|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Trodden hard, or fastness, or "the waterless hill", the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion (Joshua 15:8; 18:16, 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judges 19:10, and with the castle or city of David (1 Chronicles 11:4, 5). It was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements (2 Samuel 5:8).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
je'-bus (yebhuc; Iebous): In Judges 19:10, 11, "Jebus (the same is Jerusalem)"; 1 Chronicles 11:4, 5, "Jerusalem (the same is Jebus)." It was once thought that this was the first name of Jerusalem, as indeed might be suggested by the Biblical references, but it is now known from the Tell el-Amarna Letters that Urusa-lem was a name used centuries before the time of David (see JERUSALEM, I). It would appear probable that the name "Jebus" was evolved by the Hebrews as an alternate name, and possibly they may have imagined an earlier name, for Jerusalem from JEBUSITE (which see), the name of the local tribe who owned the district in the first centuries of Israel's occupation of Canaan.
E. W. G. Masterman
JEBUS; JEBUSI; JEBUSITE
je'-bus, jeb'-u-si, jeb'-u-zit (yebhuc, ha-yebhuci): "Jebus" is an old name for Jerusalem (Judges 19:10, 11 1 Chronicles 4:5 parallel 2 Samuel 5:6-9, "the same is Jerus"; see preceding article). "Jebusi" (literally, "Jebusite") is also used as a name for the city in the King James Version (Joshua 18:16, 28; compare Joshua 15:8); the Revised Version (British and American) correctly renders "Jebusite" (see JERUSALEM). "Jebusites," for the people (in the King James Version Genesis 15:21 Exodus 3:8, 17, etc.), does not occur in Hebrew in the plural; hence, in the Revised Version (British and American) is always rendered in the singular, "Jebusite." The "Jebusite" is said in Genesis 10:16 1 Chronicles 1:14 to be the 3rd son of Canaan, i.e. of the country of Canaan. Elsewhere he represents a tribe separate from the Canaanites. He stands between Heth and the Amorite (compare Numbers 13:29 Joshua 11:3 Ezekiel 16:3, 15). In the lists of the peoples inhabiting Palestine the "Jebusite" is always placed last, a fact indicative, probably, of their smaller number.
To what race the Jebusites belonged is doubtful. Their name does not seem Semitic, and they do not make their appearance till after the patriarchal period.
The original name of Jerusalem was Babylonian, Uru-Salim, "the city of Salim," shortened into Salem in Genesis 14:18 and in the inscriptions of the Egyptian kings Ramses II and Ramses III. In the Tell el-Amarna Letters (1400 B.C.) Jerusalem is still known as Uru-Salim, and its king bears a Hittite name, implying that it was at the time in the possession of the Hittites. His enemies, however, were closing around him, and one of the tablets shows that the city was eventually captured and its king slain. These enemies would seem to have been the Jebusites, since it is after this period that the name "Jebus" makes its appearance for the first time in the Old Testament (Judges 19:10, 11).
The Jebusite king at the time of the conquest was Adoni-zedek, who met his death at Beth-boron (Joshua 10:1; in Joshua 10:5 the word "Amorite" is used in its Babylonian sense to denote the inhabitants of Canaan generally). The Jebusites were a mountain tribe (Numbers 13:29 Joshua 11:3). Their capital "Jebus" was taken by the men of Judah and burned with fire (Judges 18), but they regained possession of, and held, the fortress till the time of David (2 Samuel 5:6).
When Jerusalem was taken by David, the lives and property of its Jebusite inhabitants were spared, and they continued to inhabit the temple-hill, David and his followers settling in the new City of David on Mt. Zion (Joshua 15:8, 63 Judges 1:21; Judges 19:11). And as Araunah is called "king" (2 Samuel 24:23), we may conclude that their last ruler also had been lowed to live. His name is non-Sem, and the various spellings of it (compare 1 Chronicles 21:15, "Ornan") indicate that the Hebrew writers had some difficulty in pronouncing it. The Jebusites seem ultimately to have blended with the Israelite population.
Jebus (5 Occurrences)
Joshua 18:28 Zelah, Eleph, the Jebusite (the same is Jerusalem), Gibeath, and Kiriath; fourteen cities with their villages. This is the inheritance of the children of Benjamin according to their families. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 19:10 But the man wouldn't stay that night, but he rose up and departed, and came over against Jebus (the same is Jerusalem): and there were with him a couple of donkeys saddled; his concubine also was with him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 19:11 When they were by Jebus, the day was far spent; and the servant said to his master, "Please come and let us turn aside into this city of the Jebusites, and lodge in it." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 11:4 David and all Israel went to Jerusalem (the same is Jebus); and the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, were there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 11:5 The inhabitants of Jebus said to David, "You shall not come in here." Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion. The same is the city of David. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)