|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) A slattern.
2. (n.) The name of a female fairy, esp. the queen of the fairies; and hence, sometimes, any fairy.
3. (p. p) of Made.
4. (superl.) Disordered in intellect; crazy; insane.
5. (superl.) Excited beyond self-control or the restraint of reason; inflamed by violent or uncontrollable desire, passion, or appetite; as, to be mad with terror, lust, or hatred; mad against political reform.
6. (superl.) Proceeding from, or indicating, madness; expressing distraction; prompted by infatuation, fury, or extreme rashness.
7. (superl.) Extravagant; immoderate.
8. (superl.) Furious with rage, terror, or disease; -- said of the lower animals; as, a mad bull; esp., having hydrophobia; rabid; as, a mad dog.
9. (superl.) Angry; out of patience; vexed; as, to get mad at a person.
10. (superl.) Having impaired polarity; -- applied to a compass needle.
11. (v. t.) To make mad or furious; to madden.
12. (v. i.) To be mad; to go mad; to rave. See Madding.
13. (n.) An earthworm.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
halal, shagha`; mania):
1. In the Old Testament:
These words, and derivatives from the same roots are used to express various conditions of mental derangement. Though usually translated "mad," or "madness" they are often used for temporary conditions to which one would scarcely apply them today except as common colloquial inaccuracies. The madness coupled with folly in Ecclesiastes is rather the excessive frivolity and dissipation on the part of the idle rich (so in 1:17; 2:2-12; 7:25; 9:03; 10:13). The insensate fury of the wicked against the good is called by this name in Psalm 102:8. In Deuteronomy 28:28-34 it is used to characterize the state of panic produced by the oppression of tyrannical conquerors, or (as in Zechariah 12:4) by the judgment of God on sinners. This condition of mind is metaphorically called a drunkenness with the wine of God's wrath (Jeremiah 25:16; Jeremiah 51:7). The same mental condition due to terror-striking idols is called "madness" in Jeremiah 50:38. The madman of Proverbs 26:18 is a malicious person who carries his frivolous jest to an unreasonable length, for he is responsible for the mischief he causes. The ecstatic condition of one under the inspiration of the Divine or of evil spirits, such as that described by Balaam (Numbers 24:3 f), or that which Saul experienced (1 Samuel 10:10), is compared to madness; and conversely in the Near East at the present day the insane are supposed to be Divinely inspired and to be peculiarly under the Divine protection. This was the motive which led David, when at the court of Achish, to feign madness (1 Samuel 21:13-15). It is only within the last few years that any provision has been made in Palestine for the restraint even of dangerous lunatics, and there are many insane persons wandering at large there.
This association of madness with inspiration is expressed in the name "this mad fellow" given to the prophet who came to anoint Jehu, which did not necessarily convey a disrespectful meaning (2 Kings 9:11). The true prophetic spirit was, however, differentiated from the ravings of the false prophets by Isaiah (44:25), these latter being called mad by Jeremiah (29:26) and Hosea (9:7).
The most interesting case of real insanity recorded in the Old Testament is that of Saul, who, from being a shy, self-conscious young man, became, on his exaltation to the kingship, puffed up with a megalomania, alternating with fits of black depression with homicidal impulses, finally dying by suicide. The cause of his madness is said to have been an evil spirit from God (1 Samuel 18:10), and when, under the influence of the ecstatic mood which alternated with his depression, he conducted himself like a lunatic (1 Samuel 19:23 f), his mutterings are called "prophesyings." The use of music in his case as a remedy (1 Samuel 16:16) may be compared with Elisha's use of the same means to produce the prophetic ecstasy (2 Kings 3:15).
The story of Nebuchadnezzar is another history of a sudden accession of insanity in one puffed up by self-conceit and excessive prosperity. His delusion that he had become as an ox is of the same nature as that of the daughters of Procyus recorded in the So of Silenus by Virgil (Ecl. vi.48).
2. In the New Testament:
In the New Testament the word "lunatic" (seleniazomenoi) (the King James Version Matthew 4:24; Matthew 17:15) is correctly rendered in the Revised Version (British and American) "epileptic." Undoubtedly many of the demoniacs were persons suffering from insanity. The words "mad" or "madness" occur 8 times, but usually in the sense of paroxysms of passion, excitement, and foolishness. Thus in Acts 26:11 Paul says that before his conversion he was "exceedingly mad" (emmainomenos) against the Christians. In 1 Corinthians 14:23, those who "speak with tongues" in Christian assemblies are said to appear "mad" to the outsider. Rhoda was called "mad" when she announced that Peter was at the door (Acts 12:15). The madness with which the Jews were filled when our Lord healed the man with the withered hand is called anoia, which is literally senselessness (Luke 6:11), and the madness of Balaam is called paraphronia, "being beside himself" (2 Peter 2:16). Paul is accused by Festus of having become deranged by overstudy (Acts 26:24). It is still the belief among the fellahin that lunatics are people inspired by spirits, good or evil, and it is probable that all persons showing mental derangement would naturally be described as "possessed," so that, without entering into the vexed question of demoniacal possession, any cases of insanity cured by our Lord or the apostles would naturally be classed in the same category.
See also LUNATIC.
Mad (22 Occurrences)
John 10:20 And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him? (KJV WEY ASV YLT RSV NIV)
Acts 12:15 And they said unto her, Thou art mad. But she constantly affirmed that it was even so. Then said they, It is his angel. (KJV WEY ASV DBY YLT RSV)
Acts 26:11 And I punished them oft in every synagogue, and compelled them to blaspheme; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them even unto strange cities. (KJV ASV YLT)
Acts 26:24 As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane!" (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 26:25 But he said, I am not mad, most noble Festus; but speak forth the words of truth and soberness. (KJV WEY ASV DBY YLT RSV)
1 Corinthians 14:23 If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad? (KJV WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 28:34 so that you shall be mad for the sight of your eyes which you shall see. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 21:13 He changed his behavior before them, and feigned himself mad in their hands, and scrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down on his beard. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 21:14 Then said Achish to his servants, "Look, you see the man is mad. Why then have you brought him to me? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 21:15 Do I lack madmen, that you have brought this fellow to play the madman in my presence? Shall this fellow come into my house?" (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 9:11 Then Jehu came forth to the servants of his lord: and one said to him, "Is all well? Why did this mad fellow come to you?" He said to them, "You know the man and what his talk was." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 102:8 My enemies reproach me all day. Those who are mad at me use my name as a curse. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT)
Proverbs 26:18 Like a madman who shoots torches, arrows, and death, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Ecclesiastes 2:2 I said of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What doeth it? (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)
Ecclesiastes 7:7 Surely oppression maketh a wise man mad; and a gift destroyeth the heart. (KJV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Isaiah 10:31 Madmenah is a fugitive. The inhabitants of Gebim flee for safety. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 44:25 who frustrates the signs of the liars, and makes diviners mad; who turns wise men backward, and makes their knowledge foolish; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Jeremiah 25:16 They shall drink, and reel back and forth, and be mad, because of the sword that I will send among them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS NIV)
Jeremiah 29:26 Yahweh has made you priest in the place of Jehoiada the priest, that there may be officers in the house of Yahweh, for every man who is mad, and makes himself a prophet, that you should put him in the stocks and in shackles. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 50:38 A drought is on her waters, and they shall be dried up; for it is a land of engraved images, and they are mad over idols. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 51:7 Babylon has been a golden cup in Yahweh's hand, who made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunk of her wine; therefore the nations are mad. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Hosea 9:7 The days of visitation are come, the days of recompence are come; Israel shall know it: the prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is mad, for the multitude of thine iniquity, and the great hatred. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)