|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
In the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body of man and animals (Genesis 2:21; 41:2; Psalm 102:5, marg.); (2) the whole body (Psalm 16:9); (3) all living things having flesh, and particularly humanity as a whole (Genesis 6:12, 13); (4) mutability and weakness (2 Chronicles 32:8; Comp. Isaiah 31:3; Psalm 78:39). As suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression "heart of flesh" (Ezek. 11:19). The expression "my flesh and bone" (Judges 9:2; Isaiah 58:7) denotes relationship.
In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit" (Romans 6:19; Matthew 16:17). Being "in the flesh" means being unrenewed (Romans 7:5; 8:8, 9), and to live "according to the flesh" is to live and act sinfully (Romans 8:4, 5, 7, 12).
This word also denotes the human nature of Christ (John 1:14, "The Word was made flesh." Comp. also 1 Timothy 3:16; Romans 1:3).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) The aggregate of the muscles, fat, and other tissues which cover the framework of bones in man and other animals; especially, the muscles.
2. (n.) Animal food, in distinction from vegetable; meat; especially, the body of beasts and birds used as food, as distinguished from fish.
3. (n.) The human body, as distinguished from the soul; the corporeal person.
4. (n.) The human race; mankind; humanity.
5. (n.) Human nature
6. (n.) In a good sense, tenderness of feeling; gentleness.
7. (n.) In a bad sense, tendency to transient or physical pleasure; desire for sensual gratification; carnality.
8. (n.) The character under the influence of animal propensities or selfish passions; the soul unmoved by spiritual influences.
9. (n.) Kindred; stock; race.
10. (n.) The soft, pulpy substance of fruit; also, that part of a root, fruit, and the like, which is fit to be eaten.
11. (v. t.) To feed with flesh, as an incitement to further exertion; to initiate; -- from the practice of training hawks and dogs by feeding them with the first game they take, or other flesh. Hence, to use upon flesh (as a murderous weapon) so as to draw blood, especially for the first time.
12. (v. t.) To glut; to satiate; hence, to harden, to accustom.
13. (v. t.) To remove flesh, membrane, etc., from, as from hides.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
CUTTINGS IN THE FLESH
(sereT, sareTeth): For relatives or friends to cut or beat themselves even to free blood-flowing, especially in the violence of grief in mourning for their dead (see BURIAL; MOURNING), was a widely prevalent custom among ancient peoples, and is well-nigh universal among uncivilized races today (see Spencer, Prin. of Soc., 3rd edition, I, 163). The fact is abundantly attested for most of the nations of antiquity, but there are two notable exceptions, the Egyptians (Herod. ii.61, 85; Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptian II, 374), and the Hebrews (Deuteronomy 14:1 Leviticus 21:5). According to Plutarch (Sol. 21) Solon forbade the women of Athens to beat themselves to the effusion of blood, and the laws of the Twelve Tables, quoted by Cic. (De leg. ii.23) contained a like injunction. Among the ancient Arabs the forbidden practice was associated, as among the Hebrews, with the cutting off of the hair (Wellhausen, Skizzen, III, 160).
That the prohibition among the Hebrews was urgently called for is made clear by the way it is dealt with by the Law and the prophets. The Law of Holiness reads: "Ye are the children of Yahweh your God: ye shall not cut yourselves" (Deuteronomy 14:1), or "make any incision" (sereT; Leviticus 19:28, sareTeth; Septuagint entomis) in the flesh "for the dead." Probably the earliest reference to the custom as actually prevalent among the Hebrews is in Hosea 7:14 (ERVm). It was widely prevalent in the time of Jeremiah among his countrymen, even as among the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:5) and the Moabites (Jeremiah 48:37; compare Amos 8:10 Isaiah 3:24; Isaiah 15:2; Isaiah 22:12 Micah 1:16 Ezekiel 7:18).
In seeking for the reason or purpose underlying all such prohibitions, we may note, first, that the "cuttings" and "baldness" forbidden are alike said to be "for the dead." Not less explicitly are they said to be incompatible with Israel's unique relation to Yahweh-a relation at once of sonship (Deuteronomy 14:1) and of consecration (Deuteronomy 14:2). Moreover such mutilations of the body are always dealt with as forming part of the religious rites of the heathen (as of the Canaanitish Baal (1 Kings 18:28) note "after their manner," see article in HDB, under the word). Both such shedding of blood and the dedication of the hair are found in almost all countries of that day in intimate connection with the rituals of burial and the prevailing belief in the necessity of propitiating the spirit of the deceased. The conclusion, then, seems clearly warranted that such tokens of grief were prohibited because they carried with them inevitably ideas and associations distinctly heathen in character and so incompatible with the pure religion of Yahweh, and unworthy of those who had attained to the dignity of the sons ("children") of Yahweh.
See also STIGMATA, MARK;
Benzinger, Heb Arch., section 23; Nowack, Heb Arch., I, 33; Tylor, Prim. Cult.; W. R. Smith, Rel Semitic, Lect IX; and Comm., Knobel-Dillmann, Exodus-Leviticus on Leviticus 19:28; Driver, De on 14:1; and Lightfoot, Galatians on 6:17.
George B. Eager
Used in all senses of the word, the latter, however, most frequently in the sense of kin, family, relationship (compare sha'arah, "kins-woman," Leviticus 18:17): Leviticus 18:6; Leviticus 25:49 Proverbs 11:17 Jeremiah 51:35, and probably Psalm 73:26. In all other places she'er means "flesh" = body (Proverbs 5:11) or = food (Psalm 78:20, 27 Micah 3:2, 3). Tibhchah, is "(slaughtered) flesh for food," "butcher's meat" (1 Samuel 25:11). The word 'eshpar, found only in two parallel passages (2 Samuel 6:19 = 1 Chronicles 16:3), is of very uncertain meaning. The English versions translate it with "a good piece (portion) of flesh," the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) with "a piece of roast meat," others with "a portion of flesh" and "a measure of wine." It probably means simply "a measured portion." lachum, literally, "eaten," then food (compare lechem, "bread"), has been rarely specialized as flesh or meat (compare Arabic lachm, "meat," "flesh," so in Zephaniah 1:17, where it stands in parallelism with "blood"). The Greek terms are sarx, and kreas, the latter always meaning "butcher's meat" (Romans 14:21 1 Corinthians 8:13).
We can distinguish the following varieties of meaning in Biblical language:
2. Ordinary Sense:
In a physical sense, the chief substance of the animal body, whether used for food and sacrifice, or not; also the flesh of man (Genesis 2:21 Exodus 21:10 Isaiah 31:3 Ezekiel 23:20 1 Corinthians 15:39 Revelation 19:18, 21).
3. The Body:
The whole body. This meaning is the extension of the preceding (pars pro toto). This is indicated by the Septuagint, where basar is often translated by the plural hai sarkes (Genesis 40:19 Numbers 12:12 Job 33:25), and occasionally by soma, i.e. "body" (Leviticus 15:2 1 Kings 21:27). This meaning is also very clear in passages like the following: Exodus 4:7 Leviticus 17:14 Numbers 8:7 2 Kings 4:34; Proverbs 5:11, where basar and she'er are combined; and Proverbs 14:30 Ecclesiastes 12:12.
4. The Term "All Flesh":
Flesh, as the common term for living things, animals and men, especially the latter (Genesis 6:13, 17, 19 Numbers 16:22 Jeremiah 12:12 Mark 13:20); often in the phrase "all flesh" (Psalm 65:2 Isaiah 40:5, 6 Jeremiah 25:31 Ezekiel 20:48 Joel 2:28 Luke 3:6).
5. As Opposed to the Spirit:
Flesh as opposed to the spirit, both of which were comprised in the preceding meaning (Genesis 6:3 Psalm 16:9 Luke 24:39, where "flesh and bones" are combined; John 6:63). Thus we find in John 1:14, "The Word became flesh"; 1 Timothy 3:16, "He who was manifested in the flesh"; 1 John 4:2, and all passages where the incarnation of Christ is spoken of. The word in this sense approaches the meaning of "earthly life," as in Philippians 1:22, 24, "to live in the flesh," "to abide in the flesh"; compare Philemon 1:16 and perhaps 2 Corinthians 5:16. Under this meaning we may enumerate expressions such as "arm of flesh" (2 Chronicles 32:8 Jeremiah 17:5), "eyes of flesh" (Job 10:4), etc. Frequently the distinction is made to emphasize the weakness or inferiority of the flesh, as opposed to the superiority of the spirit (Isaiah 31:3 Matthew 26:41 Mark 14:38 Romans 6:19). In this connection we mention also the expression "flesh and blood," a phrase borrowed from rabbinical writings and phraseology (see also Sirach 14:18, "the generation of flesh and blood," and 17:31, "man whose desire is flesh and blood" the King James Version). The expression does not convey, as some have supposed, the idea of inherent sinfulness of the flesh (a doctrine borrowed by Gnostic teachers from oriental sources), but merely the idea of ignorance and frailty in comparison with the possibilities of spiritual nature. The capabilities of our earthly constitution do not suffice to reveal unto us heavenly truths; these must always come to us from above.
So Peter's first recognition of the Divine sonship of Jesus did not proceed from a logical conviction based upon outward facts acting upon his mind, but was based upon a revelation from God vouchsafed to his inner consciousness. Christ says therefore to him: "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jonah: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father who is in heaven" (Matthew 16:17). Similarly the kingdom of God, being a realm of perfect spiritual submission to God, cannot be inherited by flesh and blood (1 Corinthians 15:50), nor was the richly endowed mind a competent tribunal to which Paul could refer his heaven-wrought conviction of his great salvation and the high calling to be a witness and apostle of Christ, so he did well that he "conferred not with flesh and blood" (Galatians 1:16). That "flesh and blood" does not imply a sense of inherent sinfulness is moreover shown in all passages where Christ is declared a partaker of such nature (Ephesians 6:12 Hebrews 2:14, where, however, we find in the original text the inverted phrase "blood and flesh").
6. Applied to the Carnal Nature:
Flesh in the sense of carnal nature (sarkikos, "carnal"; the King James Version uses sarkinos in Romans 7:14). Human nature, being inferior to the spiritual, is to be in subjection to it. If man refuses to be under this higher law, and as a free agent permits the lower nature to gain an ascendancy over the spirit, the "flesh" becomes a revolting force (Genesis 6:3, 12 John 1:13 Romans 7:14 1 Corinthians 3:1, 3 Colossians 2:18 1 John 2:16). Thus, the fleshly or carnal mind, i.e. a mind in subjection to carnal nature, is opposed to the Divine spirit, who alone is a sufficient corrective, Christ having secured for us the power of overcoming (Romans 8:3), if we manifest a deep desire and an earnest endeavor to overcome (Galatians 5:17, 18).
7. In the Sense of Relationship:
Flesh in the sense of relationship, tribal connection, kith and kin. For examples, see what has been said above on Hebrew she'er. The following passages are a few of those in which basar is used: Genesis 2:24; Genesis 37:27 Job 2:5; compare the New Testament passages: Matthew 19:5, 6 Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3, 5, 8. The expressions "bone" and "flesh" are found in combination (Genesis 2:23; Genesis 29:14 Judges 9:2 2 Samuel 5:1; 2 Samuel 19:12, 13 Ephesians 5:31, the latter in some manuscripts only).
8. Other Meanings:
Some other subdivisions of meanings might be added, for example where "flesh" takes almost the place of "person," as in Colossians 2:1: "as many as have not seen my face in the flesh," i.e. have not known me personally, or 2:5, "absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit," etc.
H. L. E. Luering
THORN IN THE FLESH
thorn (skolops te sarki): Paul thus characterizes some bodily ailment which afflicted him and impaired his usefulness (2 Corinthians 12:7). The data are insufficient to enable us to ascertain its real nature, and all the speculations on the point are therefore inconclusive. All that we are told is that it was a messenger of Satan; that thereby he was beaten as with a fist, which might be figurative or actual; that it rendered his bodily presence unattractive. It appears that the infirmity recurred, for thrice he sought deliverance; but, by the help of God, he was able to glory in it. Sir W. Ramsay sees in it some form of recurring malarial fever. It was something that disabled him (Galatians 4:12-15); hence, Farrar supposes that it was ophthalmia, from the reference to his eyes, from his inability to recognize the high priest (Acts 23:5), from his employing amanuenses to write his epistles, and his writing the Galatian letter in large characters with his own hand (Galatians 6:11). Krenkel has at great length argued that it was epilepsy, and thereby endeavors to account for his trances and his falling to the earth on his way to Damascus, but his work is essentially a special pleading for a foregone conclusion, and Paul would not have called his visions "a messenger of Satan." It is also beside the question to heap up instances of other distinguished epileptics. On the whole Farrar's theory is the most probable.
It is probably only a coincidence that "pricks in your eyes" Septuagint skolopes) are mentioned in Numbers 33:55. Any pedestrian in Palestine must be familiar with the ubiquitous and troublesome thorny shrubs and thistles which abound there.
THORNS, THISTLES, etc.
thornz: There are very many references to various thorny plants in the Bible, and of the Hebrew words employed great uncertainty exists regarding their exact meaning. The alternative translations given in the text of English Versions of the Bible and in the margin show how divided are the views of the translators. In the following list the suggestions given of possinle species indicated, usually by comparison with the Arabic, are those of the late Professor Post, who spent the best years of his life in study of the botany of Palestine. In the great majority of instances, however, it is quite impossible to make any reasonable suggestion as to any particular species being indicated.
(1) 'aTadh (Judges 9:14, English Versions of the Bible "bramble," the King James Version margin "thistle," the Revised Version margin "thorn"; Psalm 58:9, English Versions of the Bible "thorns"): Probably the buckthorn (Rhamnus Palestina Post). Atad occurs as a proper name in Genesis 50:10, 11.
(2) barqanim (Judges 8:7, 16, English Versions of the Bible "briers"): Some thorny plant. The Egyptian-Arabic bargan is, according to Moore (Commentary on Judges), the same as Centaurea scoparius (Natural Order, Compositae), a common Palestinian thistle.
(3) dardar (Genesis 3:18 Hosea 10:8, English Versions of the Bible "thistle"; Septuagint tribolos): In Arabic, shauket ed-dardar is a general name for the thistles known as Centaureae or star-thistles (Natural Order, Compositae), of which Palestine produces nearly 50 species. The purple-flowered C. calcitrapa and the yellow C. verutum are among the commonest and most striking.
(4) chedheq (Proverbs 15:19, English Versions of the Bible "thorns"; Septuagint akantha; Micah 7:4, English Versions of the Bible "brier"): From former passages this should be some thorny plant suitable for making a hedge (compare Arabic chadaq, "to enclose," "wall in"). Lane states that Arabic chadaq is Solanum sanctum. Post suggests the oleaster, Eleagnus hortensis.
(5) choach; Septuagint knide, and akantha (2 Kings 14:9 Job 31:40, English Versions of the Bible, "thistle," margin "thorn"; 2 Chronicles 25:18, English Versions of the Bible "thistle," the King James Version margin "furze bush," the Revised Version margin "thorn"; Hosea 9:6 Songs 2:2, English Versions of the Bible "thorns"; Isaiah 34:13 the King James Version "brambles" the Revised Version (British and American) "thistles"; Proverbs 26:9, English Versions of the Bible "a thorn"; 1 Samuel 13:6, "thickets"; chawachim, is, however, according to Driver and others a corruption for horim, "holes"; Job 41:2, the King James Version "thorn" the Revised Version (British and American) "hook"; 2 Chronicles 33:11, the King James Version "thorns," the Revised Version (British and American) "in chains," margin "with hooks"): Clearly choach stands for some plant with very strong thorns, but it is quite impossible to say what species is intended; indeed, probably the word was used in a general way.
(6) mecukhah, occurs only in Micah 7:4, where it means a "thorn hedge."
(7) na`atsuts (Isaiah 7:19, the King James Version "thorns," the Revised Version (British and American) "thorn hedges"; Isaiah 55:13, English Versions of the Bible "thorn"): The word is derived from the root na`ats, "to prick," or "pierce," and probably applies to any prickly plant. The Septuagint translation has stoibe (Isaiah 55:13), suggesting the thorny burnet, Poterium spinosum, so common in Palestine (see BOTANY). Post says, "It may be one of the thorny acacias" (HDB, IV, 752).
(8) cirim (Ecclesiastes 7:6, "the crackling of thorns (cirim) under a pot" (cir); Isaiah 34:13, "Thorns shall come up in its palaces"; Hosea 2:6, "I will hedge up thy way with thorns"; Nahum 1:10, "Entangled like thorns (King James Version "folden together as thorns").... they are consumed utterly as dry stubble"): The thorny burner, Poterium spinosum, is today so extensively used for burning in ovens and lime-kilns in Palestine that it is tempting to suppose this is the plant especially indicated here. In Amos 4:2 ciroth, is translated "fish-hooks."
(9) cillon (Ezekiel 28:24, English Versions of the Bible, "brier"); callonim (Ezekiel 2:6, English Versions of the Bible, "thorns"): Arabic, sallu = "thorn."
(10) carabhim (Ezekiel 2:6, English Versions of the Bible, "briers;" the King James Version margin "rebels"): The translation as a plant name is very doubtful.
(11) cirpadh (Isaiah 55:13, "Instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle-tree"): The Septuagint has konuza, which is (Post) the elecampane, Inula viscosa (Natural Order Compositae), a plant 2 or 3 ft. high, growing on the bare hillsides of Palestine, not infrequently in close association with the myrtle.
(12) tsinnim (Job 5:5 Proverbs 22:5, English Versions of the Bible, "thorns"); tseninim (Numbers 33:55 Joshua 23:13, English Versions of the Bible, "thorns"): The words apparently have a very general meaning.
(13) qots; the Septuagint akantha: A general name for thorny and prickly plants, the commonest in the Old Testament (Genesis 3:18 Exodus 22:6 Judges 8:7, 16 2 Samuel 23:6 Psalm 118:12 Isaiah 32:13; Isaiah 33:12 Jeremiah 4:3; Jeremiah 12:13 Ezekiel 28:24 Hosea 10:8).
(14) qimmosh (Proverbs 24:31, "thorns"; Isaiah 34:13; Ho 9:6, "nettles").
(15) sikkim, plural of sekh, same as Arabic shauk, "a thorn" (Numbers 33:55, "pricks").
(16) shayith: A word peculiar to Isaiah (5:6; 7:23;; 9:18; 10:17; 27:4) and always associated with shamir (See (17)), always translated "thorns."
(17) shamir: References as above (16), and in Isaiah 32:13, where it is with qots (see (13)) always translated briers." The Arabic samur is the thorny acacia A. seyyal and A. tortilis (Post).
(18) akanthos: The equivalent of qots (see (13)) (Matthew 7:16; Matthew 13:7, 22; 27:29, etc.). Always translated "thorns."
(19) rhamnos (Baruch 6:71, "white thorn"): The Rhamnus Palaestina.
(20) skolops (2 Corinthians 12:7, English Versions of the Bible "thorn," margin "stake").
See THORN IN THE FLESH.
(21) tribolos (Matthew 7:16, "thistle"; Heb 6:8, the King James Version "briers" the Revised Version (British and American) "thistles").
The extraordinary plentifulness of various prickly plants in Palestine-in its present condition-is evident to any traveler during the summer months. Many of the trees and shrubs are thorny and the ground is everywhere covered thick with thistles, many of which are very handsome and some of which attain a height of 6 or 8 ft. Before the peasant can plow, he must dear these away by burning (compare Isaiah 10:17). The early autumn winds often drive before them in revolving mass some of the star-thistles-a sight so characteristic that it may be the "thistle down" (the King James Version margin, the Revised Version (British and American) "whirling dust") of Isaiah 17:13. Thorns and thistles are described (Genesis 3:18) as God's curse on the ground for sin. The Talmud suggests that these must be edible and are therefore artichokes. The removal of them and the replacement by more useful plants is a sign of God's blessing (Isaiah 55:13 Ezekiel 28:24).
Genesis 3:18 uses the words qots and dardar for "thorns" and "thistles." Midrash Rabba' to Genesis (Midr. Gen. Rabba' 20 10) says that qots ("thorn") is the same as (`akkabhith), which means an edible thistle (compare Levy, Dictionary, 645), and that (dardar, "thistle") is the same as (qinrac; Greek kunara, "artichoke") (compare Levy, Dictionary, 298). "But," adds the Midrash, "some reverse it, and say that (dardar) is ('akkabhith) and that (qots) is (qinrats)."
The neglected vineyard of the sluggard "was all grown over with thorns the face thereof was covered with nettles" (Proverbs 24:31), and in God's symbolic vineyard "there shall come up briers and thorns" (Isaiah 5:6); "They have sown wheat and have reaped thorns; they have put themselves to pain, and profit nothing" (Jeremiah 12:13).
Jotham compares the usurper Abimelech to a bramble (Rhamnus Palaestina) (Judges 9:14 f), and Jehoash king of Israel, taunted Amaziah, king of Judah, by comparing him slightingly to a thistle (margin "thorn"), readily trodden down by a wild beast (2 Kings 14:9).
Nevertheless, thorns and thistles have their uses. On them the goats and camels browse; scarcely any thorns seem to be too sharp for their hardened palates. The thorny burner (Poterium spinosum), Arabic ballan, which covers countless acres of bare hillside, is used all over Palestine for ovens (Ecclesiastes 7:6) and lime-kilns. Before kindling one of these latter the fellahin gather enormous piles of this plant-carried on their heads in masses much larger than the bearers-around the kiln mouth.
Thorny hedges around dwellings and fields are very common. The most characteristic plant for the purpose today is the "prickly pear" (Opunctia ficus Indica), but this is a comparatively late introduction. Hedges of brambles oleasters, etc., are common, especially where there is some water In the Jordan valley masses of broken branches of the Zizyphus and other thorny trees are piled in a circle round tents or cultivated fields or flocks as a protection against man and beast (Proverbs 15:19 Micah 7:4, etc.).
The Saviour's "crown of thorns" (Matthew 27:29) was according to Palestinian tradition constructed from the twisted branches of a species of Rhamnaceae either the Zizyphus lotus or the Z. spina.
E. W. G. Masterman
FLESH AND BLOOD
See FLESH, 5.
Flesh (468 Occurrences)
Matthew 15:19 For out of the heart come evil thoughts, the taking of life, broken faith between the married, unclean desires of the flesh, taking of property, false witness, bitter words: (BBE)
Matthew 16:17 Jesus answered him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Matthew 19:5 and said,'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 19:6 So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Matthew 24:22 Unless those days had been shortened, no flesh would have been saved. But for the sake of the chosen ones, those days will be shortened. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Matthew 26:41 Watch and pray, that you don't enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Mark 7:22 The taking of goods and of life, broken faith between husband and wife, the desire of wealth, wrongdoing, deceit, sins of the flesh, an evil eye, angry words, pride, foolish acts: (BBE)
Mark 10:8 and the two will become one flesh, so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 13:20 Unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the sake of the chosen ones, whom he picked out, he shortened the days. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 14:38 Watch and pray, that you may not enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Luke 3:6 All flesh will see God's salvation.'" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Luke 24:39 See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn't have flesh and bones, as you see that I have." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 1:13 who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 1:14 The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:51 I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:52 The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:53 Jesus therefore said to them, "Most certainly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:54 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:55 For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:56 He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 6:63 It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:15 You judge according to the flesh. I judge no one. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 17:2 even as you gave him authority over all flesh, he will give eternal life to all whom you have given him. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 2:17 'It will be in the last days, says God, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Acts 2:26 Therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced. Moreover my flesh also will dwell in hope; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 2:30 Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, he would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne, (WEB KJV WBS YLT)
Acts 2:31 he foreseeing this spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was his soul left in Hades, nor did his flesh see decay. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 12:23 And straight away the angel of the Lord sent a disease on him, because he did not give the glory to God: and his flesh was wasted away by worms, and so he came to his end. (BBE)
Acts 15:20 But that we give them orders to keep themselves from things offered to false gods, and from the evil desires of the body, and from the flesh of animals put to death in ways against the law, and from blood. (BBE)
Acts 21:25 But as to the Gentiles who have the faith, we sent a letter, giving our decision that they were to keep themselves from offerings made to false gods, and from blood, and from the flesh of animals put to death in ways against the law, and from the evil desires of the body. (BBE)
Romans 1:3 concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 2:28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 3:20 Because by the works of the law, no flesh will be justified in his sight. For through the law comes the knowledge of sin. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 4:1 What then will we say that Abraham, our forefather, has found according to the flesh? (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 6:19 I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. (Root in WEB BBE DBY YLT NAS)
Romans 7:18 For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my body, working against the law of my mind, and making me the servant of the law of sin which is in my flesh. (BBE)
Romans 7:25 I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don't walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit. (WEB KJV WBS YLT)
Romans 8:3 For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:4 that the ordinance of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:6 For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:7 because the mind of the flesh is hostile towards God; for it is not subject to God's law, neither indeed can it be. (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:8 Those who are in the flesh can't please God. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:9 But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:12 So then, brothers, we are debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:13 For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 9:3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed from Christ for my brothers' sake, my relatives according to the flesh, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 9:5 of whom are the fathers, and from whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God, blessed forever. Amen. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 9:8 That is, it is not the children of the flesh who are children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as a seed. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 11:14 if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh, and may save some of them. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Romans 13:14 But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, for its lusts. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 14:21 It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak. (KJV ASV WBS YLT)
Romans 15:27 Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. (Root in WEB BBE DBY YLT)
1 Corinthians 1:26 For you see your calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, and not many noble; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
1 Corinthians 1:29 that no flesh should boast before God. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
1 Corinthians 3:1 Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as to fleshly, as to babies in Christ. (Root in WEB BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
1 Corinthians 3:3 for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy, strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walk in the ways of men? (Root in WEB BBE YLT NAS RSV)
1 Corinthians 5:1 It is said, in fact, that there is among you a sin of the flesh, such as is not seen even among the Gentiles, that one of you has his father's wife. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 5:5 are to deliver such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Corinthians 5:9 In my letter I said to you that you were not to keep company with those who go after the desires of the flesh; (BBE)
1 Corinthians 5:11 But the sense of my letter was that if a brother had the name of being one who went after the desires of the flesh, or had the desire for other people's property, or was in the way of using violent language, or being the worse for drink, or took by force what was not his, you might not keep company with such a one, or take food with him. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 6:9 Have you not knowledge that evil-doers will have no part in the kingdom of God? Have no false ideas about this: no one who goes after the desires of the flesh, or gives worship to images, or is untrue when married, or is less than a man, or makes a wrong use of men, (BBE)
1 Corinthians 6:13 Food is for the stomach and the stomach for food, and God will put an end to them together. But the body is not for the desires of the flesh, but for the Lord; and the Lord for the body: (BBE)
1 Corinthians 6:16 Or don't you know that he who is joined to a prostitute is one body? For, "The two," says he, "will become one flesh." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:18 Keep away from the desires of the flesh. Every sin which a man does is outside of the body; but he who goes after the desires of the flesh does evil to his body. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 7:2 But because of the desires of the flesh, let every man have his wife, and every woman her husband. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 7:28 But if you marry, you have not sinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have oppression in the flesh, and I want to spare you. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
1 Corinthians 8:13 Wherefore, if meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh while the world standeth, lest I make my brother to offend. (KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
1 Corinthians 10:8 Again, let us not give way to the desires of the flesh, as some of them did, of whom twenty-three thousand came to their end in one day. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 10:18 Consider Israel according to the flesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices participate in the altar? (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
1 Corinthians 15:39 All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, another flesh of animals, another of fish, and another of birds. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 15:50 Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can't inherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inherit incorruption. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 1:12 For our boasting is this: the testimony of our conscience, that in holiness and sincerity of God, not in fleshly wisdom but in the grace of God we behaved ourselves in the world, and more abundantly toward you. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 1:17 When I therefore was thus determined, did I show fickleness? Or the things that I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that with me there should be the "Yes, yes" and the "No, no?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 3:3 being revealed that you are a letter of Christ, served by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tablets of stone, but in tablets that are hearts of flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
2 Corinthians 4:11 For we who live are always delivered to death for Jesus' sake, that the life also of Jesus may be revealed in our mortal flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
2 Corinthians 5:1 For we are conscious that if this our tent of flesh is taken down, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal, in heaven. (BBE)
2 Corinthians 5:16 Therefore we know no one after the flesh from now on. Even though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now we know him so no more. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 7:5 For even when we had come into Macedonia, our flesh had no relief, but we were afflicted on every side. Fightings were outside. Fear was inside. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 10:2 Yes, I beg you that I may not, when present, show courage with the confidence with which I intend to be bold against some, who consider us to be walking according to the flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 10:3 For though we walk in the flesh, we don't wage war according to the flesh; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 10:4 for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but mighty before God to the throwing down of strongholds, (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 11:18 Seeing that many boast after the flesh, I will also boast. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Corinthians 12:7 By reason of the exceeding greatness of the revelations, that I should not be exalted excessively, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, that I should not be exalted excessively. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 12:21 And that when I come again, my God may put me to shame among you, and I may have grief for those who have done wrong before and have had no regret for their unclean ways, and for the evil desires of the flesh to which they have given way. (BBE)
Galatians 1:16 to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately confer with flesh and blood, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Galatians 2:16 yet knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, even we believed in Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law, because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Galatians 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ, and it is no longer I that live, but Christ living in me. That life which I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself up for me. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Galatians 3:3 Are you so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now completed in the flesh? (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Galatians 4:13 but you know that because of weakness of the flesh I preached the Good News to you the first time. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Galatians 4:14 That which was a temptation to you in my flesh, you didn't despise nor reject; but you received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Galatians 4:23 However, the son by the handmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Galatians 4:29 But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Galatians 5:13 For you, brothers, were called for freedom. Only don't use your freedom for gain to the flesh, but through love be servants to one another. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)