|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(Hebrews shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judges 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Numbers 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external Marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained `to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judges 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress.
In Exodus 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A public officer who is invested with authority to hear and determine litigated causes, and to administer justice between parties in courts held for that purpose.
2. (n.) One who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to decide on the merits of a question, or on the quality or value of anything; one who discerns properties or relations with skill and readiness; a connoisseur; an expert; a critic.
3. (n.) A person appointed to decide in a/trial of skill, speed, etc., between two or more parties; an umpire; as, a judge in a horse race.
4. (n.) One of supreme magistrates, with both civil and military powers, who governed Israel for more than four hundred years.
5. (n.) The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges.
6. (v.) To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as a judge; to give judgment; to pass sentence.
7. (v.) To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in judgment or commendation; to criticize or pass adverse judgment upon others. See Judge, v. t., 3.
8. (v. t.) To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their relations and attributes, and thus distinguish truth from falsehood; to determine; to discern; to distinguish; to form an opinion about.
9. (v. t.) To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a court, or a controversy between two parties.
10. (v. t.) To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.
11. (v. t.) To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment upon; to be censorious toward.
12. (v. t.) To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to reckon.
13. (v. t.) To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
juj (shopheT; New Testament dikastes, krites): In the early patriarchal times the heads of families and the elders of the tribes were the judges (compare Genesis 38:24), and their authority was based on custom. In the wilderness Moses alone was the judge until Jethro suggested a scheme of devolution. On his advice Moses divided the people into groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and over each group a wise and good man was set as a judge. Thereafter only the most important cases were brought before Moses (Exodus 18:13-26 Deuteronomy 1:9-17). This arrangement ceased to be practicable when the children of Israel settled down in Canaan. Although David took counsel with the heads of thousands and hundreds (1 Chronicles 13:1), it need not be assumed that this was a continuation of the plan adopted by Moses. Probably the local courts were not organized till the time of David. In the days of the Judges justice was ministered by those who had risen by wisdom or valor to that rank (Judges 4:5). An organized circuit court was established by Samuel, who judged cases himself, and also made his sons judges (1 Samuel 7:16; 1 Samuel 8:1). After the monarchy was instituted, the king tried all cases, when requested to do so by the wronged person, in the palace gate (1 Kings 7:7 Proverbs 20:8). There was no public prosecutor (2 Samuel 14:4; 2 Samuel 15:2-6 1 Chronicles 18:14 1 Kings 3:16 2 Kings 15:5). Under David and Solomon there were probably local courts (1 Chronicles 23:4; 1 Chronicles 26:29). Jehoshaphat organized a high court of justice (2 Chronicles 19:8). The prophets often complain bitterly that the purity of justice is corrupted by bribery and false witness (Isaiah 1:23; Isaiah 5:23; Isaiah 10:1 Amos 5:12; Amos 6:12 Micah 3:11; Micah 7:3 Proverbs 6:19; Proverbs 12:17; Proverbs 18:5). Even kings sometimes pronounced unjust sentences, especially in criminal cases (1 Samuel 22:6-19 1 Kings 22:26 2 Kings 21:16 Jeremiah 36:26). An evil king could also bend local courts to do his will, as may be gathered from the case of Naboth's vineyard (1 Kings 21:1-13).
The first duty of a judge was to execute absolute justice, showing the same impartiality to rich and poor, to Jew and foreigner. He was forbidden to accept bribes or to wrest the judgment of the poor (Exodus 23:6-8 Deuteronomy 16:19). He must not let himself be swayed by popular opinion, or unduly favor the poor (Exodus 23:2, 3).
The court was open to the public (Exodus 18:13 Ruth 4:1, 2). Each party presented his view of the case to the judge (Deuteronomy 1:16; Deuteronomy 25:1). Possibly the accused appeared in court clad in mourning (Zechariah 3:3). The accuser stood on the right hand of the accused (Zechariah 3:1 Psalm 109:6). Sentence was pronounced after the hearing of the case, and the judgment carried out (Joshua 7:24, 25). The only evidence considered by the court was that given by the witnesses. In criminal cases, not less than two witnesses were necessary (Deuteronomy 19:15 Numbers 35:30 Deuteronomy 17:6; compare Matthew 18:16 2 Corinthians 13:1 1 Timothy 5:19). In cases other than criminal the oath (see OATH) was applied (Exodus 22:11; compare Hebrews 6:16). The lot was sometimes appealed to (Joshua 7:14-18), especially in private disputes (Proverbs 18:18), but this was exceptional. When the law was not quite definite, recourse was had to the Divine oracle (Leviticus 24:12 Numbers 15:34).
Judge (297 Occurrences)
Matthew 5:25 Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:1 "Don't judge, so that you won't be judged. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:2 For with whatever judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 19:28 "I solemnly tell you," replied Jesus, "that in the New Creation, when the Son of Man has taken His seat on His glorious throne, all of you who have followed me shall also sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. (WEY)
Luke 6:37 Don't judge, and you won't be judged. Don't condemn, and you won't be condemned. Set free, and you will be set free. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:43 Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most." He said to him, "You have judged correctly." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:14 But he said to him, "Man, who made me a judge or an arbitrator over you?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:56 Hypocrites, ye know how to judge of the appearance of the earth and of the heaven; how is it then that ye do not discern this time? (DBY)
Luke 12:57 Why don't you judge for yourselves what is right? (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:58 For when you are going with your adversary before the magistrate, try diligently on the way to be released from him, lest perhaps he drag you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and the officer throw you into prison. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:9 Is he thankful to the bondman because he has done what was ordered? I judge not. (DBY)
Luke 18:2 saying, "There was a judge in a certain city who didn't fear God, and didn't respect man. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 18:6 The Lord said, "Listen to what the unrighteous judge says. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 19:22 "He said to him,'Out of your own mouth will I judge you, you wicked servant! You knew that I am an exacting man, taking up that which I didn't lay down, and reaping that which I didn't sow. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 3:17 For God didn't send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS)
John 5:22 For the Father judges no one, but he has given all judgment to the Son, (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 5:27 And He has conferred on Him authority to act as Judge, because He is the Son of Man. (WEY BBE NIV)
John 5:30 I can of myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge, and my judgment is righteous; because I don't seek my own will, but the will of my Father who sent me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 7:24 Don't judge according to appearance, but judge righteous judgment." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 7:51 "Does our law judge a man, unless it first hears from him personally and knows what he does?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 8:15 You judge according to the flesh. I judge no one. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:16 Even if I do judge, my judgment is true, for I am not alone, but I am with the Father who sent me. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 8:26 I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you. However he who sent me is true; and the things which I heard from him, these I say to the world." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 8:50 But I don't seek my own glory. There is one who seeks and judges. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
John 9:39 "I came into this world," said Jesus, "to judge men, that those who do not see may see, and that those who do see may become blind." (WEY BBE)
John 12:47 If anyone listens to my sayings, and doesn't believe, I don't judge him. For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 12:48 He who rejects me, and doesn't receive my sayings, has one who judges him. The word that I spoke, the same will judge him in the last day. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:31 Pilate therefore said to them, "Take him yourselves, and judge him according to your law." Therefore the Jews said to him, "It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death," (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 4:19 But Peter and John answered them, "Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you rather than to God, judge for yourselves, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:7 'I will judge the nation to which they will be in bondage,' said God,'and after that will they come out, and serve me in this place.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 7:27 But he who did his neighbor wrong pushed him away, saying,'Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:35 "This Moses, whom they refused, saying,'Who made you a ruler and a judge?'-God has sent him as both a ruler and a deliverer by the hand of the angel who appeared to him in the bush. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 10:42 He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 13:46 Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, and said, "It was necessary that God's word should be spoken to you first. Since indeed you thrust it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 15:19 "My judgement, therefore, is against inflicting unexpected annoyance on those of the Gentiles who are turning to God. (Root in WEY DBY YLT)
Acts 17:31 because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; of which he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 18:15 but if they are questions about words and names and your own law, look to it yourselves. For I don't want to be a judge of these matters." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 23:3 Then Paul said to him, "God will strike you, you whitewashed wall! Do you sit to judge me according to the law, and command me to be struck contrary to the law?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Acts 23:15 Now therefore, you with the council inform the commanding officer that he should bring him down to you tomorrow, as though you were going to judge his case more exactly. We are ready to kill him before he comes near." (WEB ASV)
Acts 24:6 Who also hath gone about to profane the temple: whom we took, and would have judged according to our law. (Root in KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Acts 24:10 When the governor had beckoned to him to speak, Paul answered, "Because I know that you have been a judge of this nation for many years, I cheerfully make my defense, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:1 Therefore you are without excuse, O man, whoever you are who judge. For in that which you judge another, you condemn yourself. For you who judge practice the same things. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:2 and we know that God's judgement against those who commit such sins is in accordance with the truth. (Root in WEY BBE)
Romans 2:3 Do you think this, O man who judges those who practice such things, and do the same, that you will escape the judgment of God? (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS RSV)
Romans 2:16 in the day when God will judge the secrets of men, according to my Good News, by Jesus Christ. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 2:18 And have knowledge of his desires, and are a judge of the things which are different, having the learning of the law, (BBE)
Romans 2:27 Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 3:4 God forbid: yea, let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings, and mightest overcome when thou art judged. (Root in KJV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 3:6 May it never be! For then how will God judge the world? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 14:3 Don't let him who eats despise him who doesn't eat. Don't let him who doesn't eat judge him who eats, for God has accepted him. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 14:4 Who are you who judge another's servant? To his own lord he stands or falls. Yes, he will be made to stand, for God has power to make him stand. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Romans 14:5 One doth judge one day above another, and another doth judge every day 'alike'; let each in his own mind be fully assured. (YLT)
Romans 14:10 But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you despise your brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Romans 14:13 Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Romans 14:22 Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he who doesn't judge himself in that which he approves. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY RSV)
1 Corinthians 2:2 For I did not judge it well to know anything among you save Jesus Christ, and him crucified. (DBY)
1 Corinthians 4:3 But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you, or by man's judgment. Yes, I don't judge my own self. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 4:4 For I know nothing against myself. Yet I am not justified by this, but he who judges me is the Lord. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 4:5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes, who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and reveal the counsels of the hearts. Then each man will get his praise from God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)
1 Corinthians 5:12 For what have I to do with also judging those who are outside? Don't you judge those who are within? (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 5:13 But those who are outside, God judges. "Put away the wicked man from among yourselves." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:1 How is it, that if any one of you has a cause at law against another, he takes it before a Gentile judge and not before the saints? (BBE YLT)
1 Corinthians 6:2 Don't you know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judged by you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:3 Don't you know that we will judge angels? How much more, things that pertain to this life? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:4 If then, you have to judge things pertaining to this life, do you set them to judge who are of no account in the assembly? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:5 I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren? (KJV WBS NIV)
1 Corinthians 10:15 I speak as to wise men. Judge what I say. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 11:13 Judge for yourselves. Is it appropriate that a woman pray to God unveiled? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 11:29 For any one who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgement to himself, if he fails to estimate the body aright. (Root in WEY NAS)
1 Corinthians 11:31 For if we discerned ourselves, we wouldn't be judged. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 14:29 Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge. (KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS)
2 Corinthians 5:14 For the love of Christ constrains us; because we judge thus, that one died for all, therefore all died. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
2 Corinthians 11:11 Why? because I have no love for you? let God be judge. (BBE)
Galatians 2:6 But from those who were reputed to be important (whatever they were, it makes no difference to me; God doesn't show partiality to man)-they, I say, who were respected imparted nothing to me, (See NIV)
Ephesians 3:4 By means of that explanation, as you read it, you can judge of my insight into the truth of Christ (WEY)
Philippians 1:10 that ye may judge of and approve the things that are more excellent, in order that ye may be pure and without offence for Christ's day, (DBY)
Colossians 2:16 Let no one therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Thessalonians 4:6 And that no man may make attempts to get the better of his brother in business: for the Lord is the judge in all these things, as we said to you before and gave witness. (BBE)
2 Timothy 4:1 I command you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at his appearing and his Kingdom: (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Timothy 4:8 From now on, there is stored up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to me on that day; and not to me only, but also to all those who have loved his appearing. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is living, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing even to the dividing of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and is able to discern the thoughts and intentions of the heart. (See NAS NIV)
Hebrews 10:30 For we know him who said, "Vengeance belongs to me," says the Lord, "I will repay." Again, "The Lord will judge his people." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:11 Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised. (Root in KJV WEY WBS YLT)
Hebrews 12:23 to the general assembly and assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 13:4 Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the bed be undefiled: but God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterers. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 2:4 haven't you shown partiality among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 4:11 Don't speak against one another, brothers. He who speaks against a brother and judges his brother, speaks against the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law, but a judge. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 4:12 Only one is the lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. But who are you to judge another? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 5:9 Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 2:12 Being of good behaviour among the Gentiles; so that though they say now that you are evil-doers, they may see your good works and give glory to God when he comes to be their judge. (BBE)
1 Peter 2:23 Who, when he was cursed, didn't curse back. When he suffered, didn't threaten, but committed himself to him who judges righteously; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 4:5 who will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jude 1:9 But Michael the Archangel, when contending with the Devil and arguing with him about the body of Moses, did not dare to pronounce judgement on him in abusive terms, but simply said, "The Lord rebuke you." (Root in WEY BBE)
Jude 1:15 To be the judge of all, and to give a decision against all those whose lives are unpleasing to him, because of the evil acts which they have done, and because of all the hard things which sinners without fear of God have said against him. (BBE NIV)
Revelation 3:3 Be mindful, therefore, of the lessons you have received and heard. Continually lay them to heart, and repent. If, however, you fail to rouse yourself and keep awake, I shall come upon you suddenly like a thief, and you will certainly not know the hour at which I shall come to judge you. (WEY)
Revelation 6:10 They cried with a loud voice, saying, "How long, Master, the holy and true, until you judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?" (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:5 I heard the angel of the waters saying, "You are righteous, who are and who were, you Holy One, because you have judged these things. (Root in WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Revelation 18:8 Therefore in one day her plagues will come: death, mourning, and famine; and she will be utterly burned with fire; for the Lord God who has judged her is strong. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:20 "Rejoice over her, O heaven, you saints, apostles, and prophets; for God has judged your judgment on her." (Root in WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NIV)
Revelation 19:2 for true and righteous are his judgments. For he has judged the great prostitute, who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality, and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)