|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Whom Jehovah bestowed.
(1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judges 6:11, 29; 8:13, 29, 32).
(2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chronicles 12:3).
(3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1 Kings 22:26).
(4.) King of Judah (2 Kings 11:2; 12:19, 20). (see JEHOASH .)
(5.) King of Israel (2 Kings 13:9, 12, 13, 25). (see JEHOASH .)
(6.) 1 Chronicles 7:8.
(7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 27:28).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
je-ho'-ash, the uncontracted form of (yeho'ash, yo'ash, "Yahweh has bestowed"; compare 2 Kings 11:2, 21; 2 Kings 12:1, 19 2 Chronicles 24:1, etc.; Ioas):
(1) The 9th king of Judah; son of Ahaziah and Zibiah, a woman of Beersheba (2 Kings 11-12 2 Chronicles 22:10-24:27). Jehoash was 7 years old at his accession, and reigned 40 years. His accession may be placed in 852 B.C. Some include in the years of his reign the 6 years of Athaliah's usurpation.
I. Ninth King of Judah
1. His Early Preservation:
When, on Athaliah's usurpation of the throne, she massacred the royal princes, Jehoash was saved from her unnatural fury by the action of his aunt Jehosheba, the wife of Jehoiada, the high priest (2 Kings 11:1, 2 2 Chronicles 22:10, 11). During 6 years he was concealed in the house of Jehoiada, which adjoined the temple; hence, is said to have been "hid in the house of Yahweh"-a perfectly legitimate use of the phrase according to the idiom of the time.
2. The Counter-Revolution:
During these formative years of Jehoash's early life, he was under the moral and spiritual influence of Jehoiada-a man of lofty character and devout spirit. At the end of 6 years, a counter-revolution was planned by Jehoiada, and was successfully carried out on a Sabbath, at one of the great festivals. The accounts of this revolution in Kings and Chronicles supplement each other, but though the Levitical interest of the Chronicler is apparent in the details to which he gives prominence, the narratives do not necessarily collide, as has often been represented. The event was prepared for by the young king being privately exhibited to the 5 captains of the "executioners" (the Revised Version (British and American) "Carites") and "runners" (2 Kings 11:4 2 Chronicles 23:1). These entered into covenant with Jehoiada, and, by his direction, summoned the Levites from Judah (2 Chronicles 23:2), and made the necessary arrangements for guarding the palace and the person of the king. In these dispositions both the royal body-guard and the Levites seem to have had their parts. Jehoash next appears standing on a platform in front of the temple, the law of the testimony in his hand and the crown upon his head. Amid acclamations, he is anointed king. Athaliah, rushing on the scene with cries of "treason" (see ATHALIAH), is driven forth and slain. A new covenant is made between Yahweh and the king and people, and, at the conclusion of the ceremony, a great procession is formed, and the king is conducted with honor to the royal house (2 Kings 11:19 2 Chronicles 23:20). Thus auspiciously did the new reign begin.
3. Repair of the Temple:
Grown to manhood (compare the age of his son Amaziah, 2 Kings 14:25), Jehoash married two wives, and by them had sons and daughters (2 Chronicles 24:3). His great concern at this period, however, was the repair of the temple-the "house of Yahweh"-which in the reign of Athaliah had been broken up in many places, plundered, and allowed to become dilapidated (2 Kings 12:5, 12 2 Chronicles 24:7). To meet the expense of its restoration, the king gave orders that all moneys coming into the temple, whether dues or voluntary offerings, should be appropriated for this purpose (2 Kings 12:4), and from the account in Chronicles would seem to have contemplated a revival of the half-shekel tax appointed by Moses for the construction of the tabernacle (2 Chronicles 24:5, 6; compare Exodus 30:11-16; Exodus 38:25). To enforce this impost would have involved a new census, and the memory of the judgments which attended David's former attempt of this kind may well have had a deterrent effect on Jehoiada and the priesthood. "The Levites hastened it not," it is declared (2 Chronicles 24:5).
4. A New Expedient:
Time passed, and in the 23rd year of the king's reign (his 30th year), it was found that the breaches of the house had still not been repaired. A new plan was adopted. It was arranged that a chest with a hole bored in its lid should be set up on the right side of the altar in the temple-court, under the care of two persons, one the king's scribe, the other an officer of the high priest, and that the people should be invited to bring voluntarily their half-shekel tax or other offerings, and put it in this box (2 Kings 12:9 2 Chronicles 24:8, 9). Gifts from worshippers who did not visit the altar were received by priests at the gate, and brought to the box. The expedient proved brilliantly successful. The people cheerfully responded, large sums were contributed, the money was honestly expended, and the temple was thoroughly renovated. There remained even a surplus, with which gold and silver vessels were made, or replaced, for the use of the temple. Jehoiada's long and useful life seems to have closed soon after.
5. The King's Declension:
With the death of this good man, it soon became evident that the strongest pillar of the state was removed. It is recorded that "Jehoash did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him" (2 Kings 12:2), but after Jehoiada had been honorably interred in the sepulchers of the kings (2 Chronicles 24:16), a sad declension became manifest. The princes of Judah came to Jehoash and expressed their wish for greater freedom in worship than had been permitted them by the aged priest. With weak complaisance, the king "hearkened unto them" (2 Chronicles 24:17). Soon idols and Asherahs began to be set up in Jerusalem and the other cities of Judah. Unnamed prophets raised their protests in vain. The high priest Zechariah, a worthy son of Jehoiada, testified in his place that as the nation had forsaken Yahweh, he also would forsake it, and that disaster would follow (2 Chronicles 24:20). Wrathful at the rebuke, the king gave orders that Zechariah should be stoned with stones in the temple-court (2 Chronicles 24:21). This was done, and the act of sacrilege, murder, and ingratitude was perpetrated to which Jesus seems to refer in Matthew 23:35 Luke 11:51 ("son of Barachiah" in the former passage is probably an early copyist's gloss through confusion with the prophet Zechariah).
6. Calamities and Assassination:
The high priest's dying words, "Yahweh look upon it, and require it," soon found an answer. Within a year of Zechariah's death, the armies of Hazael, the Syrian king, were ravaging and laying waste Judah. The city of Gath fell, and a battle, the place of which is not given, placed Jerusalem at the mercy of the foe (2 Kings 12:17 2 Chronicles 24:23, 24). To save the capital from the indignity of foreign occupation, Jehoash, then in dire sickness, collected all the hallowed things of the temple, and all the gold of the palace, and sent them to Hazael (2 Kings 12:17, 18). This failure of his policy, in both church and state, excited such popular feeling against Jehoash, that a conspiracy was formed to assassinate him. His physical sufferings won for him no sympathy, and two of his own officers slew him, while asleep, in the fortress of Millo, where he was paying a visit (2 Kings 12:20). He was buried in the city of David, but not in the royal sepulchers, as Jehoiada had been (2 Chronicles 24:25).
Jehoash is mentioned as the father of Amaziah (2 Kings 14:1 2 Chronicles 25:25). His contemporaries in Israel were Jehoahaz (2 Kings 13:1) and Jehoash (2 Kings 13:10).
(2) The son of Jehoahaz, and 12th king of Israel (2 Kings 13:10-25; 2 Kings 14:8-16 2 Chronicles 25:17-24).
II. Twelveth King of Israel
1. Accession and Reign:
Jehoash reigned for 16 years. His accession may be placed in 813 B.C. There were almost simultaneous changes in the sovereignties of Judah and of Assyria-Amazih succeeding to the throne of Judah in the 2nd year of Jehoash, and Ramman-nirari III coming to the throne of Assyria in 811 B.C.-which had important effects on the history of Israel in this reign.
2. Elisha and Jehoash:
During the three previous reigns, for half a century, Elisha had been the prophet of Yahweh to Israel. He was now aged and on his deathbed. Hearing of his illness, the young king came to Dothan, where the prophet was, and had a touching interview with him. His affectionate exclamation, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 13:14; compare 2:12), casts a pleasing light upon his character. On his lips the words had another meaning than they bore when used by Elish himself at Elijah's translation. Then they referred to the "appearance" which parted Elisha from his master; now they referred to the great service rendered by the prophet to the kingdom. Not only had Elisha repeatedly saved the armies of Israel from the ambushes prepared for them by the Syrians (2 Kings 6:8-23), but he had given assurance of the relief of the capital when it was at its worst extremity (2 Kings 6:24). To Jehoash, Elisha's presence was indeed in place of chariots and horse. The truth was anew demonstrated by the promise which the dying prophet now made to him. Directing Jehoash in the symbolical action of the shooting of certain arrows, he predicted three victories over the Syrians-the first at Aphek, now Fik, on the East of the Lake of Galilee-and more would have been granted, had the faith of the king risen to the opportunity then afforded him (2 Kings 6:15-19).
3. Assyria and Damascus:
An interesting light is thrown by the annals of Assyria on the circumstances which may have made these victories of Jehoash possible. Ramman-nirari III, who succeeded to the throne in 811 B.C., made an expedition against Damascus, Edom and Philistia, in his account of which he says: "I shut up the king (of Syria) in his chief city, Damascus..... He clasped my feet, and gave himself up..... His countless wealth and goods I seized in Damascus." With the Syrian power thus broken during the remainder of this ruler's reign of 27 years, it may be understood how Jehoash should be able to recover, as it is stated he did, the cities which Ben-hadad had taken from his father Jehoahaz (2 Kings 13:25). Schrader and others see in this Assyrian ruler the "saviour" of Israel alluded to in 2 Kings 13:5; more usually the reference is taken to be to Jehoash himself, and to Jeroboam II (compare 2 Kings 14:27).
4. War With Judah:
The epitome of Jehoash's reign is very brief, but the favorable impression formed of him from the acts of Elisha is strengthened by another gained from the history of Amaziah of Judah (2 Kings 14:8-16 2 Chronicles 25:17-24). For the purpose of a southern campaign Amaziah had hired a large contingent of troops from Samaria. Being sent back unemployed, these mercenaries committed ravages on their way home, for which, apparently, no redress was given. On the first challenge of the king of Judah, Jehoash magnanimously refused the call to arms, but on Amaziah persisting, the peace established nearly 80 years before by Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:44) was broken at the battle of Beth-shemesh, in which Amaziah was defeated and captured. Jerusalem opened its gates to the victor, and was despoiled of all its treasure, both of palace and temple. A portion of the wall was broken down, and hostages for future behavior were taken to Samaria (2 Kings 14:13, 14).
Jehoash did not long survive his crowning victory, but left a resuscitated state, and laid the foundation for a subsequent rule which raised Israel to the zenith of its power. Josephus gives Jehoash a high character for godliness, but, like each of his predecessors, he followed in the footsteps of Jeroboam I in permitting, if not encouraging, the worship of the golden calves. Hence, his conduct is pronounced "evil" by the historian (2 Kings 13:11). He was succeeded by his son Jeroboam II.
W. Shaw Caldecott
jo'-ash (yo'ash, "Yahweh is strong" or "Yahweh has bestowed"; Ioas):
(1) Father of Gideon, of the clan of Abiezer and the tribe Manasseh (Judges 6:11, 29, 30, 31; Judges 7:14; Judges 8:13, 19, 32). Gideon declares (Judges 6:15) that the family is the poorest in Manasseh, words similar to those of Saul (1 Samuel 9:21), and not to be taken too literally. Joash would be a man of standing and wealth, for Gideon was able to command 10 servants to destroy the altar and the Asherah (Judges 6:27, 34), and also to summon the whole clan to follow him. Further, the altar that Joash had was that used by the community (Judges 6:28), so that he would be the priest, not only of his own family qua paterfamilias, but also of the community in virtue of his position as chief. When Gideon destroyed the altar and the Asherah or sacred pillar by it, Joash refused to deliver his son to death, declaring that Baal, if he was a god, should avenge himself (compare Elijah in 1 Kings 18).
(2) Called "the king's son" (1 Kings 22:26 2 Chronicles 18:25; compare Jeremiah 36:26; Jeremiah 38:6), or, less probably, "the son of Hammelech," the Revised Version margin; perhaps a son of Ahab. Micaiah the prophet was handed over to his custody and that of Amon by Ahab.
(3) A Judahite, descendant of Shelah (1 Chronicles 4:22).
(4) A Benjamite recruit of David at Ziklag. Commentators read here, "Joash the son of Shemaiah (or Jehoshamai), the Gibeathite" (1 Chronicles 12:3).
(5) In 2 Kings 11:2, etc. = Jehoash, king of Judah.
(6) In 2 Kings 13:9, etc. = Jehoash, king of Northern Israel.
David Francis Roberts
(yo`ash, "Yahweh has aided"):
(1) A Benjamite, or, more probably, a Zebulunite (1 Chronicles 7:8).
(2) One of David's officers; Joash was "over the cellars of oil" (1 Chronicles 27:28).
Joash (49 Occurrences)
Judges 6:11 The angel of Yahweh came, and sat under the oak which was in Ophrah, that pertained to Joash the Abiezrite: and his son Gideon was beating out wheat in the winepress, to hide it from the Midianites. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 6:29 They said one to another, "Who has done this thing?" When they inquired and asked, they said, "Gideon the son of Joash has done this thing." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 6:30 Then the men of the city said to Joash, "Bring out your son, that he may die, because he has broken down the altar of Baal, and because he has cut down the Asherah that was by it." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 6:31 Joash said to all who stood against him, "Will you contend for Baal? Or will you save him? He who will contend for him, let him be put to death while it is yet morning. If he is a god, let him contend for himself, because someone has broken down his altar." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 7:14 His fellow answered, "This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon the son of Joash, a man of Israel. God has delivered Midian into his hand, with all the army." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 8:13 Gideon the son of Joash returned from the battle from the ascent of Heres. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 8:29 Jerubbaal the son of Joash went and lived in his own house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Judges 8:32 Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age, and was buried in the tomb of Joash his father, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Kings 22:26 The king of Israel said, "Take Micaiah, and carry him back to Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king's son. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 11:2 But Jehosheba, the daughter of king Joram, sister of Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king's sons who were slain, even him and his nurse, and put them in the bedchamber; and they hid him from Athaliah, so that he was not slain; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 12:1 In the seventh year of Jehu began Jehoash to reign; and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Zibiah of Beersheba. (See NIV)
2 Kings 12:6 But it was so, that in the three and twentieth year of king Jehoash the priests had not repaired the breaches of the house. (See NIV)
2 Kings 12:19 Now the rest of the acts of Joash, and all that he did, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 12:20 His servants arose, and made a conspiracy, and struck Joash at the house of Millo, on the way that goes down to Silla. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:1 In the three and twentieth year of Joash the son of Ahaziah, king of Judah, Jehoahaz the son of Jehu began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned seventeen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:9 Jehoahaz slept with his fathers; and they buried him in Samaria: and Joash his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:10 In the thirty-seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 13:12 Now the rest of the acts of Joash, and all that he did, and his might with which he fought against Amaziah king of Judah, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:13 Joash slept with his fathers; and Jeroboam sat on his throne: and Joash was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:14 Now Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness of which he died: and Joash the king of Israel came down to him, and wept over him, and said, "My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and its horsemen!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 13:25 Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz took again out of the hand of Benhadad the son of Hazael the cities which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father by war. Three times did Joash strike him, and recovered the cities of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Kings 14:1 In the second year of Joash son of Joahaz king of Israel began Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah to reign. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:3 He did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh, yet not like David his father: he did according to all that Joash his father had done. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:13 Jehoash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth Shemesh, and came to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (See NIV)
2 Kings 14:17 Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:23 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 14:27 Yahweh didn't say that he would blot out the name of Israel from under the sky; but he saved them by the hand of Jeroboam the son of Joash. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
1 Chronicles 3:11 Joram his son, Ahaziah his son, Joash his son, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 4:22 and Jokim, and the men of Cozeba, and Joash, and Saraph, who had dominion in Moab, and Jashubilehem. The records are ancient. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 7:8 The sons of Becher: Zemirah, and Joash, and Eliezer, and Elioenai, and Omri, and Jeremoth, and Abijah, and Anathoth, and Alemeth. All these were the sons of Becher. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 12:3 The chief was Ahiezer; then Joash, the sons of Shemaah the Gibeathite, and Jeziel, and Pelet, the sons of Azmaveth, and Beracah, and Jehu the Anathothite, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 27:28 and over the olive trees and the sycamore trees that were in the lowland was Baal Hanan the Gederite: and over the cellars of oil was Joash: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 18:25 The king of Israel said, Take Micaiah, and carry him back to Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king's son; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 22:11 But Jehoshabeath, the daughter of the king, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, and stole him away from among the king's sons who were slain, and put him and his nurse in the bedchamber. So Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram, the wife of Jehoiada the priest (for she was the sister of Ahaziah), hid him from Athaliah, so that she didn't kill him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:1 Joash was seven years old when he began to reign; and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Zibiah, of Beersheba. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:2 Joash did that which was right in the eyes of Yahweh all the days of Jehoiada the priest. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:4 It happened after this, that Joash was minded to restore the house of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:22 Thus Joash the king didn't remember the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but killed his son. When he died, he said, Yahweh look on it, and require it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:23 It happened at the end of the year, that the army of the Syrians came up against him: and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them to the king of Damascus. (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:24 For the army of the Syrians came with a small company of men; and Yahweh delivered a very great army into their hand, because they had forsaken Yahweh, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment on Joash. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 24:25 When they were departed for him (for they left him very sick), his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and killed him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they didn't bury him in the tombs of the kings. (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:17 Then Amaziah king of Judah took advice, and sent to Joash, the son of Jehoahaz the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying, Come, let us look one another in the face. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:18 Joash king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, Give your daughter to my son as wife: and there passed by a wild animal that was in Lebanon, and trod down the thistle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:20 But Amaziah gave no attention; and this was the purpose of God, so that he might give them up into the hands of Joash, because they had gone after the gods of Edom. (BBE NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:21 So Joash king of Israel went up; and he and Amaziah king of Judah looked one another in the face at Beth Shemesh, which belongs to Judah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
2 Chronicles 25:23 Joash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Joash the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth Shemesh, and brought him to Jerusalem, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 25:25 Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah lived after the death of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel fifteen years. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Hosea 1:1 The word of Yahweh that came to Hosea the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Amos 1:1 The words of Amos, who was among the herdsmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)