|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 16:6; 25:25; Jeremiah 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites.
During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction (Esther 3:6, 10; Dan. 3:8, 12; Ezra 4:12; 5:1, 5).
Originally this people were called Hebrews (Genesis 39:14; 40:15; Exodus 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1 Samuel 4:6, 9, etc.), but after the Exile this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2 Corinthians 11:22; Philippians 3:5).
The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men. They are now  dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image [R.V. `pillar,' marg. `obelisk'], and without an ephod, and without teraphim" (Hosea 3:4). Till about the beginning of the present century  they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European countries to all the rights of free citizens. In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a seat in the British Parliament. Their number in all is estimated at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.
There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people,
(1.) Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles.
(2.) Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish them from Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language.
(3.) Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God. "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."
Noah Webster's Dictionary
(n.) Originally, one belonging to the tribe or kingdom of Judah; after the return from the Babylonish captivity, any member of the new state; a Hebrew; an Israelite.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
JEW, JEWESS, JEWISH
ju, joo, ju'-ish, joo'-ish (yehudhi plural yehudhim; Ioudaioi; feminine adjective yehudhith; Ioudaikos): "Jew" denotes originally an inhabitant of Judah (2 Kings 16:6 applies to the two tribes of the Southern Kingdom), but later the meaning was extended to embrace all descendants of Abraham. In the Old Testament the word occurs a few times in the singular. (Esther 2:5; Esther 3:4, etc.; Jeremiah 34:9 Zechariah 8:23); very frequently in the plural in Ezra and Nehemiah, Esther, and in Jeremiah and Daniel. The adjective in the Old Testament applies only to the "Jews' language" or speech (2 Kings 18:26, 28 parallel Nehemiah 13:24 Isaiah 36:11, 13). "Jews" (always plural) is the familiar term for Israelites in the Gospels (especially in John), Acts, Epistles, etc. "Jewess" occurs in 1 Chronicles 4:18 Acts 16:1; Acts 24:24. In Titus 1:14 a warning is given against "Jewish fables" (in Greek the adjective is found also in Galatians 2:14). The "Jews' religion" (Ioudaismos) is referred to in Galatians 1:13, 14. On the "Jews' language,'' see LANGUAGES OF THE OLD TESTAMENT; on the "Jews' religion," see ISRAEL, RELIGION OF.
Jew (34 Occurrences)
John 3:25 There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with some Jews about purification. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:9 The Samaritan woman therefore said to him, "How is it that you, being a Jew, ask for a drink from me, a Samaritan woman?" (For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:35 Pilate answered, "I'm not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests delivered you to me. What have you done?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 6:5 And this saying was pleasing to all of them: and they made selection of Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, and Philip and Prochorus and Nicanor and Timon and Parmenas and Nicolas of Antioch, who had become a Jew: (BBE)
Acts 10:28 He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:6 When they had gone through the island to Paphos, they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar Jesus, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:2 He found a certain Jew named Aquila, a man of Pontus by race, who had recently come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome. He came to them, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:24 Now a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by race, an eloquent man, came to Ephesus. He was mighty in the Scriptures. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 19:14 There were seven sons of one Sceva, a Jewish chief priest, who did this. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 19:34 But when they perceived that he was a Jew, all with one voice for a time of about two hours cried out, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 21:39 But Paul said, "I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no insignificant city. I beg you, allow me to speak to the people." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 22:3 "I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the Good News of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:9 oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:10 But glory, honor, and peace go to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:17 Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:28 For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:29 but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 3:1 Then what advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the profit of circumcision? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 10:12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 9:20 To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to those who are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those who are under the law; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 2:14 But when I saw that they didn't walk uprightly according to the truth of the Good News, I said to Peter before them all, "If you, being a Jew, live as the Gentiles do, and not as the Jews do, why do you compel the Gentiles to live as the Jews do? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Colossians 3:11 where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 2:5 There was a certain Jew in the citadel of Susa, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 3:4 Now it came to pass, when they spoke daily to him, and he didn't listen to them, that they told Haman, to see whether Mordecai's reason would stand; for he had told them that he was a Jew. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 5:13 Yet all this avails me nothing, so long as I see Mordecai the Jew sitting at the king's gate." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:10 Then the king said to Haman, "Hurry and take the clothing and the horse, as you have said, and do this for Mordecai the Jew, who sits at the king's gate. Let nothing fail of all that you have spoken." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 8:7 Then King Ahasuerus said to Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Jew, "See, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and him they have hanged on the gallows, because he laid his hand on the Jews. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 9:29 Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote with all authority to confirm this second letter of Purim. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 9:31 to confirm these days of Purim in their appointed times, as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had decreed, and as they had imposed upon themselves and their descendants, in the matter of the fastings and their cry. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 10:3 For Mordecai the Jew was next to King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the multitude of his brothers, seeking the good of his people, and speaking peace to all his descendants. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 34:9 that every man should let his male servant, and every man his female servant, who is a Hebrew or a Hebrewess, go free; that none should make bondservants of them, to wit, of a Jew his brother. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 8:23 Thus says Yahweh of Armies: "In those days, ten men will take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, they will take hold of the skirt of him who is a Jew, saying,'We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)