|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) A force in nature which is recognized in various effects, but especially in the phenomena of fusion and evaporation, and which, as manifested in fire, the sun's rays, mechanical action, chemical combination, etc., becomes directly known to us through the sense of feeling. In its nature heat is a mode if motion, being in general a form of molecular disturbance or vibration. It was formerly supposed to be a subtle, imponderable fluid, to which was given the name caloric.
2. (n.) The sensation caused by the force or influence of heat when excessive, or above that which is normal to the human body; the bodily feeling experienced on exposure to fire, the sun's rays, etc.; the reverse of cold.
3. (n.) High temperature, as distinguished from low temperature, or cold; as, the heat of summer and the cold of winter; heat of the skin or body in fever, etc.
4. (n.) Indication of high temperature; appearance, condition, or color of a body, as indicating its temperature; redness; high color; flush; degree of temperature to which something is heated, as indicated by appearance, condition, or otherwise.
5. (n.) A single complete operation of heating, as at a forge or in a furnace; as, to make a horseshoe in a certain number of heats.
6. (n.) A violent action unintermitted; a single effort; a single course in a race that consists of two or more courses; as, he won two heats out of three.
7. (n.) Utmost violence; rage; vehemence; as, the heat of battle or party.
8. (n.) Agitation of mind; inflammation or excitement; exasperation.
9. (n.) Animation, as in discourse; ardor; fervency.
10. (n.) Sexual excitement in animals.
11. (n.) Fermentation.
12. (v. t.) To make hot; to communicate heat to, or cause to grow warm; as, to heat an oven or furnace, an iron, or the like.
13. (v. t.) To excite or make hot by action or emotion; to make feverish.
14. (v. t.) To excite ardor in; to rouse to action; to excite to excess; to inflame, as the passions.
15. (v. i.) To grow warm or hot by the action of fire or friction, etc., or the communication of heat; as, the iron or the water heats slowly.
16. (v. i.) To grow warm or hot by fermentation, or the development of heat by chemical action; as, green hay heats in a mow, and manure in the dunghill.
17. (imp. & p. p.) Heated; as, the iron though heat red-hot.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
fi'-er-i, fir'-i het:
In Deuteronomy 28:22, where the King James Version has "an extreme burning."
het (chom, horebh, "drought," Job 30:30 Isaiah 4:6; Isaiah 25:4 Jeremiah 36:30; sharabh, Isaiah 49:10, translated in the Revised Version margin "mirage"; zestos, "fervent," Revelation 3:15, therme, Acts 28:3, kauma, Revelation 7:16, kauson, Matthew 20:12; see MIRAGE):
1. Dreaded in Palestine:
The heat of the summer is greatly dreaded in Palestine, and as a rule the people rest under cover during the middle of the day, when the sun is hottest. There is no rain from May to October, and scarcely a cloud in the sky to cool the air or to screen off the burning vertical rays of the sun. The first word of advice given to visitors to the country is to protect themselves from the sun. Even on the mountains, where the temperature of the air is lower, the sun is perhaps more fierce, owing to the lesser density of the atmosphere.
2. Causes Disease:
This continuous summer heat often causes sunstroke, and the glare causes diseases of the eye which affect a large percentage of the people of Palestine and Egypt.
3. Relief Sought:
It is to be expected that in these times of heat and drought the ideal pleasure has come to be to sit in the shade by some cool flowing fountain. In the mountains the village which has the coolest spring of water is the most desired. These considerations give renewed meaning to the passages: "as cold waters to a thirsty soul" (Proverbs 25:25); "He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside still waters" (Psalm 23:2). What a blessing to be "under the shadow of the Almighty" (Psalm 91:1), where "the sun shall not strike upon them, nor any heat" (Revelation 7:16)!
4. Midday Heat:
The middle of the day is often referred to as the "heat of the day" (1 Samuel 11:11). It made a great difference to the army whether it could win the battle before the midday heat. Saladin won the great battle at Hattin by taking advantage of this fact. It was a particular time of the day when it was the custom to rest. "They came about the heat of the day to the house of Ish-bosheth, as he took his rest at noon" (2 Samuel 4:5). Yahweh appeared to Abraham as "he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day" (Genesis 18:1). The hardship of working throughout the day is expressed in Matthew 20:12, "who have borne the burden of the day and scorching heat." Sometimes just after sunrise the contrast of the cold of night and the heat of the sun is especially noticeable. "The sun ariseth with the scorching wind" (James 1:11).
5. Summer Heat:
In summer the wind is usually from the Southwest, but in case it is from the South it is sure to be hot. "When ye see a south wind blowing, ye say, There will be a scorching heat" (Luke 12:55). The heat on a damp, sultry day, when the atmosphere is full of dust haze is especially oppressive, and is referred to in Isaiah 25:5 as "the heat by the shade of a cloud." The heat of summer melts the snow on the mountains and causes all vegetation to dry up and wither. Ice and snow vanish in the heat thereof (Job 6:17), "Drought and heat consume the snow waters" (Job 24:19). But the "tree planted by the waters, that spreadeth out its roots by the river. shall not fear when heat cometh, but its leaf shall be green" (Jeremiah 17:8).
6. Figurative Uses:
The word is used often in connection with anger in the Scriptures: "hot anger" (Exodus 11:8); "hot displeasure" (Deuteronomy 9:19); "anger of the Lord was hot against Israel" (Judges 2:14 the King James Version); "thine anger from waxing hot" (Psalm 85:3 King James Version, margin); "I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot" (Revelation 3:15).
Alfred H. Joy
Heat (104 Occurrences)
Matthew 13:6 but when the sun is risen, it is scorched by the heat, and through having no root it withers up. (WEY)
Matthew 20:12 saying,'These last have spent one hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat!' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 1:30 Now Simon's wife's mother was ill, with a burning heat; and they gave him word of her: (BBE)
Luke 4:38 And he got up and went out of the Synagogue and went into the house of Simon. And Simon's wife's mother was very ill with a burning heat; and in answer to their prayers for her (BBE)
Luke 12:55 When a south wind blows, you say,'There will be a scorching heat,' and it happens. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Acts 28:3 But when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and laid them on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat, and fastened on his hand. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:8 But to those who, from a love of competition, are not guided by what is true, will come the heat of his wrath, (BBE)
Ephesians 4:31 Let all bitterness, and heat of passion, and wrath, and clamour, and injurious language, be removed from you, with all malice; (DBY)
Hebrews 10:27 but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and heat of fire about to devour the adversaries. (DBY)
James 1:11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion of it perisheth: so also shall the rich man fade away in his ways. (KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will be dissolved with fervent heat, and the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Peter 3:12 looking for and earnestly desiring the coming of the day of God, which will cause the burning heavens to be dissolved, and the elements will melt with fervent heat? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Revelation 7:16 They will never be hungry, neither thirsty any more; neither will the sun beat on them, nor any heat; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:9 People were scorched with great heat, and people blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues. They didn't repent and give him glory. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 8:22 While the earth remains, seed time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 18:1 Yahweh appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:38 He set the rods which he had peeled opposite the flocks in the gutters in the watering-troughs where the flocks came to drink. They conceived when they came to drink. (See NIV)
Genesis 30:41 It happened, whenever the stronger of the flock conceived, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the flock in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods; (See NIV)
Genesis 31:40 This was my condition, wasted by heat in the day and by the bitter cold at night; and sleep went from my eyes. (BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 11:8 and all these thy servants have come down unto me, and bowed themselves to me, saying, Go out, thou and all the people who 'are' at thy feet; and afterwards I do go out;' -- and he goeth out from Pharaoh in the heat of anger. (YLT)
Exodus 22:24 And in the heat of my wrath I will put you to death with the sword, so that your wives will be widows and your children without fathers. (BBE)
Exodus 32:12 Why should the Egyptians speak, and say, For misfortune he has brought them out, to slay them on the mountains, and to annihilate them from the face of the earth? Turn from the heat of thine anger, and repent of this evil against thy people! (DBY YLT)
Deuteronomy 13:17 Keep not a thing of what is cursed for yourselves: so the Lord may be turned away from the heat of his wrath, and have mercy on you, and give you increase as he said in his oath to your fathers: (BBE)
Deuteronomy 19:6 For if not, he who has the right of punishment may go running after the taker of life in the heat of his wrath, and overtake him because the way is long, and give him a death-blow; though it is not right for him to be put to death because he was not moved by hate. (BBE NAS)
Deuteronomy 28:22 Yahweh will strike you with consumption, and with fever, and with inflammation, and with fiery heat, and with the sword, and with blight, and with mildew; and they shall pursue you until you perish. (WEB JPS ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 29:23 And that all the land is a salt and smoking waste, not planted or giving fruit or clothed with grass, but wasted like Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, on which the Lord sent destruction in the heat of his wrath: (BBE)
Deuteronomy 29:24 even all the nations shall say, "Why has Yahweh done thus to this land? What does the heat of this great anger mean?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 29:28 Rooting them out of their land, in the heat of his wrath and passion, and driving them out into another land, as at this day. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 32:24 They shall be wasted with hunger, and devoured with burning heat and bitter destruction. I will send the teeth of animals on them, With the poison of crawling things of the dust. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Joshua 7:26 And over him they put a great mass of stones, which is there to this day; then the heat of the Lord's wrath was turned away. So that place was named, The Valley of Achor, to this day. (BBE YLT)
1 Samuel 11:9 And they say to the messengers who are coming, 'Thus do ye say to the men of Jabesh-Gilead: To-morrow ye have safety -- by the heat of the sun;' and the messengers come and declare to the men of Jabesh, and they rejoice; (YLT)
1 Samuel 11:11 It was so on the next day, that Saul put the people in three companies; and they came into the midst of the camp in the morning watch, and struck the Ammonites until the heat of the day: and it happened, that those who remained were scattered, so that no two of them were left together. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 20:34 And Jonathan riseth from the table in the heat of anger, and hath not eaten food on the second day of the new moon, for he hath been grieved for David, for his father put him to shame. (YLT)
2 Samuel 4:5 The sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Rechab and Baanah, went, and came about the heat of the day to the house of Ishbosheth, as he took his rest at noon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 1:1 Now king David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
1 Kings 1:2 Wherefore his servants said unto him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin: and let her stand before the king, and let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, that my lord the king may get heat. (KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT)
1 Kings 8:37 If there is no food in the land, or if there is disease, or if the fruits of the earth are damaged through heat or water, locust or worm; if their towns are shut in by their attackers; whatever trouble, whatever disease there may be: (BBE)
2 Kings 23:26 But still the heat of the Lord's wrath was not turned back from Judah, because of all Manasseh had done in moving him to wrath. (BBE NIV)
2 Chronicles 6:28 If there is no food in the land, if there is disease, if the fruits of the earth are damaged by heat or water, locust or worm; if their towns are shut in by their attackers: whatever trouble or whatever disease there may be: (BBE)
2 Chronicles 25:10 And Amaziah separateth them -- for the troop that hath come in unto him from Ephraim to go to their own place, and their anger doth burn mightily against Judah, and they turn back to their place in the heat of anger. (YLT)
2 Chronicles 28:11 and now, hear me, and send back the captives whom ye have taken captive of your brethren, for the heat of the anger of Jehovah 'is' upon you.' (YLT)
2 Chronicles 29:10 Now it is my purpose to make an agreement with the Lord, the God of Israel, so that the heat of his wrath may be turned away from us. (BBE)
2 Chronicles 30:8 Now do not be hard-hearted, as your fathers were; but give yourselves to the Lord, and come into his holy place, which he has made his for ever, and be the servants of the Lord your God, so that the heat of his wrath may be turned away from you. (BBE)
Nehemiah 7:3 and I say to them, 'Let not the gates of Jerusalem be opened till the heat of the sun, and while they are standing by let them shut the doors, and fasten, and appoint guards of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, each in his guard, and each over-against his house.' (YLT)
Job 6:17 Under the burning sun they are cut off, and come to nothing because of the heat. (BBE DBY RSV NIV)
Job 20:23 God gives him his desire, and sends the heat of his wrath on him, making it come down on him like rain. (BBE)
Job 24:19 Drought and heat consume the snow waters, so does Sheol those who have sinned. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 30:30 My skin grows black and peels from me. My bones are burned with heat. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Psalms 6:1 <To the chief music-maker on corded instruments, on the Sheminith. A Psalm. Of David.> O Lord, do not be bitter with me in your wrath; do not send punishment on me in the heat of your passion. (BBE)
Psalms 19:6 His going forth is from the end of the heavens, his circuit to its ends; There is nothing hidden from its heat. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 32:4 For day and night your hand was heavy on me. My strength was sapped in the heat of summer. Selah. (WEB NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 38:1 <A Psalm. Of David. To keep in memory.> O Lord, be not bitter with me in your wrath; let not your hand be on me in the heat of your passion. (BBE)
Psalms 58:9 Before your pots can feel the heat of the thorns, he will sweep away the green and the burning alike. (WEB YLT RSV NIV)
Psalms 69:24 Let your curse come on them; let the heat of your wrath overtake them. (BBE)
Psalms 78:49 He sent on them the heat of his wrath, his bitter disgust, letting loose evil angels among them. (BBE)
Psalms 85:3 You were no longer angry: you were turned from the heat of your wrath. (BBE)
Psalms 88:16 The heat of your wrath has gone over me; I am broken by your cruel punishments. (BBE)
Psalms 90:7 We are burned up by the heat of your passion, and troubled by your wrath. (BBE)
Psalms 124:3 They would have made a meal of us while still living, in the heat of their wrath against us: (BBE)
Proverbs 21:14 By a secret offering wrath is turned away, and the heat of angry feelings by money in the folds of the robe. (BBE)
Ecclesiastes 4:11 Again, if two lie together, then they have heat: but how can one be warm alone? (KJV WBS YLT)
Song of Songs 1:7 Say, O love of my soul, where you give food to your flock, and where you make them take their rest in the heat of the day; why have I to be as one wandering by the flocks of your friends? (BBE)
Isaiah 4:6 There will be a pavilion for a shade in the daytime from the heat, and for a refuge and for a shelter from storm and from rain. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 13:9 Lo, the day of Jehovah doth come, Fierce, with wrath, and heat of anger, To make the land become a desolation, Yea, its sinning ones He destroyeth from it. (YLT)
Isaiah 13:13 Therefore the heavens I cause to tremble, And the earth doth shake from its place, In the wrath of Jehovah of Hosts, And in a day of the heat of his anger. (YLT)
Isaiah 18:4 For Yahweh said to me, "I will be still, and I will see in my dwelling place, like clear heat in sunshine, like a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 21:15 For they fled away from the swords, from the drawn sword, from the bent bow, and from the heat of battle. (WEB NIV)
Isaiah 25:4 For you have been a stronghold to the poor, a stronghold to the needy in his distress, a refuge from the storm, a shade from the heat, when the blast of the dreaded ones is like a storm against the wall. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 25:5 As the heat in a dry place will you bring down the noise of strangers; as the heat by the shade of a cloud, the song of the dreaded ones will be brought low. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 30:30 And the Lord will send out the sound of his great voice, and they will see his arm stretched out, with the heat of his wrath, and the flame of a burning fire; with a cloud-burst, and storm, and a rain of ice. (BBE)
Isaiah 42:25 For this reason he let loose on him the heat of his wrath, and his strength was like a flame; and it put fire round about him, but he did not see it; he was burned, but did not take it to heart. (BBE NAS RSV)
Isaiah 49:10 They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor sun strike them: for he who has mercy on them will lead them, even by springs of water he will guide them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Isaiah 64:1 O let the heavens be broken open and come down, so that the mountains may be shaking before you, As when fire puts the brushwood in flames, or as when water is boiling from the heat of the fire: to make your name feared by your haters, so that the nations may be shaking before you; (BBE)
Isaiah 66:15 For the Lord is coming with fire, and his war-carriages will be like the storm-wind; to give punishment in the heat of his wrath, and his passion is like flames of fire. (BBE)
Jeremiah 2:24 An untrained ass, used to the waste land, breathing up the wind in her desire; at her time, who is able to send her away? all those who are looking for her will have no need to make themselves tired; in her month they will get her. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 15:8 I have let their widows be increased in number more than the sand of the seas: I have sent against them, against the mother and the young men, one who makes waste in the heat of the day, causing pain and fears to come on her suddenly. (BBE)
Jeremiah 17:8 For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, who spreads out its roots by the river, and shall not fear when heat comes, but its leaf shall be green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 23:19 See, the storm-wind of the Lord, even the heat of his wrath, has gone out, a rolling storm, bursting on the heads of the evil-doers. (BBE)
Jeremiah 25:38 The lion has come out of his secret place, for the land has become a waste because of the cruel sword, and because of the heat of his wrath. (BBE)
Jeremiah 30:23 See, the storm-wind of the Lord, even the heat of his wrath, has gone out, a rolling storm, bursting on the heads of the evil-doers. (BBE)
Jeremiah 32:37 See, I will get them together from all the countries where I have sent them in my wrath and in the heat of my passion and in my bitter feeling; and I will let them come back into this place where they may take their rest safely. (BBE)
Jeremiah 36:30 Therefore thus says Yahweh concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah: He shall have none to sit on the throne of David; and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 49:37 And I have affrighted Elam before their enemies, And before those seeking their life, And I have brought in against them evil, The heat of Mine anger, An affirmation of Jehovah, And I have sent after them the sword, Till I have consumed them; (YLT)
Jeremiah 51:39 When they are heated, I will make their feast, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, says Yahweh. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Lamentations 2:3 He hath cut off in the heat of anger every horn of Israel, He hath turned backward His right hand From the face of the enemy, And He burneth against Jacob as a flaming fire, It hath devoured round about. (YLT)
Lamentations 5:10 Our skin is black like an oven, Because of the burning heat of famine. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV)
Ezekiel 3:14 So the Spirit lifted me up, and took me away; and I went in bitterness, in the heat of my spirit; and the hand of Yahweh was strong on me. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Ezekiel 16:42 And the heat of my wrath against you will have an end, and my bitter feeling will be turned away from you, and I will be quiet and will be angry no longer. (BBE)
Ezekiel 36:5 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Surely in the fire of my jealousy have I spoken against the residue of the heathen, and against all Idumea, which have appointed my land into their possession with the joy of all their heart, with despiteful minds, to cast it out for a prey. (Root in KJV BBE WBS)
Ezekiel 44:18 They are to have linen head-dresses on their heads and linen trousers on their legs, and they are to have nothing round them to make their skin wet with heat. (BBE)
Daniel 3:19 Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego: therefore he spoke, and commanded that they should heat the furnace seven times more than it was usually heated. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 3:22 And because the king's order was not to be put on one side, and the heat of the fire was so great, the men who took up Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego were burned to death by the flame of the fire. (BBE YLT)
Daniel 8:6 And he came to the two-horned sheep which I saw before the stream, rushing at him in the heat of his power. (BBE)
Hosea 7:5 On the day of our king, the princes made themselves sick with the heat of wine. He joined his hand with mockers. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV)
Hosea 11:9 I will not put into effect the heat of my wrath; I will not again send destruction on Ephraim; for I am God and not man, the Holy One among you; I will not put an end to you. (BBE)
Hosea 13:5 I knew you in the wilderness, in the land of great drought. (See NIV)
Jonah 3:9 Who knoweth? He doth turn back, and God hath repented, and hath turned back from the heat of His anger, and we do not perish.' (YLT)
Jonah 4:8 Then when the sun came up, God sent a burning east wind: and so great was the heat of the sun on his head that Jonah was overcome, and, requesting death for himself, said, Death is better for me than life. (BBE)
Nahum 1:6 Who may keep his place before his wrath? and who may undergo the heat of his passion? his wrath is let loose like fire and the rocks are broken open by him. (BBE YLT RSV)
Zephaniah 2:2 Before the bringing forth of a statute, As chaff hath the day passed on, While yet not come in upon you doth the heat of the anger of Jehovah, While yet not come in upon you doth a day of the anger of Jehovah, (YLT)