|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
(imp. & p. p.) of Fortify.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
FORTIFICATION; FORT; FORTIFIED CITIES; FORTRESS
I. IN RECENT EXCAVATIONS
1. Excavation of Tells
3. Primitive Character
6. Acropolis or Castle
9. Water Supply
II. IN BIBLICAL HISTORY
1. Before the Monarchy
2. In the Period of the Monarchy
3. In the Period of the Return
III. IN THE PSALMS AND THE PROPHETS
1. The Psalms
2. The Prophets
IV. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
1. In Paul's Epistles
2. In the Acts of the Apostles
3. In the Gospel History
Has a number of words representing its various elements and aspects:
(1) mibhtsar, is the term generally rendered "fenced" or "defenced city." In both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) of Isaiah and Jeremiah we find for the most part the more formal "defenced city." It is found by itself (Isaiah 17:3); with `ir, "city" (1 Samuel 6:18 2 Kings 3:19; plural `are mibhtsar, "fenced (the American Standard Revised Version "fortified") cities," Numbers 32:17); with tsor, "Tyre" (Joshua 19:29 2 Samuel 24:7, where it is rendered "stronghold").
(2) misgabh, "high fort" (Isaiah 25:12 Jeremiah 48:1 the Revised Version, margin; Psalm 9:9, and many other places in the Pss).
(3) ma`oz, "fortress," "stronghold" (Judges 6:26 Psalm 31:2 Daniel 11:39).
(4) metsudhah, "fort" the King James Version, "stronghold" the Revised Version (British and American) (2 Samuel 5:9, 17).
(5) metsurah, "fort" (Isaiah 29:3 the King James Version; plural the Revised Version (British and American) "siege works").
(6) mutstsabh (Isaiah 29:3, "fort" the English Revised Version, "mount" the King James Version, "posted troops" the American Standard Revised Version).
(7) dayeq, "fort" (for the siege of a city, the wall of circumvallation cast up by the besiegers, 2 Kings 25:1 Jeremiah 52:4 Ezekiel 4:2; Ezekiel 17:17; Ezekiel 21:22; Ezekiel 26:8).
(8) matsor, "fortress" (Jeremiah 10:17 margin, wall of circumvallation: Habakkuk 2:1, "tower" the King James Version, "fortress" the Revised Version, margin; Zechariah 9:3).
(9) birah, "palace" the King James Version, "castle" the Revised Version (British and American) (Nehemiah 2:8; Nehemiah 7:2). Birah Grecized is baris, which has the double meaning of "palace" and "fortress." Nehemiah's "castle" figures largely in the books of Maccabees and in Josephus, and is the Castle of Antonia of the Acts of the Apostles.
(10) ochuroma (2 Corinthians 10:4, its only occurrence in the New Testament though it is the chief equivalent of mibhtsar in the Septuagint). In this connection it is to be noted that chomah, is Hebrew for "wall," Greek teichos; chel or cheyl, is Hebrew for the "ditch," or "rampart," or "bastion" of a fortress; mighdal, "tower"; pinnah plural pinnoth, "corner towers."
From the very beginning of their history as a nation the Israelites were acquainted with fortified cities. The report of cities "great and fortified up to heaven," inhabited by the sons of Anak, by Amalekites, Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites and Canaanites, struck terror into the hearts of the Israelites in the wilderness, and called forth murmurings from them on their way to Canaan (Numbers 13:28 Deuteronomy 1:28). Not that these cities were at all of the extent or population of modern cities, or of Nineveh, Babylon and Memphis of old. But to a people who were as yet little better than a horde of fugitives accustomed to the simple camp life of the wilderness and unacquainted with appliances for siege and assault, the prospect of scaling the walls and conquering the inhabitants was appalling. The cities of the Canaanites were already old when Joshua led the Israelites to the conquest of the land. Not a little of their history has become known to us, and the character of their defensive works has been disclosed by Palestinian excavation in recent years.
I. In Recent Excavations.
1. Excavation of Tells:
It has been largely to the tells, or mounds of buried cities, chiefly in the southwest of the land, that exploration has been directed. The Palestine Exploration Fund, drawing its resources from Great Britain and also from America, was the first, and has all along been the foremost, in the work of excavation. Through the labors of Professor Flinders Petrie at Tell el-Hesy; of Dr. F. J. Bliss, and Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell ec-Safi, Tell ej-Judeideh, Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Professor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund has added largely to our knowledge of the fenced cities of Canaan. The work of Sir Charles Warren, Sir Charles W. Wilson, Colonel Conder and other explorers at Jerusalem under the same auspices has been of great value for illustrating the defensive works of a later time. Germany and Austria have not been behind. The excavation, first, of Tell Ta'anek in the Plain of Esdraelon, and, at the present time (1911), of Jericho by Professor E. Sellin, formerly of Vienna, now of Rostock; and of Tell el-Mutesellim, the ancient Megiddo, by Gottlieb Schumacher, has yielded results of the highest importance. Since 1908 an American expedition from Harvard University, first under Schumacher and now under Dr. Reisner, who had previously excavated at the Pyramids and other places in Egypt, has explored with remarkable results the site of the capital of the Northern Kingdom, Samaria. Excavations have also been conducted by the German Orient Committee at Sinjerli which have thrown a flood of light upon the archaeology of Northern Syria and especially upon the wonderful Hittite people. The memoirs and reports of these excavations have furnished abundance of material for tracing the evolution and understanding the anatomy of the tell. They usefully supplement the Scripture narratives, and confirm them in many particulars.
These cities of the primitive inhabitants of Canaan occupied sites easily capable of defense. They were built either upon a projecting spur of a mountain ridge, like Gezer, Megiddo, Tell ec-Safi (believed to be the ancient Gath) and primitive Jerusalem, or upon an isolated eminence in the plain like Tell el-Hesy (Lachish) or Taanach. Compared with modern cities the area was small-in the case of Gezer about a quarter of a mile square, Lachish 15 acres, Megiddo and Taanach 12 to 13 acres. A sufficient water supply within easy reach was an essential feature. Speaking of Gezer, Professor Macalister says: "Water, the first necessity of life, was in abundance. The three primitive modes of livelihood-hunting, pasturing, and agriculture-could be practiced here better than in many places. Further, for defense-another prime necessity in early days-the hill is admirably fitted. It is steep and not easy to climb; and being fairly high it commands a wide prospect, so that the approach of enemies can be seen and prepared for" (Bible Side-Lights from Gezer, 25, 26).
3. Primitive Character:
Their history goes back in most cases to a very remote antiquity. "It cannot have been much later than 3000 B.C.," says Professor Macalister regarding Gezer, "when a primitive race of men first realized that the bare rocky hill (as it then was) would be a suitable dwelling-place. This tribe was a cave-dwelling race" (as above; and PEFS, 1904, 311). The primitive race had occupied the hill perhaps five hundred years when the Canaanites drove them out, as they in turn were driven out by the Israelites. But the nature of their original habitations, the earliest relics of their social life, and what can be gathered of their religious rites all bear witness to a remote antiquity. From the mound of Tell el-Hesy, now almost certainly identified with the site of Lachish, eleven cities, one above the other have been disinterred, the eleventh or highest having nine cities between itself and the first Amorite buildings reared upon the original bluff. This lowest city is believed to go back some 2000 years B.C., Professor Flinders Petrie having dated the successive cities by means of the pottery found in the strata of the mound. One of the eleven cities, possibly the fourth from the bottom, was that of Lachish, which fell a prey to Joshua (Joshua 10:32), the walls of which, built of crude brick and 10-12 ft. in thickness, are a witness to its character as a fenced city (Bliss, A Mound of Many Cities, chapter iv).
While the site of the Canaanite city was chosen for its natural strength, the first settlers soon felt the need of some fortification. At Sinjerli the excavators have been able to trace the general growth of the site from a group of shepherds' huts into a walled town. The earliest fortification attempted was a rampart of earth following the natural contour of the hill (PEFS, 1903, 113). Within some such enclosing wall, houses were built and the inhabitants lived and pursued their avocations safely. The primitive earthbank in the case of Gezer was in course of time replaced first by an inner and then by an outer wall in succession. The outer wall when it was added to strengthen the inner was the chel, rendered in the English version "bulwark" (Isaiah 26:1) or "rampart" (Nahum 3:8, where the waters of the Nile served the same purpose). Professor Macalister estimates that the inner wall of Gezer had fallen into disuse and ruin by about 1450 B.C. and that it was the outer that saw the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. "Even in its present ruined form," says Professor Macalister, "the outer city wall is an imposing structure. In places it still stands to a height of from 10 to 14 ft., and these can hardly be regarded as being much more than the underground foundations. The outer face of the city wall, towering above the hill on which the city was built, may well have seemed impregnable to the messengers of Moses" (Bible Side-Lights, 142). The walls of a later time, as we learn from Assyrian representations, were provided with battlements, very often crenellated, and "thy pinnacles of rubies" (Isaiah 54:12, the Revised Version (British and American), the Revised Version, margin "windows") may refer to them. For the purpose of strengthening the walls, especially at the least defensible points, revetments or facings of stone or kiln-burnt bricks were sometimes added. Even these again would be rendered less assailable by a trench (chel) serving to cut off a fortress from adjacent level or sloping ground, as may still be seen outside the North wall of Jerusalem, and many parts ofthe walls of Constantinople.
Towers were sometimes built at the corners or at points on the wall where attack was to be apprehended (Ze 1:16; 2 Chronicles 14:7). Such towers have been disclosed on the crest of the hill at Tell Zakariyah. At Gezer 30 towers were found round the outer wall. On the walls of Sinjerli there rose no fewer than 800 towers (Garstang, Land of the Hittites, 273). On the evidence of the excavations at this ancient Hittite site we gather that the cities about the time of the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan "were already surrounded by masoned walls, supported by numerous external towers, and entered through gateways barred by a pair of double doors and guarded by wing towers on either hand" (Land of the Hittites, 367). For illustrations, see CITY.
6. Acropolis or Castle:
Every one of these ancient cities had an inner fortress which would be an internal means of protection, and the last refuge of the defenders in extremity. At Tell Zakariyah the acropolis wall has been traced, and its shape has been found to be conditioned by the contours of the hill on which it stood. In an old Hittite settlement a fortress has been found rectangular in shape and supported by an outer and lower wall at a distance of 12 to 30 yds. (Land of the Hittites, 162). There is evidence that the mound or bluff originally occupied remained the fortress or acropolis of the city when it spread out over a larger area, and this seems to have been the case for some time at least with the Jebusite fort taken by David and made the capital of the kingdom. At Sinjerli, while there was a wall surrounding the whole township, there was an outer as well as an inner defensive wall to the citadel. Upon this citadel were found palaces from which the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser I, copied the plan of a Hittite palace, called in Assyrian Hilani.
The excavations enable us to see the progress of the art of fortification from very primitive beginnings. Crude brick and rough stone-work were the materials of the earliest walls. They are usually found of uncoursed masonry in which the large stones are undressed field boulders. The facings of stone and the joints in walls were often packed with pebbles or with limestone chippings, the stones themselves being more or less roughly trimmed and dressed to shape by a hammer. Corner-stones are found in the towers showing marks of the chisel, but it is not till well on in the Hebrew period that stones are found with bosses and marginal drafting. At Zakariyah the walls of the acropolis were of rubble laid in mud, mixed with straw without lime, and they contained some well-worked stones, irregularly intermingled with field stones of various sizes. At a later time mortar was used to cover the walls and give greater strength and support. But the clay used for the purpose was apt to crack unless it was given consistency by treading with the feet and mixing with water. Thus we read of a wall daubed with untempered mortar (Ezekiel 13:10-16; Ezekiel 22:28; compare Nahum 3:14). In the masonry of the Hittite fortress (see (6) above) the masonry of the inner wall is rough, dry stonewalling, while the outer is built of stones roughly pentagonal in shape, irregular in size, fitted to one another and laid without mortar, somewhat like the Cyclopean walls of the earliest periods of Greek history.
The gates of the fenced cities of Canaan may not have had the social importance which the city gate came to possess in later times, but they were an important element in the defensive works of a city. They were as few as possible, so as to give only the necessary ingress and egress. The gate of Jericho was shut and secured at nightfall (Joshua 2:5). The gate of Gaza had two leaves which were not hinged to the two gate-posts, but turned on pins moving in sockets in the sill and lintel, the bar stretching between the two posts and let into them to secure the gate (Judges 16:3, with Moore's notes). The hundred gates of Babylon, according to Herodotus, were all of brass (i.179); and Yahweh promises to Cyrus to break in pieces the doors of brass and to cut in sunder the bars of iron (Isaiah 45:2). That the bars were sometimes of wood is clear from what is said of the bars of Nineveh (Habakkuk 3:13). To protect the gate it was supplied with towers. Uzziah built towers in Jerusalem at the corner gate and at the valley gate, and fortilled them (2 Chronicles 26:9). In the inner wall of Gezer, to which reference has been made, a gate of very remarkable structure has been found. The wall is of stone, but the gateway consists of a passage between two solid towers of brick. The passage is 9 ft. wide and 42 ft. long, roughly paved with stones. Stone slabs on each side of the passageway bear traces of fire, and the absence of any wooden barrier may be due to a conflagration at the capture of the city. The towers remain standing and rise to a total height of about 16 ft. In later times watchmen were set on the tower over the gate to descry the approach of friend or foe or messenger (2 Samuel 18:24), and the tower had chambers in it which might be occupied by visitors or by a guard. For the more general purposes see GATE.
9. Water Supply:
One of the essential requisites of the primitive Canaanite fortress was a supply of water. At Gezer a copious spring within easy reach was available. Tell el-Hesy commands the only springs in that region (A Mound of Many Cities, 16). It is a strong point in favor of the modern theory of the ridge of Ophel being the site of Zion or David's town that the Virgin's Fountain, the only perennial spring in the whole circuit of Jerusalem, was close to it, and would have been an inducement to the Jebusites to build their fortress there. In the sites that have been excavated, cisterns, sometimes vaulted over and with steps down into them, have been constantly found. Traces have also been observed of concealed passages or tunnels by which access has been obtained to the nearest spring. Some such explanation has been given of the "gutter" (2 Samuel 5:8 the King James Version, "watercourse" the Revised Version (British and American)), by which Joab obtained access to the fortress of Jebus and enabled David to capture it (1 Chronicles 11:6; compare Vincent, Canaan d'apres l'exploration recente, 26). During an investment of a fortified city by an enemy, it was a point in strategy for the inhabitants to secure the fountain and to divert or conceal the stream flowing from it so that the besiegers might be left without a water supply (2 Kings 3:19, 25 2 Chronicles 32:3; compare also 2 Samuel 12:26, 27, Century Bible, Kennedy's note).
II. In Biblical History.
1. Before the Monarchy:
On the passage of the Jordan the Israelites found in Jericho a walled city of great strength barring their progress. The excavations recently made have disclosed the common features of Canaanite fortresses-an outer wall, surrounding the entire area, 6 1/2 ft. thick, a citadel and protecting walls of hardly less substantial workmanship. Nearby also is the essential spring to furnish the water supply. Within the citadel were found the walls and rooms of Canaanite houses, and in many cases remains of infants buried in jars under the clay floors (Driver, Modern Research as Illustrating the Bible, 91). These examples of "foundation sacrifices" with which the excavations at Gezer have made us familiar give point to the account of the resettlement of the city in the days of Ahab, when Hiel the Bethelite rebuilt Jericho, laying the foundation thereof with the loss of Abiram, his firstborn, and setting up the gates thereof with the loss of his youngest son Segub (1 Kings 16:34).
In the Book of Jud we read of the strong tower, or citadel, of Thebez, into which the inhabitants had crowded and to which Abimelech was setting fire when a woman upon the wall hurled a millstone upon him and broke his skull (Judges 9:51). It does not appear that at this period the Israelites were in possession of the strongholds of the land, for when the Philistines overran the country, they had no fortresses to flee to, but "did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in coverts, and in pits" (1 Samuel 13:6).
2. In the Period of the Monarchy:
When David captured the Jebusite fortress (2 Samuel 5:6) and transferred his capital from Hebron to Jerusalem, a new era of independence and even of conquest began. The natural strength of David's town, with such fortification as had been added, made it impregnable to any Philistine or Syrian foe, and one of the strongest fortresses in Western Asia.
Although Solomon was a man of peace, he included among the great buildings which he executed fortresses and works of defense. He built the wall of Jerusalem round about. He built Millo (called Akra ("citadel") in the Septuagint), and closed the breaches of the city of David, so that there might be no vulnerable point found in the defenses of the city (1 Kings 9:15). This fortification is represented in Septuagint, which has here an addition to the Massoretic Text, as securing the complete subjection of the original inhabitants who remained. Solomon also built Hazor to watch Damascus, Megiddo to guard the plain of Jezreel, and Gezer overlooking the maritime plain, his work being one of refortification rather than of building from the foundation. He fortified also Beth-horon, Upper and Nether, to block the way against Philistine invasion. The store cities, and cities to accommodate his chariots and horses, were also part of his military system (1 Kings 9:18).
The disruption of the kingdoms, and the jealousy and hostility that followed between Judah and Israel, necessitated fresh undertakings of fortification, on the part of both kingdoms. Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for defense in Judah. He fortified the strongholds and provisioned them and stored arms within them in case of siege (2 Chronicles 11:5). One of Jeroboam's first acts on ascending the throne was to build the two fortresses, Shechem to guard Mt. Ephraim, and Penuel to protect Gilead (1 Kings 12:25). Baasha later pushed his frontier within a few miles of Jerusalem, fortifying Ramah to overawe Asa in his very capital. The long war which lasted through the reigns of Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha and Elah, kings of Israel, was largely a war of sieges, one of them, that of Gibbethon, having apparently lasted 27 years (1 Kings 15:27, compared with 1 Kings 16:15).
With Omri there arose in Israel a powerful ruler whose name is mentioned with respect in the Assyrian monuments, which designate the kingdom of Israel Mat Bit Khumri, "the land of the house of Omri." He was the builder of Samaria which remained the capital of the Northern Kingdom till its fall in 722 B.C. In excavations but recently carried on by the archaeological expedition of Harvard University, the walls of Omri's palace and fortress were laid bare, giving an impression of the great strength of the place.
While Solomon built the wall of Jerusalem, we read that Uzziah built towers at the corner gate, and at the valley gate, and at the turning of the wall, and fortified them (2 Chronicles 26:9). Jotham his son, continued his father's labors in the further fortification of the city (2 Chronicles 27:3, 1). Hezekiah had good reason to add still further to the strength of the city, seeing that he had to bear the brunt of Sennacherib's expedition to the west. Sennacherib boasts that of Hezekiah's fortified towns, he captured 46, with innumerable fortresses besides (Schrader, Schrader, The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the Old Testament, I, 286), but he cannot tell that Jerusalem was among them, for it came through the ordeal unscathed. In the reign of Manasseh Jerusalem was captured and the king himself carried away to Nineveh, but on his repentance he was restored to the throne and set himself to strengthen the fortifications of the city (2 Chronicles 33:14). The city was unable, however, to hold out against Nebuchadrezzar and his captains; for it was taken in 597 B.C., and King Jehoiachin and the flower of the population were deported to Babylon. After a siege of two years it was again taken in 586 B.C., and temple and city were destroyed, and the walls razed to the ground.
3. In the Period of the Return:
The patriotic labor of Nehemiah in the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem belongs properly to the history of the city (see JERUSALEM). In the Maccabean struggle, the Akra (APC 1Macc 1:33; 3:45, etc.), the citadel, was long held by a Syrian garrison, and was in the end delivered up to the high priest by Demetrius (APC 1Macc 10:32). Notable also still later was the castle of Antonia (Acts 22:24) on the site of the earlier castle of Nehemiah's day (Nehemiah 2:8; Nehemiah 7:2).
III. In the Psalms and the Prophets.
1. The Psalms
Under the image of a fortress, or mountain fastness, inaccessible to any common foot, where there is perfect safety from enemies and persecutors, the Psalmist delights to express his confidence in God. Yahweh, in virtue of His righteous judgments, is a high tower to the downtrodden, a place of refuge and security (misgabh) to those who are in trouble (Psalm 9:9). When he exults in the strength of God who has given him deliverance, he multiplies words to utter his confidence: "I love Thee, O Yahweh, my strength. Yahweh is my rock, and my fortress (metsudhah),. my God. my high tower (misgabh)" (Psalm 18:1, 2). Thirteen times in the Psalms we find this word: Psalm 9:9; Psalm 18:2; Psalm 46:7, 11; 59:9, 16, 17 (where the King James Version translates "defence" and the Revised Version (British and American) "high tower"), etc. Elsewhere metsudhah is employed (Psalm 31:2; literally, "house of fortresses"; Psalm 91:2; Psalm 144:2). If we were at liberty to accept such psalms as Psalms 18:59 as Davidic, the appropriateness of them to the circumstances of the Shepherd King when persecuted by Saul, taking refuge in the cave of Adullam and enduring the perils and anxieties of an outlaw's life, would at once be apparent.
2. The Prophets:
Although Jeremiah has been called the weeping prophet, yet for the fearless fulfillment of his commission to a gainsaying people, God made him "a fortified city (`ir mibhtsar), and an iron pillar, and brazen walls" (Jeremiah 1:18; compare Jeremiah 6:27; Jeremiah 15:20). Hosea in the Northern Kingdom predicted the destruction of its "fortresses" (mibhtsar) by the invading Assyrians (10:14; compare 8:14). The prophets in proclaiming God's message to their day addressed themselves not only to Israel and Judah, but also to those great world-powers with which the Hebrew people had relations. In the oracles of the prophets to the nations-to Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Syria, Edom, and others-we obtain glimpses of great and fortified cities like No-amon (Thebes), Babylon, Nineveh, Damascus, whose natural defenses and added fortifications did not save them from capture and destruction. And the teaching of the prophets for the comfort of Israel and Judah is that Yahweh was a better defense to them than the great rivers of Assyria and Egypt were to those nations. When Nineveh was at the height of her pride, fierceness and worldly glory, Nahum asks her: "Art thou better than No-amon (Thebes of Egypt), that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about her; whose rampart (chel) was the sea (the Nile), and her wall (chomah) was of the sea?" (Nahum 3:8). Of Nineveh itself we know that it was protected, not only by walls and fortresses of great strength, but also by canals and streams drawn round the city. Yet Nahum declares in his sublime apostrophe: "All thy fortresses shall be like figtrees with the first-ripe figs: if they be shaken, they fall into the mouth of the eater" (Nahum 3:12). Babylon had walls whose strength and height, as described by Herodotus and other historians, were fabulous. Its great monarch Nebuchadrezzar was in his day the greatest ruler of the East, and Sir Henry Layard has told that scarcely a brick unearthed in the mounds of the great Babylonian plain was without his name. Yet when the day of reckoning came, the wall, said to be mountain-high, and 80 ft. thick, with its moat so broad that an arrow could not be shot over it, and all its elaborate works of defense, were as if they had not been; it surrendered to Cyrus without a blow being struck. It is in the visions of the prophets, in the universal peace which is to accompany the restoration of Israel, that we hear of "them that are at rest, that dwell securely, all of them dwelling without walls, and having neither bars nor gates" (Ezekiel 38:11). "In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah: We have a strong city; salvation will he appoint for walls and bulwarks" (chel) (Isaiah 26:1). "Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, desolation nor destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise" (Isaiah 60:18). Building of fenced cities, with riding upon horses and military preparation, was a note of the false prophet, who urged alliances with foreign powers such as Assyria and Egypt, anal relied too much upon the material resources of the nation. The true prophet realized that the strength of the nation lay in God and urged the people to put their trust in Him (Hosea 8:14). "Jerusalem," says Zechariah in the days of the Return, "shall be inhabited as villages without walls, by reason of the multitude of men and cattle therein.
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Fortified (79 Occurrences)
Numbers 13:19 and what the land 'is' in which it is dwelling, whether it 'is' good or bad; and what 'are' the cities in which it is dwelling, whether in camps or in fortresses; (See NIV)
Numbers 13:28 However the people who dwell in the land are strong, and the cities are fortified, and very great: and moreover we saw the children of Anak there. (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 21:24 And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and possessed his land from the Arnon unto the Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon; for the border of the children of Ammon was strong. (See NIV)
Numbers 32:17 but we ourselves will be ready armed to go before the children of Israel, until we have brought them to their place: and our little ones shall dwell in the fortified cities because of the inhabitants of the land. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 32:36 and Beth Nimrah, and Beth Haran: fortified cities, and folds for sheep. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 1:28 Where are we going up? our brothers have made our heart to melt, saying,'The people are greater and taller than we; the cities are great and fortified up to the sky; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakim there.'" (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 3:5 All these were cities fortified with high walls, gates, and bars; besides the unwalled towns a great many. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 9:1 Hear, Israel: you are to pass over the Jordan this day, to go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than yourself, cities great and fortified up to the sky, (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 28:52 They shall besiege you in all your gates, until your high and fortified walls come down, in which you trusted, throughout all your land; and they shall besiege you in all your gates throughout all your land, which Yahweh your God has given you. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:20 It happened, when Joshua and the children of Israel had finished killing them with a very great slaughter until they were consumed, and the remnant which remained of them had entered into the fortified cities, (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 14:12 Now therefore give me this hill country, of which Yahweh spoke in that day; for you heard in that day how the Anakim were there, and great and fortified cities. It may be that Yahweh will be with me, and I shall drive them out, as Yahweh spoke." (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 19:29 The border turned to Ramah, to the fortified city of Tyre; and the border turned to Hosah. It ended at the sea by the region of Achzib; (WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 19:35 The fortified cities were Ziddim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 6:18 and the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five lords, both of fortified cities and of country villages, even to the great stone, whereon they set down the ark of Yahweh, which stone remains to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 20:6 David said to Abishai, "Now Sheba the son of Bichri will do us more harm than did Absalom. Take your lord's servants, and pursue after him, lest he get himself fortified cities, and escape out of our sight." (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 24:7 and they came to the fortified city of Tyre, and to all the cities of the Hivites and of the Canaanites; and went out to the south of Judah, to Beer-sheba. (DBY)
1 Kings 12:25 Then Jeroboam built Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and lived in it; and he went out from there, and built Penuel. (See NIV)
1 Kings 15:17 Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah, and built Ramah, that he might not allow anyone to go out or come in to Asa king of Judah. (See NAS NIV)
1 Kings 16:24 And he bought the hill Samaria of Shemer for two talents of silver; and he built on the hill, and called the name of the city which he built, after the name of Shemer, the owner of the hill, Samaria. (See RSV)
1 Kings 22:39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all that he did, and the ivory house which he built, and all the cities that he built, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (See NIV)
2 Kings 3:19 You shall strike every fortified city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all springs of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.'" (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 8:12 And Hazael saith, 'Wherefore is my lord weeping?' and he saith, 'Because I have known the evil that thou dost to the sons of Israel -- their fenced places thou dost send into fire, and their young men with sword thou dost slay, and their sucklings thou dost dash to pieces, and their pregnant women thou dost rip up.' (See NIV)
2 Kings 10:2 "Now as soon as this letter comes to you, since your master's sons are with you, and there are with you chariots and horses, a fortified city also, and armor. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 17:9 The children of Israel did secretly things that were not right against Yahweh their God: and they built them high places in all their cities, from the tower of the watchmen to the fortified city; (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 18:8 He struck the Philistines to Gaza and its borders, from the tower of the watchmen to the fortified city. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 18:13 Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 19:25 Haven't you heard how I have done it long ago, and formed it of ancient times? Now have I brought it to pass, that it should be yours to lay waste fortified cities into ruinous heaps. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 8:5 Also he built Beth Horon the upper, and Beth Horon the lower, fortified cities, with walls, gates, and bars; (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 11:10 and Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron, which are in Judah and in Benjamin, fortified cities. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 11:11 He fortified the strongholds, and put captains in them, and stores of food, and oil and wine. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS)
2 Chronicles 11:23 He dealt wisely, and dispersed of all his sons throughout all the lands of Judah and Benjamin, to every fortified city: and he gave them food in abundance. He sought for them many wives. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 12:4 He took the fortified cities which pertained to Judah, and came to Jerusalem. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 14:6 He built fortified cities in Judah; for the land was quiet, and he had no war in those years, because Yahweh had given him rest. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 16:1 In the six and thirtieth year of the reign of Asa, Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah, and built Ramah, that he might not allow anyone to go out or come in to Asa king of Judah. (See NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 16:6 Then King Asa, with all Judah, took away the stones and wood with which Baasha was building Ramah, and he made use of them for building Geba and Mizpah. (See NAS)
2 Chronicles 17:2 He placed forces in all the fortified cities of Judah, and set garrisons in the land of Judah, and in the cities of Ephraim, which Asa his father had taken. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 17:19 These were those who waited on the king, besides those whom the king put in the fortified cities throughout all Judah. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 19:5 He set judges in the land throughout all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city, (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 21:3 Their father gave them great gifts, of silver, and of gold, and of precious things, with fortified cities in Judah: but the kingdom gave he to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 26:9 Moreover Uzziah built towers in Jerusalem at the corner gate, and at the valley gate, and at the turning of the wall, and fortified them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:1 After these things, and this faithfulness, Sennacherib king of Assyria came, and entered into Judah, and encamped against the fortified cities, and thought to win them for himself. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:5 And he strengthened himself, and built up all the wall that was broken down, and raised it up to the towers, and built another wall outside, and fortified the Millo of the city of David, and made darts and shields in abundance. (DBY)
2 Chronicles 33:14 Now after this he built an outer wall to the city of David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, even to the entrance at the fish gate; and he encircled Ophel with it, and raised it up to a very great height: and he put valiant captains in all the fortified cities of Judah. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 36:19 They burnt the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all its palaces with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels of it. (See NAS)
Nehemiah 3:8 Next to him repaired Uzziel the son of Harhaiah, goldsmiths. Next to him repaired Hananiah one of the perfumers, and they fortified Jerusalem even to the broad wall. (WEB KJV ASV WBS)
Nehemiah 9:25 They took fortified cities, and a fat land, and possessed houses full of all good things, cisterns dug out, vineyards, and olive groves, and fruit trees in abundance: so they ate, and were filled, and became fat, and delighted themselves in your great goodness. (WEB JPS ASV NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 60:9 Who will bring me into the strong city? Who hath led me unto Edom? (See JPS RSV NIV)
Psalms 108:10 Who will bring me into the fortified city? Who has led me to Edom? (WEB JPS ASV RSV NIV)
Proverbs 10:15 The property of the man of wealth is his strong town: the poor man's need is his destruction. (See NIV)
Proverbs 18:11 The property of a man of wealth is his strong town, and it is as a high wall in the thoughts of his heart. (See NIV)
Proverbs 18:19 A brother offended is more difficult than a fortified city; and disputes are like the bars of a castle. (WEB NIV)
Isaiah 2:15 For every lofty tower, for every fortified wall, (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 13:22 And Aiim have responded in his forsaken habitations, And dragons in palaces of delight, And near to come 'is' her time, And her days are not drawn out! (See NAS)
Isaiah 17:3 The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus; and the remnant of Aram shall be as the glory of the children of Israel, saith the LORD of hosts. (See NAS NIV)
Isaiah 25:2 For you have made a city into a heap, a fortified city into a ruin, a palace of strangers to be no city. It will never be built. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 25:12 And the high fortress of thy walls will He bring down, lay low, and bring to the ground, even to the dust. (See NIV)
Isaiah 27:10 For the fortified city is solitary, a habitation deserted and forsaken, like the wilderness. The calf will feed there, and there he will lie down, and consume its branches. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 34:13 And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and thistles in the fortresses thereof; and it shall be a habitation of wild-dogs, an enclosure for ostriches. (See NAS)
Isaiah 36:1 Now it happened in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria attacked all of the fortified cities of Judah, and captured them. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 37:26 Have you not heard how I have done it long ago, and formed it in ancient times? Now I have brought it to pass, that it should be yours to destroy fortified cities, turning them into ruinous heaps. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 1:18 For, behold, I have made you this day a fortified city, and an iron pillar, and bronze walls, against the whole land, against the kings of Judah, against its princes, against its priests, and against the people of the land. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 4:5 Declare in Judah, and publish in Jerusalem; and say, Blow the trumpet in the land! Cry aloud and say, Assemble yourselves, and let us go into the fortified cities. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 5:17 They shall eat up your harvest, and your bread, which your sons and your daughters should eat; they shall eat up your flocks and your herds; they shall eat up your vines and your fig trees; they shall beat down your fortified cities, in which you trust, with the sword. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 8:14 Why do we sit still? Assemble yourselves, and let us enter into the fortified cities, and let us be silent there; for Yahweh our God has put us to silence, and given us water of gall to drink, because we have sinned against Yahweh. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 15:20 I will make you to this people a fortified bronze wall; and they shall fight against you, but they shall not prevail against you; for I am with you to save you and to deliver you, says Yahweh. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 34:7 when the king of Babylon's army was fighting against Jerusalem, and against all the cities of Judah that were left, against Lachish and against Azekah; for these alone remained of the cities of Judah as fortified cities. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 48:18 Come down from honour, sit in thirst, O inhabitant, daughter of Dibon, For a spoiler of Moab hath come up to thee, He hath destroyed thy fenced places. (See NIV)
Jeremiah 49:27 I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall devour the palaces of Ben Hadad. (See NAS)
Ezekiel 19:7 And it knoweth his forsaken habitations, And their cities it hath laid waste, And desolate is the land and its fulness, Because of the voice of his roaring. (See NAS)
Ezekiel 21:20 You shall appoint a way for the sword to come to Rabbah of the children of Ammon, and to Judah in Jerusalem the fortified. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 27:32 And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee,'saying, Who is there like Tyre, like her that is brought to silence in the midst of the sea? (See JPS)
Ezekiel 36:35 They shall say, This land that was desolate is become like the garden of Eden; and the waste and desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited. (WEB JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 11:15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mound, and take a well-fortified city: and the forces of the south shall not stand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to stand. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 11:24 In time of peace shall he enter even into the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers: he shall scatter among them prey, and spoil, and substance, and he shall plan his devices against the fortified places, even for a time. (DBY)
Hosea 8:14 For Israel has forgotten his Maker and built palaces; and Judah has multiplied fortified cities; but I will send a fire on his cities, and it will devour its fortresses." Zechariah (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Amos 5:9 Who is brightening up the spoiled against the strong, And the spoiled against a fortress cometh. (See NIV)
Micah 7:12 In that day also he shall come even to thee from Assyria, and from the fortified cities, and from the fortress even to the river, and from sea to sea, and from mountain to mountain. (KJV WBS)
Habakkuk 1:10 He makes little of kings, rulers are a sport to him; all the strong places are to be laughed at; for he makes earthworks and takes them. (See NIV)
Zephaniah 1:16 a day of the trumpet and alarm, against the fortified cities, and against the high battlements. (WEB JPS ASV WBS NAS RSV NIV)