|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Kings, The Books of
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings.
They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (apparently a period of about four hundred and fifty-three years). The books of Chronicles (q.v.) are more comprehensive in their contents than those of Kings. The latter synchronize with 1 Chronicles 28-2 Chronicles 36:21. While in the Chronicles greater prominence is given to the priestly or Levitical office, in the Kings greater prominence is given to the kingly.
The authorship of these books is uncertain. There are some portions of them and of Jeremiah that are almost identical, e.g., 2 Kings 24:18-25 and Jeremiah 52; 39:1-10; 40:7-41:10. There are also many undesigned coincidences between Jeremiah and Kings (2 Kings 21-23 and Jeremiah 7:15; 15:4; 19:3, etc.), and events recorded in Kings of which Jeremiah had personal knowledge. These facts countenance in some degree the tradition that Jeremiah was the author of the books of Kings. But the more probable supposition is that Ezra, after the Captivity, compiled them from documents written perhaps by David, Solomon, Nathan, Gad, and Iddo, and that he arranged them in the order in which they now exist.
In the threefold division of the Scriptures by the Jews, these books are ranked among the "Prophets." They are frequently quoted or alluded to by our Lord and his apostles (Matthew 6:29; 12:42; Luke 4:25, 26; 10:4; Comp. 2 Kings 4:29; Mark 1:6; Comp. 2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4, etc.).
The sources of the narrative are referred to (1) "the book of the Acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41); (2) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (14:29; 15:7, 23, etc.); (3) the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (14:19; 15:31; 16:14, 20, 27, etc.).
The date of its composition was some time between B.C. 561, the date of the last chapter (2 Kings 25), when Jehoiachin was released from captivity by Evil-merodach, and B.C. 538, the date of the decree of deliverance by Cyrus.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
EGYPTIAN KINGS (LATER)
See PHARAOH; HOPHRA; NECO; SHISHAK; EGYPT, III.
KINGS, BOOKS OF
" I. TITLE
III. CHARACTER OF BOOKS AND POSITION IN THE HEBREW CANON
2. Character of Data
IV. HISTORICAL VALUE
1. Treatment of Historical Data
3. Value of Assyrian Records
1. Nature of the Books
3. Kent's Scheme
4. The Jahwist (Jahwist) and the Elohist (E)
The Hebrew title reads, melakhim, "kings," the division into books being based on the Septuagint where the Books of Kings are numbered 3rd and 4th, the Books of Kingdoms (Basileion), the Books of Samuel being numbered respectively 1st and 2nd. The separation in the Hebrew into 2 Books of Kings dates to the rabbinic Bible of Daniel Bomberg (Venice, 1516-17), who adds in a footnote, "Here the non-Jews (i.e. Christians) begin the 4th Book of Kings." The Hebrew Canon treats the 2 Books of Samuel as one book, and the 2 Books of Kings as one. Hence, both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) read incorrectly, "The First Book of Kings," even the use of the article being superfluous.gs (stadia) from Jerusalem, which he named Absalom's Hand." In all probability this "pillar" was a rough upright stone-a matstsebhah-but its site is lost. The traditional Greek-Egyptian tomb of perhaps 100-200 years B.C. which has been hewn out of the rock on the eastern side of the Kidron valley is manifestly misnamed "Absalom's pillar," and the Kidron ravine (nachal) cannot be the King's Vale (`emeq).
The Books of Kings contain 47 chapters (I, 22 chs; II, 25 chs), and cover the period from the conspiracy of Adonijah and the accession of Solomon (975 B.C.) to the liberation of Jehoiachin after the beginning of the Exile (561 B.C.). The subject-matter may be grouped under certain heads, as the last days of David (1 Kings 1-2:11); Solomon and his times (1 Kings 2:12-11:43); the Northern Kingdom to the coming of Assyria (1 Kings 12:16-2_kings 17:41) (937-722 B.C.), including 9 dynastic changes; the Southern Kingdom to the coming of Babylon (1 Kings 12:1-2_kings 25:21, the annals of the two kingdoms being given as parallel records until the fall of Israel) (937-586 B.C.), during which time but one dynasty, that of David, occupied the throne; the period of exile to 561 B.C. (2 Kings 25:22-30). A simpler outline, that of Driver, would be:
(1) Solomon and his times (1 Kings 1-11);
(2) Israel and Judah to the fall of Israel (1 Kings 12-2_kings 17); Judah to the fall of Jerusalem (586 B.C.), and the captivity to the liberation of Jehoiachin (561 B.C.) (2 Kings 18-25).
"Above all, there are three features in the history, which, in the mind of the author, are of prime importance as shown by the prominence he gives them in his narrative.
(1) The dynasty of David is invested with peculiar dignity. This had two aspects. It pointed back to the Divine election of the nation in the past, and gave the guaranty of indefinite national perpetuity in the future. The promise of the `sure mercies of David' was a powerful uniting influence in the Exile.
(2) The Temple and its service, for which the writer had such special regard, contributed greatly to the phase of national character of subsequent times. With all the drawbacks and defacements of pure worship here was the stated regular performance of sacred rites, the development and regulation of priestly order and ritual law, which stamped themselves so firmly on later Judaism.
(3) Above all, this was the period of bloom of Old Testament prophecy. Though more is said of men like Elijah and Elisha, who have left no written words, we must not forget the desires of pre-exilic prophets, whose writings have come down to us-men who, against the opposition of rulers and the indifference of the people, testified to the moral foundation on which the nation was constituted, vindicated Divine righteousness, rebuked sin, and held up the ideal to which the nation was called."-Robertson, Temple B D, 369 f.
III. Character of Books and Position in Hebrew Canon.
The Books of Kings contain much historical material, yet the historical is not their primary purpose. What in our English Bibles pass for historical books are in the Hebrew Canon prophetic books, the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Kings being classed as the "Earlier Prophets."
The chief aim of these books is didactic, the imparting of great moral lessons backed up by well-known illustrations from the nation's history and from the lives of its heroes and leaders. Accordingly, we have here a sort of historical archipelago, more continuous than in the Pentateuch, yet requiring much bridging over and conjecture in the details.
2. Character of Data:
The historical matter includes, in the case of the kings of Israel, the length of the reign and the death; in the case of the kings of Judah there are included also the age at the date of accession, the name of the mother, and mention of the burial. The beginnings of the reigns in each case are dated from a point in the reign of the contemporary ruler, e.g. 1 Kings 15:1: "Now in the 18th year of king Jeroboam the son of Nebat began Abijam to reign over Judah."
IV. Historical Value.
1. Treatment of Historical Data:
These books contain a large amount of authentic data, and, along with the other books of this group which constitute a contemporaneous narrative, Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, must be accorded high rank among ancient documents. To be sure the ethical and religious value is first and highest, nevertheless the historical facts must be reckoned at their true worth. Discrepancies and contradictions are to be explained by the subordination of historical details to the moral and religious purpose of the books, and to the diversity of sources whence these data are taken, that is, the compilers and editors of the Books of Kings as they now stand were working not for a consistent, continuous historical narrative, but for a great ethical and religious treatise. The historical material is only incidental and introduced by way of illustration and confirmation. For the oriental mind these historical examples rather than the rigor of modern logic constitute the unanswerable argument.
There cannot be as much said relative to the chronological value of the books. Thus, e.g., there is a question as to the date of the close of Ahaz' reign. According to 2 Kings 18:10, Samaria fell in the 6th year of Hezekiah's reign. The kings who followed Hezekiah aggregate 110 years; 586 plus 110 plus 29 (Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18:2) = 725. But in 2 Kings 18:13 we learn that Sennacherib's invasion came in the 14th year of Hezekiah's reign. Then 701 plus 14 = 715. With this last agrees the account of Hezekiah's sickness (2 Kings 20). In explanation of 2 Kings 18:13, however, it is urged by some that the writer has subtracted the 15 years of 2 Kings 20:6 from the 29 years of Hezekiah's reign. Again, e.g. in 1 Kings 6:1, we learn that Solomon began to build the temple 480 years "after the children of Israel were come out of the Land of Egypt" Septuagint here reads 440 years). This would make between Moses and David 12 generations of 40 years each. But counting the Exodus in the reign of Merenptah, 1225-1215 B.C., and the beginning of the erection of the temple 975 B.C., or after, we could not make out more than (1225-975) 250 years. Further, if the total length of reigns in Israel and Judah as recorded in the parallel accounts of Kings be added for the two kingdoms, the two amounts do not agree. And, again, it is not certain whether in their annals the Hebrews predated or post-dated the reigns of their kings, i.e. whether the year of a king's death was counted his last year and the first year of his successor's reign, or whether the following year was counted the first year of the succeeding king (compare Curtis in H D B, I, 400, 1, f; Marti in E B, I, coll. 777;).
3. Value of Assyrian Records:
The Babylonians and Assyrians were more skilled and more careful chronologers, and it is by reference to their accounts of the same or of contemporary events that a sure footing is found. Hence, the value of such monuments as those of Shalmaneser IV and Sennacherib-and here mention should be made also of the Moabite Stone.
The plan of the books is prevailingly chronological, although at times the material is arranged in groups (e.g. 2 Kings 2:1-8:15, the Elisha stories).
1. Nature of the Books:
The Books of Kings are of the nature of a compilation. The compiler has furnished a framework into which he has arranged the historical matter drawn from other sources. There are chronological data, citations of authorities, judgments on the character and deeds of the several rulers, and moral and religious teachings drawn from the attitude of the rulers in matters of religion, especially toward heathen cults. The point of view is that of the prophets of the national party as one against foreign influence. "Both in point of view and in phraseology the compiler shows himself to be strongly influenced by Deuteronomy." (The principal editor is styled RD, i.e. Deuteronomic Redactor.) The Deuteronomic law was the touchstone, and by his loyalty to, or apostasy from, that standard, each king stands approved or condemned. This influence also appears in passages where the editor takes liberties in the expansion and adaptation of material. There is marked recurrence of phrases occurring elsewhere chiefly or even wholly in Deuteronomy, or in books showing Deuteronomic influence (Burney in H D B, II, 859). In 2 Kings 17 we have a test of the nation on the same standards; compare also 1 Kings 2:3; 9:1-9; 2 Kings 14:6 Deuteronomy 24:16.
In numerous instances the sources are indicated, as "the book of the acts of Solomon" (1 Kings 11:41), "the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (1 Kings 14:29), "the chronicles of the kings of Israel" (1 Kings 15:31). A score or more of these sources are mentioned by title in the several books of the Old Testament. Thus "the history of Samuel the seer," "the history of Nathan the prophet." "the history of Gad the seer" (1 Chronicles 29:29); "the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite," "the visions of Iddo the seer concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat" (2 Chronicles 9:29; compare 2 Chronicles 12:15; 2 Chronicles 13:22; 2 Chronicles 20:34; 2 Chronicles 32:32). Thus the "book of the kings of Israel" is mentioned 17 times (for all kings except Jehoram and Hoshea); the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" is mentioned 15 times (for all except Ahaziah, Athaliah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiachin and Zedekiah). Whether the compiler had recourse to the archives themselves or to a work based on the archives is still a question.
3. Kent's Scheme:
Kent, Student's Old Testament (II, chart, and pp. ix-xxvi), gives the following scheme for showing the sources:
(1) Early stories about the Ark (circa 950 B.C. or earlier), Saul stories and David stories (950-900 B.C.) were united (circa 850 B.C.) to make early Judean Saul and David stories. With these last were combined (circa 600 B.C.) popular Judean David stories (circa 700 B.C.) later Ephraimite Samuel narratives (circa 650 B.C.), and very late popular prophetic traditions (650-600 B.C.) in a first edition of the Books of Samuel.
(2) Annals of Solomon (circa 950 B.C.), early temple records (950-900 B.C.), were united (circa 800 B.C.) with popular Solomon traditions (850-800 B.C.) in a "Book of the Acts of Solomon." A Jeroboam history (900-850 B.C.), an Ahab history (circa 800 B.C.), and a Jehu history (circa 750 B.C.) were united with the annals of Israel (after 950 to circa 700 B.C.) in the "Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" (700 or after). Early Ephraimite Elisha narratives (800-750 B.C.), influenced by a Samaria cycle of Elisha stories (750-700 B.C.) and a Gilgal cycle of Elisha stories (700-650 B.C.), were joined about 600 B.C. with the "Book of the Acts of Solomon" and the "Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" in a "first edition of the Books of Kings."
(3) The first edition of Samuel, the first edition of Kings and Isaiah stories (before 550 B.C.) were united (circa 550 B.C.) in a final revision of Samuel and Kings.
(4) From "annals of Judah" (before 900 to 650 B.C. or after), temple records (before 850 to after 650 B.C.), and a Hezekiah history (circa 650 B.C.), was drawn material for the "Chronicles of the kings of Judah" (circa 600 B.C.).
(5) From this last work and the final revision of Samuel and Kings was taken material for a "Midhrash of the Book of the kings of Israel and Judah" (circa 300 B.C.), and from this work, the final revision of Samuel and Kings, and a possible temple history (after 400)-itself from the final revision of Samuel and Kings-came the Books of Chronciles (circa 250 B.C.).
4. The Jahwist (Jahwist) and the Elohist (E):
The distinctions between the great documents of the Pentateuch do not appear so clearly here. The summary, "epitome") is the work of a Jewish redactor; the longer narratives (e.g. 1 Kings 17-2_kings 8; 1 Kings 13:14-21) "are written in a bright and chaste Hebrew style, though some of them exhibit slight peculiarities of diction, due, doubtless (in part), to their North Israelite origin" (E). The writers of these narratives are thought to have been prophets, in most cases from the Northern Kingdom.
There are numerous data bearing on the date of Kings, and indications of different dates appear in the books. The closing verses bring down the history to the 37th year of the Captivity (2 Kings 25:27); yet the author, incorporating his materials, was apparently not careful to adjust the dates to his own time, as in 1 Kings 8:8; 1 Kings 12:19 2 Kings 8:22; 2 Kings 16:6, which refer to conditions that passed away with the Exile. The work was probably composed before the fall of Jerusalem (586 B.C.), and was revised during or shortly after the Exile, and also supplemented by the addition of the account of the downfall of the Judean kingdom. There are traces of a post-exilic hand, as, e.g., the mention of "the cities of Samaria" (1 Kings 13:32), implying that Samaria was a province, which was not the case until after the Exile. The existence of altars over the land (1 Kings 19:10), and the sanctuary at Carmel, were illegal according to the Deuteronomic law, as also was the advice given to Elisha (2 Kings 3:19) to cut down the fruit trees in time of war; (Deuteronomy 20:19).
K. Budde, Das Buch der Richter, Mohr, Leipzig; John Skinner, "Kings," in New Century Bible, Frowde, New York; C.F. Burney, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Kings, Clarendon Press, Oxford; 1903; R. Kittel, Die Bucher der Konige, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Leipzig, 1900; I. Benzinger, Die Bucher der Konige, Mohr, 1899; C.F. Kent, Student's Old Testament, Scribner, 1905; S.R. Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, Scribner, new revised edition, 1910; J.E. McFadyen, Introduction to the Old Testament, Armstrong, New York, 1906; Carl H. Cornill, Einleitung in die kanonischen Bucher Altes Testament, Mohr, 6th edition, 1908; A. F. Kirkpatrick, The Divine Library of the Old Testament, Macmillan, 1891.
Wallace N. Stearns
Kings (350 Occurrences)
Matthew 10:18 Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the nations. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 11:8 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses. (KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 17:25 He said, "Yes." When he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their children, or from strangers?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 13:9 But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 1:52 He has put down kings from their seats, lifting up on high the men of low degree. (BBE)
Luke 7:25 But what did you go out to see? A man clothed in soft clothing? Behold, those who are gorgeously dressed, and live delicately, are in kings' courts. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Luke 10:24 for I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 21:12 But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:25 He said to them, "The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called'benefactors.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:30 So that you may take food and drink at my table in my kingdom, and be seated like kings, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (BBE)
Acts 4:26 The kings of the earth take a stand, and the rulers take council together, against the Lord, and against his Christ.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 9:15 But the Lord said to him, "Go your way, for he is my chosen vessel to bear my name before the nations and kings, and the children of Israel. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 5:17 For if, through the transgression of the one individual, Death made use of the one individual to seize the sovereignty, all the more shall those who receive God's overflowing grace and gift of righteousness reign as kings in Life through the one individual, Jesus Christ. (WEY)
1 Corinthians 4:8 Now ye are full, now ye are rich, ye have reigned as kings without us: and I would to God ye did reign, that we also might reign with you. (KJV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 2:2 for kings and all who are in high places; that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and reverence. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 6:15 which in its own times he will show, who is the blessed and only Ruler, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of God Most High, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 2:9 But you are a special people, a holy nation, priests and kings, a people given up completely to God, so that you may make clear the virtues of him who took you out of the dark into the light of heaven. (BBE)
Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. (KJV WBS YLT)
Revelation 5:10 and made us kings and priests to our God, and we will reign on earth." (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Revelation 6:15 The kings of the earth, the princes, the commanding officers, the rich, the strong, and every slave and free person, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 10:11 They told me, "You must prophesy again over many peoples, nations, languages, and kings." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:12 The sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. Its water was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sunrise. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:14 for they are spirits of demons, performing signs; which go forth to the kings of the whole inhabited earth, to gather them together for the war of that great day of God, the Almighty. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:16 He gathered them together into the place which is called in Hebrew, Megiddo. (See NIV)
Revelation 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:10 They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:12 The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority as kings, with the beast, for one hour. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:14 These will war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:18 The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:3 For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:9 The kings of the earth, who committed sexual immorality and lived wantonly with her, will weep and wail over her, when they look at the smoke of her burning, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:16 He has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:18 that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and slave, and small and great." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:19 I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 20:4 And I saw thrones, and some who were seated on them, to whom judgment was entrusted. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded on account of the testimony that they had borne to Jesus and on account of God's Message, and also the souls of those who had not worshipped the Wild Beast or his statue, nor received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands; and they came to Life and were kings with Christ for a thousand years. (WEY)
Revelation 20:6 Blessed and holy are those who share in the First Resurrection. The Second Death has no power over them, but they shall be priests to God and to Christ, and shall be kings with Christ for the thousand years. (WEY)
Revelation 21:24 The nations will walk in its light. The kings of the earth bring the glory and honor of the nations into it. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 22:5 And there will be no night there; and they have no need of lamplight or sunlight, for the Lord God will shine upon them, and they will be kings until the Ages of the Ages." (WEY)
Genesis 14:2 that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela--the same is Zoar. (See RSV)
Genesis 14:3 All these joined together in the valley of Siddim (the same is the Salt Sea). (See NIV)
Genesis 14:5 In the fourteenth year Chedorlaomer came, and the kings who were with him, and struck the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:9 against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings against the five. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:10 Now the valley of Siddim was full of tar pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and those who remained fled to the hills. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:11 And the four kings took all the goods and food from Sodom and Gomorrah and went on their way. (BBE NIV)
Genesis 14:17 The king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, at the valley of Shaveh (that is, the King's Valley). (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 17:6 I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make nations of you. Kings will come out of you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 17:16 I will bless her, and moreover I will give you a son by her. Yes, I will bless her, and she will be a mother of nations. Kings of peoples will come from her." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 35:11 God said to him, "I am God Almighty. Be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations will be from you, and kings will come out of your body. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 36:31 These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 49:20 Asher's bread is fat; he gives delicate food for kings. (BBE)
Numbers 31:8 They killed the kings of Midian with the rest of their slain: Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Hur, and Reba, the five kings of Midian: Balaam also the son of Beor they killed with the sword. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 3:8 We took the land at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan, from the valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 3:21 I commanded Joshua at that time, saying, "Your eyes have seen all that Yahweh your God has done to these two kings: so shall Yahweh do to all the kingdoms where you go over. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 4:47 They took his land in possession, and the land of Og king of Bashan, the two kings of the Amorites, who were beyond the Jordan toward the sunrise; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 7:24 He will deliver their kings into your hand, and you shall make their name to perish from under the sky: there shall no man be able to stand before you, until you have destroyed them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 31:4 Yahweh will do to them as he did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and to their land; whom he destroyed. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 2:10 For we have heard how Yahweh dried up the water of the Red Sea before you, when you came out of Egypt; and what you did to the two kings of the Amorites, who were beyond the Jordan, to Sihon and to Og, whom you utterly destroyed. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 5:1 It happened, when all the kings of the Amorites, who were beyond the Jordan westward, and all the kings of the Canaanites, who were by the sea, heard how that Yahweh had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel, until we had passed over, that their heart melted, neither was there spirit in them any more, because of the children of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 9:1 It happened, when all the kings who were beyond the Jordan, in the hill country, and in the lowland, and on all the shore of the great sea in front of Lebanon, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, heard of it (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 9:10 and all that he did to the two kings of the Amorites who were beyond the Jordan, to Sihon king of Heshbon and to Og king of Bashan, who was at Ashtaroth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:5 Therefore the five kings of the Amorites, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, the king of Eglon, gathered themselves together, and went up, they and all their armies, and encamped against Gibeon, and made war against it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:6 The men of Gibeon sent to Joshua to the camp to Gilgal, saying, "Don't abandon your servants! Come up to us quickly, and save us, and help us; for all the kings of the Amorites that dwell in the hill country have gathered together against us." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:16 These five kings fled, and hid themselves in the cave at Makkedah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:17 Joshua was told, saying, "The five kings are found, hidden in the cave at Makkedah." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:22 Then Joshua said, "Open the mouth of the cave, and bring those five kings out of the cave to me." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:23 They did so, and brought those five kings out of the cave to him: the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king of Jarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:24 It happened, when they brought those kings out to Joshua, that Joshua called for all the men of Israel, and said to the chiefs of the men of war who went with him, "Come near, put your feet on the necks of these kings." They came near, and put their feet on their necks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:26 Afterward Joshua struck them, put them to death, and hanged them on five trees. They were hanging on the trees until the evening. (See NIV)
Joshua 10:40 So Joshua struck all the land, the hill country, and the South, and the lowland, and the slopes, and all their kings. He left none remaining, but he utterly destroyed all that breathed, as Yahweh, the God of Israel, commanded. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 10:42 Joshua took all these kings and their land at one time, because Yahweh, the God of Israel, fought for Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:1 And it came to pass, when Jabin king of Hazor heard thereof, that he sent to Jobab king of Madon, and to the king of Shimron, and to the king of Achshaph, (See NIV)
Joshua 11:2 and to the kings who were on the north, in the hill country, in the Arabah south of Chinneroth, in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:5 All these kings met together; and they came and encamped together at the waters of Merom, to fight with Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:12 Joshua captured all the cities of those kings, with their kings, and he struck them with the edge of the sword, and utterly destroyed them; as Moses the servant of Yahweh commanded. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:17 from Mount Halak, that goes up to Seir, even to Baal Gad in the valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon. He took all their kings, struck them, and put them to death. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:18 Joshua made war a long time with all those kings. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 12:1 Now these are the kings of the land, whom the children of Israel struck, and possessed their land beyond the Jordan toward the sunrise, from the valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon, and all the Arabah eastward: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 12:7 These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the children of Israel struck beyond the Jordan westward, from Baal Gad in the valley of Lebanon even to Mount Halak, that goes up to Seir. Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel for a possession according to their divisions; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 12:24 the king of Tirzah, one: all the kings thirty-one. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 24:12 I sent the hornet before you, which drove them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; not with your sword, nor with your bow. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 1:7 Adoni-Bezek said, "Seventy kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered their food under my table: as I have done, so God has requited me." They brought him to Jerusalem, and he died there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 5:3 "Hear, you kings! Give ear, you princes! I, even I, will sing to Yahweh. I will sing praise to Yahweh, the God of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 5:19 "The kings came and fought, then the kings of Canaan fought at Taanach by the waters of Megiddo. They took no plunder of silver. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 8:5 He said to the men of Succoth, "Please give loaves of bread to the people who follow me; for they are faint, and I am pursuing after Zebah and Zalmunna, the kings of Midian." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 8:12 Zebah and Zalmunna fled; and he pursued after them; and he took the two kings of Midian, Zebah and Zalmunna, and confused all the army. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 8:26 The weight of the golden earrings that he requested was one thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold, besides the crescents, and the pendants, and the purple clothing that was on the kings of Midian, and besides the chains that were about their camels' necks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 14:47 Now when Saul had taken the kingdom over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, and against the children of Ammon, and against Edom, and against the kings of Zobah, and against the Philistines: and wherever he turned himself, he put them to the worse. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 22:11 Then the king sent to call Ahimelech the priest, the son of Ahitub, and all his father's house, the priests who were in Nob: and they came all of them to the king. The First Book of Kings (WEB)
1 Samuel 27:6 Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: why Ziklag pertains to the kings of Judah to this day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 7:11 From the time when I put judges over my people Israel; and I will give you peace from all who are against you. And the Lord says to you that he will make you the head of a line of kings. (BBE)
2 Samuel 7:27 For you, O Lord of armies, the God of Israel, have clearly said to your servant, I will make you the head of a family of kings: and so it has come into your servant's heart to make this prayer to you. (BBE)
2 Samuel 10:19 When all the kings who were servants to Hadadezer saw that they were defeated before Israel, they made peace with Israel, and served them. So the Syrians feared to help the children of Ammon any more. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 11:1 It happened, at the return of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 14:28 And Absalom dwelt two full years in Jerusalem; and he saw not the king's face. (See JPS)
2 Samuel 22:15 He sent out arrows, and scattered them; lightning, and confused them. The Second Book of Kings (WEB)
1 Kings 2:24 Now by the living Lord, who has given me my place on the seat of David my father, and made me one of a line of kings, as he gave me his word, truly Adonijah will be put to death this day. (BBE)
1 Kings 3:13 I have also given you that which you have not asked, both riches and honor, so that there shall not be any among the kings like you, all your days. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Kings 4:24 For he had dominion over all the region on this side the River, from Tiphsah even to Gaza, over all the kings on this side the River: and he had peace on all sides around him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)