whose eyes are turned on a woman with desire has had connection with her in his heart. (BBE YLT)
Matthew 7:8 Because to everyone who makes a request, it will be given; and he who is searching will get his desire, and to him who gives the sign, the door will be open. (BBE)
Matthew 7:12 Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. (WEB DBY)
Matthew 9:13 But you go and learn what this means:'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. " (WEB WEY ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 10:39 He who has the desire to keep his life will have it taken from him, and he who gives up his life because of me will have it given back to him. (BBE)
Matthew 12:7 But if you had known what this means,'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. (WEB WEY ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 12:38 Then answered him some of the scribes and Pharisees, saying, Teacher, we desire to see a sign from thee. (DBY)
Matthew 12:47 So some one told Him, "Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, and desire to speak to you." (WEY)
Matthew 13:17 For most certainly I tell you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them; and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Matthew 15:28 Then Jesus answered her, "Woman, great is your faith! Be it done to you even as you desire." And her daughter was healed from that hour. (WEB WEY BBE DBY RSV)
Matthew 16:25 For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, and whoever will lose his life for my sake will find it. (Root in WEB WEY BBE DBY)
Matthew 19:17 "Why do you ask me," He replied, "about what is good? There is only One who is truly good. But if you desire to enter into Life, keep the Commandments." (WEY BBE)
Matthew 19:21 "If you desire to be perfect," replied Jesus, "go and sell all that you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have wealth in Heaven; and come, follow me." (WEY BBE)
Matthew 20:14 Take that which is yours, and go your way. It is my desire to give to this last just as much as to you. (WEB)
Matthew 20:21 "What is it you desire?" He asked. "Command," she replied, "that these my two sons may sit one at your right hand and one at your left in your Kingdom." (WEY BBE)
Matthew 20:26 It shall not be so among you, but whoever desires to become great among you shall be your servant. (Root in WEB WEY BBE)
Matthew 20:27 Whoever desires to be first among you shall be your bondservant, (Root in WEB WEY BBE)
Matthew 21:18 Now in the morning when he was coming back to the town, he had a desire for food. (BBE)
Matthew 21:46 And though they had a desire to take him, they were in fear of the people, because in their eyes he was a prophet. (BBE)
Matthew 23:25 A curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false ones! for you make clean the outside of the cup and of the plate, but inside they are full of violent behaviour and uncontrolled desire. (BBE)
Matthew 26:39 He went forward a little, fell on his face, and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass away from me; nevertheless, not what I desire, but what you desire." (WEB)
Matthew 26:42 Again, a second time he went away, and prayed, saying, "My Father, if this cup can't pass away from me unless I drink it, your desire be done." (WEB)
Mark 4:19 And the cares of this life, and the deceits of wealth, and the desire for other things coming in, put a stop to the growth of the word, and it gives no fruit. (BBE YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 5:18 And when he was getting into the boat, the man in whom had been the evil spirits had a great desire to come with him. (BBE)
Mark 6:23 And he took an oath, saying to her, Whatever is your desire I will give it to you, even half of my kingdom. (BBE)
Mark 6:25 The girl immediately came in, in haste, to the King and made her request. "My desire is," she said, "that you will give me, here and now, on a dish, the head of John the Baptist." (WEY BBE DBY)
Mark 7:22 covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. (Root in WEB BBE YLT)
Mark 8:34 And turning to the mass of people with his disciples, he said to them, If any man has the desire to come after me, let him give up all other desires, and take up his cross and come after me. (BBE DBY)
Mark 8:35 Whoever has a desire to keep his life, will have it taken from him; and whoever gives up his life because of me and the good news, will keep it. (BBE DBY)
Mark 9:30 And they went out from there, through Galilee; and it was his desire that no man might have knowledge of it; (BBE)
Mark 9:35 And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all. (KJV BBE WBS)
Mark 10:35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. (KJV WBS)
Mark 10:43 but it is not to be so among you. No, whoever desires to be great among you must be your servant; (Root in WEY BBE)
Mark 10:44 and whoever desires to be first among you must be the bondservant of all. (Root in WEY BBE)
Mark 11:23 Truly I say to you, Whoever says to this mountain, Be taken up and be put into the sea; and has no doubt in his heart, but has faith that what he says will come about, he will have his desire. (BBE)
Mark 11:24 Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. (KJV WBS)
Mark 12:38 And in his teaching he said, Beware of the scribes, who desire to walk in long robes, and 'to have' salutations in the marketplaces, (ASV)
Mark 14:7 The poor you have ever with you, and whenever you have the desire you may do them good: but me you have not for ever. (BBE)
Mark 14:36 He said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Please remove this cup from me. However, not what I desire, but what you desire." (WEB WEY)
Mark 15:8 And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever done unto them. (KJV WBS)
Mark 15:9 And Pilate said in answer to them, Is it your desire that I let the King of the Jews go free? (BBE)
Luke 5:39 No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says,'The old is better.'" (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS RSV)
Luke 8:38 But the man from whom the evil spirits had gone out had a great desire to be with him, but he sent him away, saying, (BBE)
Luke 9:9 And Herod said, John have I beheaded: but who is this, of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him. (Root in KJV BBE WBS)
Luke 9:23 He said to all, "If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me. (Root in WEB BBE)
Luke 9:24 For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever will lose his life for my sake, the same will save it. (Root in WEB WEY BBE DBY)
Luke 10:24 for I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS RSV)
Luke 11:10 For to everyone who makes a request, it will be given; and he who is searching will get his desire; and to him who gives the sign, the door will be open. (BBE)
Luke 12:15 And he said to them, Take care to keep yourselves free from the desire for property; for a man's life is not made up of the number of things which he has. (BBE)
Luke 12:49 "I came to throw fire upon the earth, and what is my desire? Oh that it were even now kindled! (WEY ASV)
Luke 16:26 And, besides all this, a vast chasm is immovably fixed between us and you, put there in order that those who desire to cross from this side to you may not be able, nor any be able to cross over from your side to us.' (WEY DBY)
Luke 17:22 He said to the disciples, "The days will come, when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Luke 22:15 He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 23:8 Now when Herod saw Jesus he was very glad, having for a long time had a desire to see him, for he had had accounts of him, and was hoping to see some wonders done by him. (BBE RSV)
Luke 23:20 And Pilate again said to them that it was his desire to let Jesus go free. (BBE)
Luke 23:24 And Pilate gave his decision for their desire to be put into effect. (BBE)
John 1:13 Whose birth was from God and not from blood, or from an impulse of the flesh and man's desire. (BBE)
John 1:43 The day after this, Jesus had a desire to go into Galilee. He came across Philip and said to him, Come and be my disciple. (BBE)
John 5:6 When Jesus saw him there on the floor it was clear to him that he had been now a long time in that condition, and so he said to the man, Is it your desire to get well? (BBE)
John 5:18 For this cause the Jews had an even greater desire to put Jesus to death, because not only did he not keep the Sabbath but he said God was his Father, so making himself equal with God. (BBE)
John 5:30 Of myself I am unable to do anything: as the voice comes to me so I give a decision: and my decision is right because I have no desire to do what is pleasing to myself, but only what is pleasing to him who sent me. (BBE)
John 5:40 And still you have no desire to come to me so that you may have life. (BBE)
John 5:44 How is it possible for you to believe, while you receive glory from one another and have no desire for the glory that comes from the only God? (WEY BBE)
John 6:44 No man is able to come to me if the Father who sent me does not give him the desire to come: and I will take him up from the dead on the last day. (BBE)
John 6:67 So Jesus said to the twelve, Have you a desire to go away? (BBE)
John 7:4 Because no man does things secretly if he has a desire that men may have knowledge of him. If you do these things, let yourself be seen by all men. (BBE)
John 7:17 If anyone desires to do his will, he will know about the teaching, whether it is from God, or if I am speaking from myself. (Root in WEB DBY)
John 7:19 Did not Moses give you the law? Even so, not one of you keeps the law. Why have you a desire to put me to death? (BBE)
John 7:20 The people said in answer, You have an evil spirit: who has any desire to put you to death? (BBE)
John 7:30 Then they had a desire to take him: but no man put hands on him because his hour was still to come. (BBE)
John 7:44 And some of them had a desire to take him; but no man put hands on him. (BBE DBY)
John 8:37 I am conscious that you are Abraham's seed; but you have a desire to put me to death because my word has no place in you. (BBE)
John 8:40 But now you have a desire to put me to death, a man who has said to you what is true, as I had it from God: Abraham did not do that. (BBE)
John 8:44 You are of your father, the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and doesn't stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks on his own; for he is a liar, and its father. (Root in WEB WEY BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:27 His answer was: I have said it before, but your ears were shut: why would you have me say it again? is it your desire to become his disciples? (BBE DBY)
John 12:21 The same came therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus. (Root in KJV BBE DBY WBS)
John 15:7 If you remain in me, and my words remain in you, you will ask whatever you desire, and it will be done for you. (WEB)
John 16:19 Jesus saw that they had a desire to put the question to him, so he said to them, Is this what you are questioning one with another, why I said, After a little time, you will see me no longer; and then again, after a little time, you will see me? (BBE DBY)
John 17:24 Father, I desire that they also whom you have given me be with me where I am, that they may see my glory, which you have given me, for you loved me before the foundation of the world. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV)
John 18:39 But every year you make a request to me to let a prisoner go free at the Passover. Is it your desire that I let the King of the Jews go free? (BBE)
John 19:12 Hearing this, Pilate had a desire to let him go free, but the Jews said in a loud voice, If you let this man go, you are not Caesar's friend: everyone who makes himself a king goes against Caesar. (BBE)
John 21:18 Truly I say to you, When you were young, you made yourself ready and went wherever you had a desire to go: but when you are old, you will put out your hands and another will make you ready, and you will be taken where you have no desire to go. (BBE DBY)
John 21:22 Jesus said to him, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you? You follow me." (WEB WEY BBE)
John 21:23 This saying therefore went out among the brothers, that this disciple wouldn't die. Yet Jesus didn't say to him that he wouldn't die, but, "If I desire that he stay until I come, what is that to you?" (WEB WEY BBE)
Acts 7:46 Who found favour before God, and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob. (Root in KJV BBE WBS)
Acts 9:1 But Saul, still burning with desire to put to death the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest, (BBE)
Acts 13:7 Which was with the deputy of the country, Sergius Paulus, a prudent man; who called for Barnabas and Saul, and desired to hear the word of God. (Root in KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 13:46 Then Paul and Barnabas without fear said, It was necessary for the word of God to be given to you first; but because you will have nothing to do with it, and have no desire for eternal life, it will now be offered to the Gentiles. (BBE)
Acts 15:37 And Barnabas had a desire to take with them John, named Mark. (BBE)
Acts 16:3 Paul had a desire for him to go with him, and he gave him circumcision because of the Jews who were in those parts: for they all had knowledge that his father was a Greek. (BBE)
Acts 17:20 For you seem to us to say strange things, and we have a desire to get the sense of them. (BBE)
Acts 18:27 And when he had a desire to go over into Achaia, the brothers gave him help, and sent letters to the disciples requesting them to take him in among them: and when he had come, he gave much help to those who had faith through grace: (BBE)
Acts 19:21 Now after these things were ended, Paul came to a decision that when he had gone through Macedonia and Achaia he would go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I have a desire to see Rome. (BBE)
Acts 19:39 But if you desire anything further, it will have to be settled in the regular assembly. (WEY)
Acts 20:33 I have had no desire for any man's silver or gold or clothing. (BBE)
Acts 23:20 And he said, The Jews have agreed to desire thee that thou wouldest bring down Paul to morrow into the council, as though they would enquire somewhat of him more perfectly. (KJV WBS)
Acts 25:22 And Agrippa said to Festus, I have a desire to give the man a hearing myself. Tomorrow, he said, you may give him a hearing. (BBE DBY)
Acts 28:22 But we desire to hear from you what you think. For, as concerning this sect, it is known to us that everywhere it is spoken against." (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV)
Romans 1:11 For I have a strong desire to see you, and to give you some grace of the spirit, so that you may be made strong; (BBE DBY)