|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
There were daily (Leviticus 23), weekly, monthly, and yearly festivals, and great stress was laid on the regular observance of them in every particular (Numbers 28:1-8; Exodus 29:38-42; Leviticus 6:8-23; Exodus 30:7-9; 27:20).
(1.) The septenary festivals were,
(a) The weekly Sabbath (Leviticus 23:1-3; Exodus 19:3-30; 20:8-11; 31:12, etc.).
(b) The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets (Numbers 28:11-15; 29:1-6).
(c) The Sabbatical year (Exodus 23:10, 11; Leviticus 25:2-7).
(d) The year of jubilee (Leviticus 23-35; 25:8-16; 27:16-25).
(2.) The great feasts were,
(a) The Passover. (b) The feast of Pentecost, or of weeks. (c) The feast of Tabernacles, or of ingathering.
On each of these occasions every male Israelite was commanded "to appear before the Lord" (Deuteronomy 27:7; Nehemiah 8:9-12). The attendance of women was voluntary. (Comp. Luke 2:41; 1 Samuel 1:7; 2:19.) The promise that God would protect their homes (Exodus 34:23, 24) while all the males were absent in Jerusalem at these feasts was always fulfilled. "During the whole period between Moses and Christ we never read of an enemy invading the land at the time of the three festivals. The first instance on record is thirty-three years after they had withdrawn from themselves the divine protection by imbruing their hands in the Saviour's blood, when Cestius, the Roman general, slew fifty of the people of Lydda while all the rest had gone up to the feast of Tabernacles, A.D. 66."
These festivals, besides their religious purpose, had an important bearing on the maintenance among the people of the feeling of a national unity. The times fixed for their observance were arranged so as to interfere as little as possible with the industry of the people. The Passover was kept just before the harvest commenced, Pentecost at the conclusion of the corn harvest and before the vintage, the feast of Tabernacles after all the fruits of the ground had been gathered in.
(3.) The Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month (Leviticus 16:1, 34; 23:26-32; Numbers 29:7-11). (see ATONEMENT, DAY OF.)
Of the post-Exilian festivals reference is made to the feast of Dedication (John 10:22). This feast was appointed by Judas Maccabaeus in commemoration of the purification of the temple after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes. The "feast of Purim" (q.v.), Esther 9:24-32, was also instituted after the Exile. (Cf. John 5:1.)
Festivals (17 Occurrences)
Numbers 10:10 "Also in the day of your gladness, and in your set feasts, and in the beginnings of your months, you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God. I am Yahweh your God." (See NIV)
1 Chronicles 23:31 and to offer all burnt offerings to Yahweh, on the Sabbaths, on the new moons, and on the set feasts, in number according to the ordinance concerning them, continually before Yahweh; (See NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:3 He appointed also the king's portion of his substance for the burnt offerings, to wit, for the morning and evening burnt offerings, and the burnt offerings for the Sabbaths, and for the new moons, and for the set feasts, as it is written in the law of Yahweh. (See NAS)
Ezra 3:5 and afterward the continual burnt offering, and the offerings of the new moons, and of all the set feasts of Yahweh that were consecrated, and of everyone who willingly offered a freewill offering to Yahweh. (See NAS)
Nehemiah 10:33 for the show bread, and for the continual meal offering, and for the continual burnt offering, for the Sabbaths, for the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God. (See NIV)
Isaiah 1:14 Your new moons and your regular feasts are a grief to my soul: they are a weight in my spirit; I am crushed under them. (See NAS NIV)
Isaiah 29:1 Wo 'to' Ariel, Ariel, The city of the encampment of David! Add year to year, let festivals go round. (YLT NIV)
Isaiah 33:20 Look at Zion, the city of our appointed festivals. Your eyes will see Jerusalem, a quiet habitation, a tent that won't be removed. Its stakes will never be plucked up, nor will any of its cords be broken. (WEB NIV)
Ezekiel 45:17 It shall be the prince's part to give the burnt offerings, and the meal offerings, and the drink offerings, in the feasts, and on the new moons, and on the Sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel: he shall prepare the sin offering, and the meal offering, and the burnt offering, and the peace offerings, to make atonement for the house of Israel. (See NIV)
Ezekiel 46:11 In the feasts and in the solemnities the meal offering shall be an ephah for a bull, and an ephah for a ram, and for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. (See NAS NIV)
Hosea 2:11 And I have caused to cease all her joy, Her festival, her new moon, and her sabbath, Even all her appointed times, (See NIV)
Hosea 5:7 They are unfaithful to Yahweh; for they have borne illegitimate children. Now the new moon will devour them with their fields. (See NIV)
Amos 5:21 I have hated -- I have loathed your festivals, And I am not refreshed by your restraints. (YLT NAS)
Amos 8:10 And have turned your festivals to mourning, And all your songs to lamentation, And caused sackcloth to come up on all loins, And on every head -- baldness, And made it as a mourning 'of' an only one, And its latter end as a day of bitterness. (YLT NAS)
Nahum 1:15 Lo, on the mountains the feet of one proclaiming tidings, sounding peace! Celebrate, O Judah, thy festivals, complete thy vows, For add no more to pass over into thee doth the worthless, He hath been completely cut off! (YLT NIV)
Zechariah 8:19 Thus says Yahweh of Armies: "The fasts of the fourth fifth, seventh, and tenth months shall be for the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts. Therefore love truth and peace." (See NIV)
Malachi 2:3 Lo, I am pushing away before you the seed, And have scattered dung before your faces, Dung of your festivals, And it hath taken you away with it. (YLT)