|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(Hebrews rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encampment, if possible, in a spot where it grew, in order to be sheltered by it at night from the wind; and during the day, when they often went on in advance of the camels, we found them not unfrequently sitting or sleeping under a bush of retem to shelter them from the sun. It was in this very desert, a day's journey from Beersheba, that the prophet Elijah lay down and slept beneath the same shrub" (1 Kings 19:4, 5). It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food (Psalm 120:4; Job 30:4). One of the encampments in the wilderness of Paran is called Rithmah, i.e., "place of broom" (Numbers 33:18).
"The Bedawin of Sinai still burn this very plant into a charcoal which throws out the most intense heat."
Noah Webster's Dictionary
(n.) Any evergreen shrub or tree, of the genus Juniperus and order Coniferae.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
joo'-ni-per (rothem; rhathmen, 1 Kings 19:4, margin "broom"; Psalm 120:4, m "broom"; Job 30:4 translated "broom"): This is quite certainly the Arabic ratam (Retama retem, Natural Order, Leguminosae), a variety of broom which is one of the most characteristic shrubs of the deserts of Southern Palestine and southward to Egypt. Though the shade it affords is but scanty, in the absence of other shrubs it is frequently used by desert travelers as a refuge from the sun's scorching rays (compare 1 Kings 19:4). The root yields good charcoal, giving out much heat (Psalm 120:4). For people to be reduced to chew it for nourishment betokens the lowest depth of starvation (Job 30:4). Indeed so hopeless is this root as a source of food that many commentators believe that the accepted text is in error, and by altering a single letter, substituting the Hebrew letter, cheth, ("ch") for he ("h"), they get a reading, which has been adopted in the Revised Version margin, "to warm them" instead of "their meat," which certainly is much more probable.
E. W. G. Masterman
Juniper (7 Occurrences)
1 Kings 19:4 But he himself went a day's journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a juniper tree: and he requested for himself that he might die, and said, "It is enough. Now, O Yahweh, take away my life; for I am not better than my fathers." (WEB KJV ASV WBS NAS)
1 Kings 19:5 He lay down and slept under a juniper tree; and behold, an angel touched him, and said to him, "Arise and eat!" (WEB KJV ASV WBS NAS)
Job 30:4 Who cut up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat. (KJV WBS)
Psalms 120:4 Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of juniper. (WEB KJV ASV WBS)
Isaiah 41:19 I will put in the waste land the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle, and the olive-tree; and in the lowland will be planted the fir-tree, the plane, and the cypress together: (See NAS)
Isaiah 60:13 The glory of Lebanon will come to you, the cypress, the plane, and the sherbin-tree together, to make my holy place beautiful; and the resting-place of my feet will be full of glory. (See NAS)
Jeremiah 48:6 Flee, save your lives, and be like the heath in the wilderness. (See NAS)