|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
When Joshua took the city of Ai (Joshua 8), he burned it and "made it an heap [Hebrews tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to Mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name 'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, `the heap' par excellence."
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A crowd; a throng; a multitude or great number of persons.
2. (n.) A great number or large quantity of things not placed in a pile.
3. (n.) A pile or mass; a collection of things laid in a body, or thrown together so as to form an elevation; as, a heap of earth or stones.
4. (v. t.) To collect in great quantity; to amass; to lay up; to accumulate; -- usually with up; as, to heap up treasures.
5. (v. t.) To throw or lay in a heap; to make a heap of; to pile; as, to heap stones; -- often with up; as, to heap up earth; or with on; as, to heap on wood or coal.
6. (v. t.) To form or round into a heap, as in measuring; to fill (a measure) more than even full.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
hep (`aremah, gal, nedh, tel): "Heap" appears
(1) in the simple sense of a gathering or pile, as the translation of `aremah, a "heap," in Ruth 3:7 of grain; Nehemiah 4:2 of stones; in 2 Chronicles 31:6, etc., of the tithes, etc.; of chomer (boiling up), a "heap"; in Exodus 8:14 of frogs; of gal, a "heap"; in Job 8:17 of stones.
(2) As indicating "ruin," "waste," gal (2 Kings 19:25 Job 15:28 Isaiah 25:2; Isaiah 37:26 Jeremiah 9:11; Jeremiah 51:37); me`i (Isaiah 17:1); `i (Psalm 79:1 Jeremiah 26:18 Micah 1:6; Micah 3:12); tel, "mound," "hillock," "heap" (Deuteronomy 13:16 Joshua 8:28 Jeremiah 30:18 the King James Version; Jeremiah 49:2).
(3) Of waters, nedh, "heap," "pile" (Exodus 15:8 Joshua 3:13, 16 Psalm 33:7; Psalm 78:13); chomer (Habakkuk 3:15, "the heap of mighty waters," the Revised Version margin "surge").
(4) A cairn, or heap of stones (a) over the dead body of a dishonored person, gal (Joshua 7:26; Joshua 8:29 2 Samuel 18:17); (b) as a witness or boundary-heap (Genesis 31:46, Gal`edh (Galeed) in Hebrew, also mitspah, "watch tower," Yeghar-Sahadhutha' (Jegar-sahadutha) in Aramaic, both words meaning "the heap of witness"; see Genesis 31:47, 49 the Revised Version (British and American)).
(5) As a way mark, tamrurim, from tamar, "to stand erect" (Jeremiah 31:21 the King James Version, "Set thee up waymarks, make thee high heaps," the Revised Version (British and American) "guide-posts," a more likely translation).
"To heap" represents various single words: chathah, "to take," "to take hold of," with one exception, applied to fire or burning coals (Proverbs 25:22, "Thou writ heap coals of fire upon his head," "Thou wilt take coals of fire (and heap them) on his head"); caphah, "to add" (Deuteronomy 32:23); tsabhar, "to heap up" (Habakkuk 1:10); kabhats, "to press together" (with the fingers or hand) (Habakkuk 2:5); rabhah, "to multiply" (Ezekiel 24:10); episoreuo, "to heap up upon" (2 Timothy 4:3, they "will heap to themselves teachers after their own lusts"); soreuo, "to heap up" (Romans 12:20, "Thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head"); thesaurizo, "to lay up" (as treasure) (James 5:3 the King James Version, "Ye have heaped treasure together," the Revised Version (British and American) "laid up"); tsabhar, "to heap up," "to heap" or "store up" (Job 27:16, "silver"; Psalm 39:6, "riches"; Zechariah 9:3, "silver,"); sum, sim "to place," "set," "put" (Job 36:13 the King James Version, "The hypocrites in heart heap up wrath," the Revised Version (British and American) "They that are godless in heart lay up anger"). In Judges 15:16 we have chamor, chamorothayim, "with the jawbone of an ass, heaps upon heaps," the Revised Version margin "heap, two heaps"; one of Samson's sayings; chamor means "an ass," chomer "a heap."
For "heap up words" (Job 16:4), the Revised Version (British and American) has "join together"; for "shall be a heap" (Isaiah 17:11), "fleeth away," margin "shall be a heap"; "heap" for "number" (Nahum 3:3); the English Revised Version "heap of stones" for "sling," margin as the King James Version and the American Standard Revised Version (Proverbs 26:8); "in one heap" for "upon a heap" (Joshua 3:16); "he heapeth up (dust)" for "they shall heap" (Habakkuk 1:10).
W. L. Walker
Heap (66 Occurrences)
Matthew 6:7 And -- praying -- ye may not use vain repetitions like the nations, for they think that in their much speaking they shall be heard, (See RSV)
Romans 12:20 Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Thessalonians 2:16 forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they may be saved; to fill up their sins always. But wrath has come on them to the uttermost. (See NIV)
2 Timothy 4:3 For the time will come when they will not listen to the sound doctrine, but, having itching ears, will heap up for themselves teachers after their own lusts; (WEB KJV ASV DBY YLT)
1 Peter 4:4 They think it is strange that you don't run with them into the same excess of riot, blaspheming: (See NIV)
Genesis 31:46 Jacob said to his relatives, "Gather stones." They took stones, and made a heap. They ate there by the heap. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:48 Laban said, "This heap is witness between me and you this day." Therefore it was named Galeed (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:51 Laban said to Jacob, "See this heap, and see the pillar, which I have set between me and you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:52 May this heap be a witness, and the pillar be a witness, that I will not pass over this heap to you, and that you will not pass over this heap and this pillar to me, for harm. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 41:35 and they gather all the food of these good years that are coming, and heap up corn under the hand of Pharaoh -- food in the cities; and they have kept 'it', (YLT)
Exodus 8:14 They gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:8 With the blast of your nostrils, the waters were piled up. The floods stood upright as a heap. The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 4:12 even the whole bull shall he carry forth outside the camp to a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire. Where the ashes are poured out it shall be burned. (See NIV)
Leviticus 26:30 I will destroy your high places, and cut down your incense altars, and cast your dead bodies upon the bodies of your idols; and my soul will abhor you. (See NAS)
Deuteronomy 13:16 You shall gather all its spoil into the midst of its street, and shall burn with fire the city, and all its spoil every whit, to Yahweh your God: and it shall be a heap forever; it shall not be built again. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 32:23 "I will heap evils on them. I will spend my arrows on them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 3:13 It shall come to pass, when the soles of the feet of the priests who bear the ark of Yahweh, the Lord of all the earth, rest in the waters of the Jordan, that the waters of the Jordan will be cut off, even the waters that come down from above; and they shall stand in one heap." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 3:16 that the waters which came down from above stood, and rose up in one heap, a great way off, at Adam, the city that is beside Zarethan; and those that went down toward the sea of the Arabah, even the Salt Sea, were wholly cut off. Then the people passed over right against Jericho. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 7:26 They raised over him a great heap of stones that remains to this day. Yahweh turned from the fierceness of his anger. Therefore the name of that place was called "The valley of Achor" to this day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 8:28 So Joshua burnt Ai, and made it a heap forever, even a desolation, to this day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 8:29 He hanged the king of Ai on a tree until the evening, and at the sundown Joshua commanded, and they took his body down from the tree, and threw it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised a great heap of stones on it that remains to this day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Judges 15:5 and kindleth fire in the torches, and sendeth 'them' out into the standing corn of the Philistines, and burneth 'it' from heap even unto standing corn, even unto vineyard -- olive-yard. (YLT)
Ruth 3:7 When Boaz had eaten and drunk, and his heart was merry, he went to lie down at the end of the heap of grain. She came softly, uncovered his feet, and laid her down. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 2:8 He raises up the poor out of the dust. He lifts up the needy from the dunghill, To make them sit with princes, and inherit the throne of glory. For the pillars of the earth are Yahweh's. He has set the world on them. (See NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 20:19 When you have stayed three days, you shall go down quickly, and come to the place where you did hide yourself when the business was in hand, and shall remain by the stone Ezel. (See RSV)
1 Samuel 20:41 As soon as the boy was gone, David arose out of a place toward the South, and fell on his face to the ground, and bowed himself three times. They kissed one another, and wept one with another, and David wept the most. (See RSV)
2 Samuel 18:17 They took Absalom, and cast him into the great pit in the forest, and raised over him a very great heap of stones. Then all Israel fled everyone to his tent. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 9:8 Though this house is so high, yet shall everyone who passes by it be astonished, and shall hiss; and they shall say,'Why has Yahweh done thus to this land, and to this house?' (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 6:11 Also I have made a decree, that whoever shall alter this word, let a beam be pulled out from his house, and let him be lifted up and fastened thereon; and let his house be made a dunghill for this: (See NAS)
Job 8:17 His roots are wrapped about the heap, and seeth the place of stones. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Job 16:4 I also could speak as ye do: if your soul were in my soul's stead, I could heap up words against you, and shake mine head at you. (KJV WBS)
Job 21:32 And he -- to the graves he is brought. And over the heap a watch is kept. (YLT)
Job 27:16 Though he heap up silver as the dust, and prepare clothing as the clay; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Job 30:24 Howbeit doth not one stretch out the hand in his fall? Or in his calamity therefore cry for help? (See JPS YLT NAS RSV)
Job 36:13 But the hypocrites in heart heap up wrath: they cry not when he bindeth them. (KJV DBY WBS)
Psalms 33:7 He gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap. He lays up the deeps in storehouses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Psalms 73:12 Behold, these are the wicked, and they prosper in the world: they heap up riches. (DBY)
Psalms 78:13 He split the sea, and caused them to pass through. He made the waters stand as a heap. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Psalms 110:6 He will judge among the nations. He will heap up dead bodies. He will crush the ruler of the whole earth. (WEB NIV)
Psalms 113:7 He raises up the poor out of the dust. Lifts up the needy from the ash heap; (WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 25:22 for you will heap coals of fire on his head, and Yahweh will reward you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 26:8 As a bag of gems in a stoneheap, so is he that giveth honour to a fool. (DBY JPS)
Ecclesiastes 2:26 For to the man who pleases him, God gives wisdom, knowledge, and joy; but to the sinner he gives travail, to gather and to heap up, that he may give to him who pleases God. This also is vanity and a chasing after wind. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT RSV)
Ecclesiastes 3:5 A time to cast away stones, And a time to heap up stones. A time to embrace, And a time to be far from embracing. (YLT)
Song of Songs 7:2 Your body is like a round goblet, no mixed wine is wanting. Your waist is like a heap of wheat, set about with lilies. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 3:6 When one man puts his hand on another in his father's house, and says, You have clothing, be our ruler and be responsible for us in our sad condition: (See RSV NIV)
Isaiah 17:1 The burden of Damascus: "Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city, and it will be a ruinous heap. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Isaiah 17:11 In the day shalt thou make thy plant to grow, and in the morning shalt thou make thy seed to flourish: but the harvest shall be a heap in the day of grief and of desperate sorrow. (KJV JPS WBS YLT NAS)
Isaiah 25:2 For you have made a city into a heap, a fortified city into a ruin, a palace of strangers to be no city. It will never be built. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 30:1 Woe to the rebellious children, saith Jehovah, who take counsel, but not of me, and who make leagues, but not by my Spirit, that they may heap sin upon sin; (DBY NIV)
Jeremiah 9:11 I will make Jerusalem heaps, a dwelling place of jackals; and I will make the cities of Judah a desolation, without inhabitant. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 26:18 Micah the Morashtite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying, Thus says Yahweh of Armies: Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 30:18 Thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will bring again the captivity of Jacob's tents, and have mercy on his dwellingplaces; and the city shall be builded upon her own heap, and the palace shall remain after the manner thereof. (KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Jeremiah 49:2 Therefore, behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard against Rabbah of the children of Ammon; and it shall become a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel possess those who did possess him, says Yahweh. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Jeremiah 51:37 Babylon shall become heaps, a dwelling place for jackals, an astonishment, and a hissing, without inhabitant. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 24:10 Heap on the wood, make the fire hot, boil well the flesh, and make thick the broth, and let the bones be burned. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 32:5 And I will lay thy flesh upon the mountains, and fill the valleys with the heap of thy members; (DBY)
Daniel 2:5 The king answered the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if you don't make known to me the dream and its interpretation, you shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill. (See NAS)
Daniel 3:29 Therefore I make a decree, that every people, nation, and language, which speak anything evil against the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, shall be cut in pieces, and their houses shall be made a dunghill; because there is no other god who is able to deliver after this sort. (See NAS)
Micah 1:6 Therefore I will make Samaria like a rubble heap of the field, like places for planting vineyards; and I will pour down its stones into the valley, and I will uncover its foundations. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Micah 3:12 Therefore Zion for your sake will be plowed like a field, and Jerusalem will become heaps of rubble, and the mountain of the temple like the high places of a forest. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nahum 3:3 the horseman mounting, and the flashing sword, the glittering spear, and a multitude of slain, and a great heap of corpses, and there is no end of the bodies. They stumble on their bodies, (WEB JPS ASV RSV)
Habakkuk 1:10 And they shall scoff at the kings, and the princes shall be a scorn unto them: they shall deride every strong hold; for they shall heap dust, and take it. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Habakkuk 3:15 Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses, through the heap of great waters. (KJV ASV DBY)
Haggai 2:16 Through all that time, when one came to a heap of twenty measures, there were only ten. When one came to the wine vat to draw out fifty, there were only twenty. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 9:3 Tyre built herself a stronghold, and heaped up silver like the dust, and fine gold like the mire of the streets. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT RSV NIV)