|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
One who follows on another's heels; supplanter, (Genesis 25:26; 27:36; Hosea 12:2-4), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Genesis 25:29-34).
When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged patriarch (Genesis 27), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The birthright secured to him who possessed it (1) superior rank in his family (Genesis 49:3); (2) a double portion of the paternal inheritance (Deuteronomy 21:17); (3) the priestly office in the family (Numbers 8:17-19); and (4) the promise of the Seed in which all nations of the earth were to be blessed (Genesis 22:18).
Soon after his acquisition of his father's blessing (Genesis 27), Jacob became conscious of his guilt; and afraid of the anger of Esau, at the suggestion of Rebekah Isaac sent him away to Haran, 400 miles or more, to find a wife among his cousins, the family of Laban, the Syrian (28). There he met with Rachel (29). Laban would not consent to give him his daughter in marriage till he had served seven years; but to Jacob these years "seemed but a few days, for the love he had to her." But when the seven years were expired, Laban craftily deceived Jacob, and gave him his daughter Leah. Other seven years of service had to be completed probably before he obtained the beloved Rachel. But "life-long sorrow, disgrace, and trials, in the retributive providence of God, followed as a consequence of this double union."
At the close of the fourteen years of service, Jacob desired to return to his parents, but at the entreaty of Laban he tarried yet six years with him, tending his flocks (31:41). He then set out with his family and property "to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan" (Genesis 31). Laban was angry when he heard that Jacob had set out on his journey, and pursued after him, overtaking him in seven days. The meeting was of a painful kind. After much recrimination and reproach directed against Jacob, Laban is at length pacified, and taking an affectionate farewell of his daughters, returns to his home in Padanaram. And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end.
Soon after parting with Laban he is met by a company of angels, as if to greet him on his return and welcome him back to the Land of Promise (32:1, 2). He called the name of the place Mahanaim, i.e., "the double camp," probably his own camp and that of the angels. The vision of angels was the counterpart of that he had formerly seen at Bethel, when, twenty years before, the weary, solitary traveller, on his way to Padan-aram, saw the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached to heaven (28:12).
He now hears with dismay of the approach of his brother Esau with a band of 400 men to meet him. In great agony of mind he prepares for the worst. He feels that he must now depend only on God, and he betakes himself to him in earnest prayer, and sends on before him a munificent present to Esau, "a present to my lord Esau from thy servant Jacob." Jacob's family were then transported across the Jabbok; but he himself remained behind, spending the night in communion with God. While thus engaged, there appeared one in the form of a man who wrestled with him. In this mysterious contest Jacob prevailed, and as a memorial of it his name was changed to Israel (wrestler with God); and the place where this occured he called Peniel, "for", said he, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved" (32:25-31).
After this anxious night, Jacob went on his way, halting, mysteriously weakened by the conflict, but strong in the assurance of the divine favour. Esau came forth and met him; but his spirit of revenge was appeased, and the brothers met as friends, and during the remainder of their lives they maintained friendly relations. After a brief sojourn at Succoth, Jacob moved forward and pitched his tent near Shechem (q.v.), 33:18; but at length, under divine directions, he moved to Bethel, where he made an altar unto God (35:6, 7), and where God appeared to him and renewed the Abrahamic covenant. While journeying from Bethel to Ephrath (the Canaanitish name of Bethlehem), Rachel died in giving birth to her second son Benjamin (35:16-20), fifteen or sixteen years after the birth of Joseph. He then reached the old family residence at Mamre, to wait on the dying bed of his father Isaac. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the patriarch (35:27-29).
Jacob was soon after this deeply grieved by the loss of his beloved son Joseph through the jealousy of his brothers (37:33). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls (Exodus 1:5; Deuteronomy 10:22; Acts 7:14), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. Here Jacob, "after being strangely tossed about on a very rough ocean, found at last a tranquil harbour, where all the best affections of his nature were gently exercised and largely unfolded" (Genesis 48). At length the end of his checkered course draws nigh, and he summons his sons to his bedside that he may bless them. Among his last words he repeats the story of Rachel's death, although forty years had passed away since that event took place, as tenderly as if it had happened only yesterday; and when "he had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed, and yielded up the ghost" (49:33). His body was embalmed and carried with great pomp into the land of Canaan, and buried beside his wife Leah in the cave of Machpelah, according to his dying charge. There, probably, his embalmed body remains to this day (50:1-13). (see HEBRON.)
The history of Jacob is referred to by the prophets Hosea (12:3, 4, 12) and Malachi (1:2). In Micah 1:5 the name is a poetic synonym for Israel, the kingdom of the ten tribes. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles (Romans 9:11-13; Hebrews 12:16; 11:21). See references to his vision at Bethel and his possession of land at Shechem in John 1:51; 4:5, 12; also to the famine which was the occasion of his going down into Egypt in Acts 7:12 (see LUZ; BETHEL.)
Noah Webster's Dictionary
(n.) A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
1. Form and Distribution
2. Etymology and Associations
II. HIS PLACE IN THE PATRIARCHAL SUCCESSION
1. As the Son of Isaac and Rebekah
2. As the Brother of Esau
3. As the Father of the Twelve
1. With Isaac in Canaan
2. To Aram and Back
3. In Canaan Again
4. Last Years in Egypt
IV. CHARACTER AND BELIEFS
1. Natural Qualities
2. Stages of Development
3. Attitude toward the Promise
4. How Far a "Type" of Israel
V. REFERENCES OUTSIDE OF GENESIS
1. In the Old Testament
2. In the New Testament
VI. MODERN INTERPRETATIONS OF JACOB
1. Personification of the Hebrew Nation
2. God and Demi-God
3. Character of Fiction
1. Form and Distribution:
ya`aqobh (5 times ya`aqowbh); Iakob, is in form a verb in the Qal imperfect, 3rd masculine singular. Like some 50 other Hebrew names of this same form, it has no subject for the verb expressed. But there are a number of independent indications that Jacob belongs to that large class of names consisting of a verb with some Divine name or title (in this case 'El) as the subject, from which the common abbreviated form is derived by omitting the subject.
(a) In Babylonian documents of the period of the Patriarchs, there occur such personal names as Ja-ku-bi, Ja-ku-ub-ilu (the former doubtless an abbreviation of the latter), and Aq-bu-u (compare Aq-bi-a-hu), according to Hilprecht a syncopated form for A-qu(?)-bu(-u), like Aq-bi-ili alongside of A-qa-bi-ili; all of which may be associated with the same root `aqabh, as appears in Jacob (see H. Ranke, Early Babylonian Personal Names, 1905, with annotations by Professor Hilprecht as editor, especially pp. 67, 113, 98 and 4).
(b) In the list of places in Palestine conquered by the Pharaoh Thutmose III appears a certain J'qb'r, which in Egyptian characters represents the Semitic letters ya`aqobh-'el, and which therefore seems to show that in the earlier half of the 15th century B.C. (so Petrie, Breasted) there was a place (not a tribe; see W. M. Muller, Asien und Europa, 162) in Central Palestine that bore a name in some way connected with "Jacob." Moreover, a Pharaoh of the Hyksos period bears a name that looks like ya`aqobh-'el (Spiegelberg, Orientalische Literaturzeitung, VII, 130).
(c) In the Jewish tractate Pirqe Abhoth, iii.l, we read of a Jew named 'Aqabhyah, which is a name composed of the same verbal root as that in Jacob, together with the Divine name Yahu (i.e. Yahweh) in its common abbreviated form. It should be noted that the personal names `Aqqubh and Ya`aqobhah (accent on the penult) also occur in the Old Testament, the former borne by no less than 4 different persons; also that in the Palmyrene inscriptions we find a person named `ath`aqobh, a name in which this same verb `aqabh is preceded by the name of the god `Ate, just as in `Aqabhyah it is followed by the name Yahu.
2. Etymology and Associations:
Such being the form and distribution of the name, it remains to inquire: What do we know of its etymology and what were the associations it conveyed to the Hebrew ear?
The verb in all its usages is capable of deduction, by simple association of ideas, from the noun "heel." "To heel" might mean:
(a) "to take hold of by the heel" (so probably Hosea 12:3; compare Genesis 27:36);
(b) "to follow with evil intent," "to supplant" or in general "to deceive" (so Genesis 27:36 Jeremiah 9:4, where the parallel, "go about with slanders," is interesting because the word so translated is akin to the noun "foot," as "supplant" is to "heel");
(c) "to follow with good intent," whether as a slave (compare our English "to heel," of a dog) for service, or as a guard for protection, hence, "to guard" (so in Ethiopic), "to keep guard over", and thus "to restrain" (so Job 37:4);
(d) "to follow," "to succeed," "to take the place of another" (so Arabic, and the Hebrew noun 'eqebh, "consequence," "recompense," whether of reward or punishment).
Among these four significations, which most commends itself as the original intent in the use of this verb to form a proper name? The answer to this question depends upon the degree of strength with which the Divine name was felt to be the subject of the verb As Jacob-el, the simplest interpretation of the name is undoubtedly, as Baethgen urges (Beitrage zur sem. Religionsgeschichte, 158), "God rewardeth" ((d) above), like Nathanael, "God hath given," etc. But we have already seen that centuries before the time when Jacob is said to have been born, this name was shortened by dropping the Divine subject; and in this shortened form it would be more likely to call up in the minds of all Semites who used it, associations with the primary, physical notion of its root ((a) above). Hence, there is no ground to deny that even in the patriarchal period, this familiar personal name Jacob lay ready at hand-a name ready made, as it were-for this child, in view of the peculiar circumstances of its birth; we may say, indeed, one could not escape the use of it. (A parallel case, perhaps, is Genesis 38:28, 30, Zerah; compare Zerahiah.) The associations of this root in everyday use in Jacob's family to mean "to supplant" led to the fresh realization of its appropriateness to his character and conduct when he was grown ((b) above). This construction does not interfere with a connection between the patriarch Jacob and the "Jacob-els" referred to above (under 1, (b)), should that connection on other grounds appear probable. Such a longer form was perhaps for every "Jacob" an alternative form of his name, and under certain circumstances may have been used by or of even the patriarch Jacob.
II. Place in the Patriarchal Succession.
1. As the Son of Isaac and Rebekah:
In the dynasty of the "heirs of the promise," Jacob takes his place, first, as the successor of Isaac. In Isaac's life the most significant single fact had been his marriage with Rebekah instead of with a woman of Canaan. Jacob therefore represents the first generation of those who are determinately separate from their environment. Abraham and his household were immigrants in Canaan; Jacob and Esau were natives of Canaan in the second generation, yet had not a drop of Canaanitish blood in their veins. Their birth was delayed till 20 years after the marriage of their parents. Rebekah's barrenness had certainly the same effect, and probably the same purpose, as that of Sarah: it drove Isaac to Divine aid, demanded of him as it had of Abraham that "faith and patience" through which they "inherited the promises" (Hebrews 6:12), and made the children of this pair also the evident gift of God's grace, so that Isaac was the better able "by faith" to "bless Jacob and Esau even concerning things to come" (Hebrews 11:20).
2. As the Brother of Esau:
These twin brothers therefore share thus far the same relation to their parents and to what their parents transmit to them. But here the likeness ceases. "Being not yet born, neither having done anything good or bad, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said unto (Rebecca), The elder shall serve the younger" (Romans 9:11, 12). In the Genesis-narrative, without any doctrinal assertions either adduced to explain it, or deduced from it, the fact is nevertheless made as clear as it is in Malachi or Romans, that Esau is rejected, and Jacob is chosen as a link in the chain of inheritance that receives and transmits the promise.
3. As Father of the Twelve:
With Jacob the last person is reached who, for his own generation, thus sums up in a single individual "the seed" of promise. He becomes the father of 12 sons, who are the progenitors of the tribes of the "peculiar people." It is for this reason that this people bears his name, and not that of his father Isaac or that of his grandfather Abraham. The "children of Israel," the "house of Jacob," are the totality of the seed of the promise. The Edomites too are children of Isaac. Ishmaelites equally with Israelites boast of descent from Abraham. But the twelve tribes that called themselves "Israel" were all descendants of Jacob, and were the only descendants of Jacob on the agnatic principle of family-constitution.
The life of a wanderer (Deuteronomy 26:5 the Revised Version, margin) such as Jacob was, may often be best divided on the geographical principle. Jacob's career falls into the four distinct periods: that of his residence with Isaac in Canaan, that of his residence with Laban in Aram, that of his independent life in Canaan and that of his migration to Egypt.
1. With Isaac in Canaan:
Jacob's birth was remarkable in respect of
(a) its delay for 20 years as noted above,
(b) that condition of his mother which led to the Divine oracle concerning his future greatness and supremacy, and
(c) the unusual phenomenon that gave him his name: "he holds by the heel" (see above, I, 2).
Unlike his twin brother, Jacob seems to have been free from any physical peculiarities; his smoothness (Genesis 27:11) is only predicated of him in contrast to Esau's hairiness. These brothers, as they developed, grew apart in tastes and habits. Jacob, like his father in his quiet manner of life and (for that reason perhaps) the companion and favorite of his mother, found early the opportunity to obtain Esau's sworn renunciation of his right of primogeniture, by taking advantage of his habits, his impulsiveness and his fundamental indifference to the higher things of the family, the things of the future (Genesis 25:32). It was not until long afterward that the companion scene to this first "supplanting" (Genesis 27:36) was enacted. Both sons meanwhile are to be thought of simply as members of Isaac's following, during all the period of his successive sojourns in Gerar, the Valley of Gerar and Beersheba (Genesis 26). Within this period, when the brothers were 40 years of age, occurred Esau's marriage with two Hittite women. Jacob, remembering his own mother's origin, bided his time to find the woman who should be the mother of his children. The question whether she should be brought to him, as Rebekah was to Isaac, or he should go to find her, was settled at last by a family feud that only his absence could heal. This feud was occasioned by the fraud that Jacob at Rebekah's behest practiced upon his father and brother, when these two were minded to nullify the clearly revealed purpose of the oracle (Genesis 25:23) and the sanctions of a solemn oath (Genesis 25:33). Isaac's partiality for Esau arose perhaps as much from Esau's resemblance to the active, impulsive nature of his mother, as from the sensual gratification afforded Isaac by the savory dishes his son's hunting supplied. At any rate, this partiality defeated itself because it overreached itself. The wife, who had learned to be eyes and ears for a husband's failing senses, detected the secret scheme, counterplotted with as much skill as unscrupulousness, and while she obtained the paternal blessing for her favorite son, fell nevertheless under the painful necessity of choosing between losing him through his brother's revenge or losing him by absence from home. She chose, of course, the latter alternative, and herself brought about Jacob's departure, by pleading to Isaac the necessity for obtaining a woman as Jacob's wife of a sort different from the Canaanitish women that Esau had married. Thus ends the first portion of Jacob's life.
2. To Aram and Back:
It is no young man that sets out thus to escape a brother's vengeance, and perhaps to find a wife at length among his mother's kindred. It was long before this that Esau at the age of forty had married the Hittite women (compare Genesis 26:34 with 27:46). Yet to one who had hitherto spent his life subordinate to his father, indulged by his mother, in awe of a brother's physical superiority, and "dwelling in tents, a quiet (domestic) man" (Genesis 25:27), this journey of 500 or 600 miles, with no one to guide, counsel or defend, was as new an experience as if he had really been the stripling that he is sometimes represented to have been. All the most significant chapters in life awaited him: self-determination, love, marriage, fatherhood, domestic provision and administration, adjustment of his relations with men, and above all a personal and independent religious experience.
Of these things, all were to come to him in the 20 years of absence from Canaan, and the last was to come first; for the dream of Jacob at Beth-el was of course but the opening scene in the long drama of God's direct dealing with Jacob. Yet it was the determinative scene, for God in His latest and fullest manifestation to Jacob was just "the God of Beth-el" (Genesis 35:7; Genesis 48:3; Genesis 49:24).
With the arrival at Haran came love at once, though not for 7 years the consummation of that love. Its strength is naively indicated by the writer in two ways: impliedly in the sudden output of physical power at the well-side (Genesis 29:10), and expressly in the patient years of toil for Rachel's sake, which "seemed unto him but a few days for the love he had to her" (Genesis 29:20). Jacob is not primarily to be blamed for the polygamy that brought trouble into his home-life and sowed the seeds of division and jealousy in the nation of the future. Although much of Israel's history can be summed up in the rivalry of Leah and Rachel-Judah and Joseph-yet it was not Jacob's choice but Laban's fraud that introduced this cause of schism. At the end of his 7 years' labor Jacob received as wife not Rachel but Leah, on the belated plea that to give the younger daughter before the elder was not the custom of the country. This was the first of the "ten times" that Laban "changed the wages" of Jacob (Genesis 31:7, 41). Rachel became Jacob's wife 7 days after Leah, and for this second wife he "served 7 other years." During these 7 years were born most of the sons and daughters (Genesis 37:35) that formed the actual family, the nucleus of that large caravan that Jacob took back with him to Canaan. Dinah is the only daughter named; Genesis 30:21 is obviously in preparation for the story of Genesis 34 (see especially 34:31). Four sons of Leah were the oldest: Reuben, with the right of primogeniture, Simeon, Levi and Judah. Next came the 4 sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, the personal slaves of the two wives (compare ABRAHAM, iv, 2); the two pairs of sons were probably of about the same age (compare order in Genesis 49). Leah's 5th and 6th sons were separated by an interval of uncertain length from her older group. And Joseph, the youngest son born in Haran, was Rachel's first child, equally beloved by his mother, and by his father for her sake (33:2; compare 44:20), as well as because he was the youngest of the eleven (37:3).
Jacob's years of service for his wives were followed by 6 years of service rendered for a stipulated wage. Laban's cunning in limiting the amount of this wage in a variety of ways was matched by Jacob's cunning in devising means to overreach his uncle, so that the penniless wanderer of 20 years before becomes the wealthy proprietor of countless cattle and of the hosts of slaves necessary for their care (Genesis 32:10). At the same time the apology of Jacob for his conduct during this entire period of residence in Haran is spirited (Genesis 31:36-42); it is apparently unanswerable by Laban (Genesis 31:43); and it is confirmed, both by the evident concurrence of Leah and Rachel (Genesis 31:14-16), and by indications in the narrative that the justice (not merely the partiality) of God gave to each party his due recompense: to Jacob the rich returns of skillful, patient industry; to Laban rebuke and warning (Genesis 31:5-13, 24, 29, 42).
The manner of Jacob's departure from Haran was determined by the strained relations between his uncle and himself. His motive in going, however, is represented as being fundamentally the desire to terminate an absence from his father's country that had already grown too long (Genesis 31:30; compare Genesis 30:25)-a desire which in fact presented itself to him in the form of a revelation of God's own purpose and command (Genesis 31:3). Unhappily, his clear record was stained by the act of another than himself, who nevertheless, as a member of his family, entailed thus upon him the burden of responsibility. Rachel, like Laban her father, was devoted to the superstition that manifested itself in the keeping and consulting of teraphim, a custom which, whether more nearly akin to fetishism, totemism, or ancestor-worship, was felt to be incompatible with the worship of the one true God. (Note that the "teraphim" of Genesis 31:19, 34 are the same as the "gods" of 31:30, 32 and, apparently, of 35:2, 4.) This theft furnished Laban with a pretext for pursuit. What he meant to do he probably knew but imperfectly himself. Coercion of some sort he would doubtless have brought to bear upon Jacob and his caravan, had he not recognized in a dream the God whom Jacob worshipped, and heard Him utter a word of warning against the use of violence. Laban failed to find his stolen gods, for his daughter was as crafty and ready-witted as he. The whole adventure ended in a formal reconciliation, with the usual sacrificial and memorial token (Genesis 31:43-55).
After Laban, Esau. One danger is no sooner escaped than a worse threatens. Yet between them lies the pledge of Divine presence and protection in the vision of God's host at Mahanaim: just a simple statement, with none of the fanciful detail that popular story-telling loves, but the sober record of a tradition to which the supernatural was matter of fact. Even the longer passage that preserves the occurrence at Peniel is conceived in the same spirit. What the revelation of the host of God had not sufficed to teach this faithless, anxious, scheming patriarch, that God sought to teach him in the night-struggle, with its ineffaceable physical memorial of a human impotence that can compass no more than to cling to Divine omnipotence (Genesis 32:22-32). The devices of crafty Jacob to disarm an offended and supposedly implacable brother proved as useless as that bootless wrestling of the night before; Esau's peculiar disposition was not of Jacob's making, but of God's, and to it alone Jacob owed his safety. The practical wisdom of Jacob dictated his insistence upon bringing to a speedy termination the proposed association with his changeable brother, amid the difficulties of a journey that could not be shared by such divergent social and racial elements as Esau's armed host and Jacob's caravan, without discontent on the one side and disaster on the other. The brothers part, not to meet again until they meet to bury their father at Hebron (Genesis 35:29).
3. In Canaan Again:
Before Jacob's arrival in the South of Canaan where his father yet lived and where his own youth had been spent, he passed through a period of wandering in Central Palestine, somewhat similar to that narrated of his grandfather Abraham. To any such nomad, wandering slowly from Aram toward Egypt, a period of residence in the region of Mt. Ephraim was a natural chapter in his book of travels. Jacob's longer stops, recorded for us, were
(1) at Succoth, East of the Jordan near Peniel,
(2) at Shechem and
(3) at Beth-el.
Nothing worthy of record occurred at Succoth, but the stay at Shechem was eventful. Genesis 34, which tells the story of Dinah's seduction and her brother's revenge, throws as much light upon the relations of Jacob and the Canaanites, as does chapter 14 or chapter 23 upon Abraham's relations, or chapter 26 upon Isaac's relations, with such settled inhabitants of the land. There is a strange blending of moral and immoral elements in Jacob and his family as portrayed in this contretemps. There is the persistent tradition of separateness from the Canaanites bequeathed from Abraham's day (chapter 24), together with a growing family consciousness and sense of superiority (34:7, 14, 31). And at the same time there is indifference to their unique moral station among the environing tribes, shown in Dinah's social relations with them (34:1), in the treachery and cruelty of Simeon and Levi (34:25-29), and in Jacob's greater concern for the security of his possessions than for the preservation of his good name (verse 30).
It was this concern for the safety of the family and its wealth that achieved the end which dread of social absorption would apparently never have achieved-the termination of a long residence where there was moral danger for all. For a second time Jacob had fairly to be driven to Beth-el. Safety from his foes was again a gift of God (Genesis 35:5), and in a renewal of the old forgotten ideals of consecration (Genesis 35:2-8), he and all his following move from the painful associations of Shechem to the hallowed associations of Beth-el. Here were renewed the various phases of all God's earlier communications to this patriarch and to his fathers before him. The new name of Israel, hitherto so ill deserved, is henceforth to find realization in his life; his fathers' God is to be his God; his seed is to inherit the land of promise, and is to be no mean tribe, but a group of peoples with kings to rule over them like the nations round about (Genesis 35:9-12). No wonder that Jacob here raises anew his monument of stone-emblem of the "Stone of Israel" (Genesis 49:24)-and stamps forever, by this public act, upon ancient Luz (Genesis 35:6), the name of Beth-el which he had privately given it years before (Genesis 28:19).
Losses and griefs characterized the family life of the patriarch at this period. The death of his mother's Syrian nurse at Beth-el (Genesis 35:8; compare Genesis 24:59) was followed by the death of his beloved wife Rachel at Ephrath (Genesis 35:19; Genesis 48:7) in bringing forth the youngest of his 12 sons, Benjamin. At about the same time the eldest of the 12, Reuben, forfeited the honor of his station in the family by an act that showed all too clearly the effect of recent association with Canaanites (Genesis 35:22). Finally, death claimed Jacob's aged father, whose latest years had been robbed of the companionship, not only of this son, but also of the son whom his partiality had all but made a fratricide; at Isaac's grave in Hebron the ill-matched brothers met once more, thenceforth to go their separate ways, both in their personal careers and in their descendants' history (Genesis 35:29).
Jacob now is by right of patriarchal custom head of all the family. He too takes up his residence at Hebron (Genesis 37:14), and the story of the family fortunes is now pursued under the new title of "the generations of Jacob" (Genesis 37:2). True, most of this story revolves about Joseph, the youngest of the family save Benjamin; yet the occurrence of passages like Genesis 38, devoted exclusively to Judah's affairs, or 46:8-27, the enumeration of Jacob's entire family through its secondary ramifications, or Genesis 49, the blessing of Jacob on all his sons-all these prove that Jacob, not Joseph, is the true center of the narrative until his death. As long as he lives he is the real head of his house, and not merely a superannuated veteran like Isaac. Not only Joseph, the boy of 17 (37:2), but also the self-willed elder sons, even a score of years later, come and go at his bidding (Genesis 42; Genesis 43; Genesis 43 44; 45). Joseph's dearest thought, as it is his first thought, is for his aged father (43:7, 27; 44:19:00; and especially 45:3, 9, 13, 23, and 46:29).
4. Last Years in Egypt:
It is this devotion of Joseph that results in Jacob's migration to Egypt. What honors there Joseph can show his father he shows him: he presents him to Pharaoh, who for Joseph's sake receives him with dignity, and assigns him a home and sustenance for himself and all his people as honored guests of the land of Egypt (Genesis 47:7-12). Yet in Beersheba, while en route to Egypt, Jacob had obtained a greater honor than this reception by Pharaoh. He had found there, as ready to respond to his sacrifices as ever to those of his fathers, the God of his father Isaac, and had received the gracious assurance of Divine guidance in this momentous journey, fraught with so vast a significance for the future nation and the world (Genesis 46:1-4): God Himself would go with him into Egypt and give him, not merely the gratification of once more embracing his long-lost son, but the fulfillment of the covenant-promise (Genesis 15:13-16) that he and his were not turning their backs upon Canaan forever. Though 130 years of age when he stood before Pharaoh, Jacob felt his days to have been "few" as well as "evil," in comparison with those of his fathers (Genesis 47:9). And in fact he had yet 17 years to live in Goshen (Genesis 47:28).
These last days are passed over without record, save of the growth and prosperity of the family. But at their close came the impartation of the ancestral blessings, with the last will of the dying patriarch. After adopting Joseph's sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, as his own, Jacob blesses them, preferring the younger to the elder as he himself had once been preferred to Esau, and assigns to Joseph the "double portion" of the firstborn-that "preeminence" which he denies to Reuben (Genesis 48:22; Genesis 49:4). In poetry that combines with the warm emotion and glowing imagery of its style and the unsurpassed elevation of its diction, a lyrical fervor of religious sentiment which demands for its author a personality that had passed through just such course of tuition as Jacob had experienced, the last words of Jacob, in Genesis 49, mark a turning-point in the history of the people of God. This is a translation of biography into prophecy. On the assumption that it is genuine, we may confidently aver that it was simply unforgetable by those who heard it. Its auditors were its theme. Their descendants were its fulfillment. Neither the one class nor the other could ever let it pass out of memory.
It was "by faith," we are well reminded, that Jacob "blessed" and "worshipped" "when he was dying" (Hebrews 11:21). For he held to the promises of God, and even in the hour of dissolution looked for the fulfillment of the covenant, according to which Canaan should belong to him and to his seed after him. He therefore set Joseph an example, by "giving commandment concerning his bones," that they might rest in the burial-place of Abraham and Isaac near Hebron. To the accomplishment of this mission Joseph and all his brethren addressed themselves after their father's decease and the 70 days of official mourning. Followed by a "very great company" of the notables of Egypt, including royal officials and representatives of the royal family, this Hebrew tribe carried up to sepulture in the land of promise the embalmed body of the patriarch from whom henceforth they were to take their tribal name, lamented him according to custom for 7 days, and then returned to their temporary home in Egypt, till their children should at length be "called" thence to become God's son" (Hosea 11:1) and inherit His promises to their father Jacob.
IV. Character and Beliefs.
In the course of this account of Jacob's career the inward as well as the outward fortunes of the man have somewhat appeared. Yet a more comprehensive view of the kind of man he was will not be superfluous at this point. With what disposition was he endowed-the natural nucleus for acquired characteristics and habits? Through what stages did he pass in the development of his beliefs and his character? In particular, what attitude did he maintain toward the most significant thing in his life, the promise of God to his house? And lastly, what resemblances may be traced in Israel the man to Israel the nation, of such sort that the one may be regarded as "typical" of the other? These matters deserve more than a passing notice.
1. Natural Qualities:
From his father, Jacob inherited that domesticity and affectionate attachment to his home circle which appears in his life from beginning to end. He inherited shrewdness, initiative and resourcefulness from Rebekah-qualities which she shared apparently with her brother Laban and all his family. The conspicuous ethical faults of Abraham and Isaac alike are want of candor and want of courage. It is not surprising, therefore, to find the same failings in Jacob. Deceit and cowardice are visible again and again in the impartial record of his life. Both spring from unbelief. They belong to the natural man. God's transformation of this man was wrought by faith-by awakening and nourishing in him a simple trust in the truth and power of the Divine word.
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(1) The patriarch (see preceding article).
(2) The father of Joseph the husband of Mary (Matthew 1:15, 16).
(3) Patronymic denoting the Israelites (Isaiah 10:21; Isaiah 14:1 Jeremiah 10:16).
JACOB, TESTAMENT OF
See APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE.
Jacob (361 Occurrences)
Matthew 1:2 Abraham became the father of Isaac. Isaac became the father of Jacob. Jacob became the father of Judah and his brothers. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 1:15 Eliud became the father of Eleazar. Eleazar became the father of Matthan. Matthan became the father of Jacob. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 1:16 Jacob became the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, from whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 8:11 I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 22:32 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:26 But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying,'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob'? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 1:33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his Kingdom." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:34 the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 13:28 There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets, in the Kingdom of God, and yourselves being thrown outside. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 20:37 But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:5 So he came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar, near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son, Joseph. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:6 Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being tired from his journey, sat down by the well. It was about the sixth hour. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:12 Are you greater than our father, Jacob, who gave us the well, and drank of it himself, as did his children, and his livestock?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his Servant Jesus, whom you delivered up, and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he had determined to release him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:8 He gave him the covenant of circumcision. So Abraham became the father of Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day. Isaac became the father of Jacob, and Jacob became the father of the twelve patriarchs. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:12 But when Jacob heard that there was grain in Egypt, he sent out our fathers the first time. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:14 Joseph sent, and summoned Jacob, his father, and all his relatives, seventy-five souls. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:15 Jacob went down into Egypt, and he died, himself and our fathers, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:32 'I am the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' Moses trembled, and dared not look. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:46 who found favor in the sight of God, and asked to find a habitation for the God of Jacob. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 9:13 Even as it is written, "Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 11:26 and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, and he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:9 By faith, he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a land not his own, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:20 By faith, Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, even concerning things to come. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:21 By faith, Jacob, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshiped, leaning on the top of his staff. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:26 After that, his brother came out, and his hand had hold on Esau's heel. He was named Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when she bore them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:27 The boys grew. Esau was a skillful hunter, a man of the field. Jacob was a quiet man, living in tents. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:28 Now Isaac loved Esau, because he ate his venison. Rebekah loved Jacob. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:29 Jacob boiled stew. Esau came in from the field, and he was famished. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:30 Esau said to Jacob, "Please feed me with that same red stew, for I am famished." Therefore his name was called Edom. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:31 Jacob said, "First, sell me your birthright." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:33 Jacob said, "Swear to me first." He swore to him. He sold his birthright to Jacob. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 25:34 Jacob gave Esau bread and stew of lentils. He ate and drank, rose up, and went his way. So Esau despised his birthright. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:6 Rebekah spoke to Jacob her son, saying, "Behold, I heard your father speak to Esau your brother, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:11 Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, "Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:15 Rebekah took the good clothes of Esau, her elder son, which were with her in the house, and put them on Jacob, her younger son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:17 She gave the savory food and the bread, which she had prepared, into the hand of her son Jacob. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:19 Jacob said to his father, "I am Esau your firstborn. I have done what you asked me to do. Please arise, sit and eat of my venison, that your soul may bless me." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:21 Isaac said to Jacob, "Please come near, that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esau or not." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:22 Jacob went near to Isaac his father. He felt him, and said, "The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:25 He said, "Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son's venison, that my soul may bless you." He brought it near to him, and he ate. He brought him wine, and he drank. (See NIV)
Genesis 27:30 It happened, as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob had just gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:36 He said, "Isn't he rightly named Jacob? For he has supplanted me these two times. He took away my birthright. See, now he has taken away my blessing." He said, "Haven't you reserved a blessing for me?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:41 Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing with which his father blessed him. Esau said in his heart, "The days of mourning for my father are at hand. Then I will kill my brother Jacob." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:42 The words of Esau, her elder son, were told to Rebekah. She sent and called Jacob, her younger son, and said to him, "Behold, your brother Esau comforts himself about you by planning to kill you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:46 Rebekah said to Isaac, "I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these, of the daughters of the land, what good will my life do me?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:1 Isaac called Jacob, blessed him, and commanded him, "You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:5 Isaac sent Jacob away. He went to Paddan Aram to Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, Rebekah's brother, Jacob's and Esau's mother. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:6 Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan Aram, to take him a wife from there, and that as he blessed him he gave him a command, saying, "You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan," (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:7 and that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Paddan Aram. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:10 Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:16 Jacob awakened out of his sleep, and he said, "Surely Yahweh is in this place, and I didn't know it." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:18 Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil on its top. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 28:20 Jacob vowed a vow, saying, "If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and clothing to put on, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:1 Then Jacob went on his journey, and came to the land of the children of the east. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:4 Jacob said to them, "My relatives, where are you from?" They said, "We are from Haran." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:7 Then Jacob said, The sun is still high and it is not time to get the cattle together: get water for the sheep and go and give them their food. (BBE)
Genesis 29:10 It happened, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban, his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:11 Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:12 Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son. She ran and told her father. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Genesis 29:13 It happened, when Laban heard the news of Jacob, his sister's son, that he ran to meet Jacob, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. Jacob told Laban all these things. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:14 And Laban said to him, Truly, you are my bone and my flesh. And he kept Jacob with him for the space of a month. (BBE NIV)
Genesis 29:15 Laban said to Jacob, "Because you are my brother, should you therefore serve me for nothing? Tell me, what will your wages be?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Genesis 29:18 Jacob loved Rachel. He said, "I will serve you seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:20 Jacob served seven years for Rachel. They seemed to him but a few days, for the love he had for her. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:21 Jacob said to Laban, "Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in to her." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:23 It happened in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him. He went in to her. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:25 And in the morning Jacob saw that it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What have you done to me? was I not working for you so that I might have Rachel? why have you been false to me? (BBE RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:28 Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week. He gave him Rachel his daughter as wife. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 29:30 Then Jacob took Rachel as his wife, and his love for her was greater than his love for Leah; and he went on working for Laban for another seven years. (BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:1 When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister. She said to Jacob, "Give me children, or else I will die." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:2 Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel, and he said, "Am I in God's place, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:4 She gave him Bilhah her handmaid as wife, and Jacob went in to her. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:5 Bilhah conceived, and bore Jacob a son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Genesis 30:7 Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid, conceived again, and bore Jacob a second son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:9 When Leah saw that she had finished bearing, she took Zilpah, her handmaid, and gave her to Jacob as a wife. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:10 Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, bore Jacob a son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:12 Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, bore Jacob a second son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:16 Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, "You must come in to me; for I have surely hired you with my son's mandrakes." He lay with her that night. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:17 God listened to Leah, and she conceived, and bore Jacob a fifth son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:19 Leah conceived again, and bore a sixth son to Jacob. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:25 It happened, when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Jacob said to Laban, "Send me away, that I may go to my own place, and to my country. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:29 Then Jacob said, You have seen what I have done for you, and how your cattle have done well under my care. (BBE RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:31 He said, "What shall I give you?" Jacob said, "You shall not give me anything. If you will do this thing for me, I will again feed your flock and keep it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:36 He set three days' journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob fed the rest of Laban's flocks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:37 Jacob took to himself rods of fresh poplar, almond, plane tree, peeled white streaks in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:40 Jacob separated the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the streaked and all the black in the flock of Laban: and he put his own droves apart, and didn't put them into Laban's flock. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:41 It happened, whenever the stronger of the flock conceived, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the flock in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:42 but when the flock were feeble, he didn't put them in. So the feebler were Laban's, and the stronger Jacob's. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:1 He heard the words of Laban's sons, saying, "Jacob has taken away all that was our father's. From that which was our father's, has he gotten all this wealth." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:2 Jacob saw the expression on Laban's face, and, behold, it was not toward him as before. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:3 Yahweh said to Jacob, "Return to the land of your fathers, and to your relatives, and I will be with you." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:4 Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:11 The angel of God said to me in the dream,'Jacob,' and I said,'Here I am.' (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:17 Then Jacob rose up, and set his sons and his wives on the camels, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:20 Jacob deceived Laban the Syrian, in that he didn't tell him that he was running away. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:22 Laban was told on the third day that Jacob had fled. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:23 He took his relatives with him, and pursued after him seven days' journey. He overtook him in the mountain of Gilead. (See NIV)
Genesis 31:24 God came to Laban, the Syrian, in a dream of the night, and said to him, "Take heed to yourself that you don't speak to Jacob either good or bad." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 31:25 Laban caught up with Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mountain, and Laban with his relatives encamped in the mountain of Gilead. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)