|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
As a mineral, consists of carbonate of lime, its texture varying from the highly crystalline to the compact. In Esther 1:6 there are four Hebrew words which are rendered marble:,
(1.) Shesh, "pillars of marble." But this word probably designates dark-blue limestone rather than marble.
(2.) Dar, some regard as Parian marble. It is here rendered "white marble." But nothing is certainly known of it.
(3.) Bahat, "red marble," probably the verd-antique or half-porphyry of Egypt.
(4.) Sohareth, "black marble," probably some spotted variety of marble. "The marble pillars and tesserae of various colours of the palace at Susa came doubtless from Persia itself, where marble of various colours is found, especially in the province of Hamadan Susiana." The marble of Solomon's architectural works may have been limestone from near Jerusalem, or from Lebanon, or possibly white marble from Arabia. Herod employed Parian marble in the temple, and marble columns still exist in great abundance at Jerusalem.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A massive, compact limestone; a variety of calcite, capable of being polished and used for architectural and ornamental purposes. The color varies from white to black, being sometimes yellow, red, and green, and frequently beautifully veined or clouded. The name is also given to other rocks of like use and appearance, as serpentine or verd antique marble, and less properly to polished porphyry, granite, etc.
2. (n.) A thing made of, or resembling, marble, as a work of art, or record, in marble; or, in the plural, a collection of such works; as, the Arundel or Arundelian marbles; the Elgin marbles.
3. (n.) A little ball of marble, or of some other hard substance, used as a plaything by children; or, in the plural, a child's game played with marbles.
4. (a.) Made of, or resembling, marble; as, a marble mantel; marble paper.
5. (a.) Cold; hard; unfeeling; as, a marble breast or heart.
6. (n.) To stain or vein like marble; to variegate in color; as, to marble the edges of a book, or the surface of paper.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
mar'-b'-l (shayish, shesh, 'abhne shayish, "stones of marble" (1 Chronicles 29:2); ritspath bahat wa-shesh we-dhar we-cochareth, "a pavement of red, and white, and yellow, and black marble," or, according to the margin, "a pavement of porphyry, and white marble, and alabaster, and stone of blue color" (Esther 1:6); `ammudhe shesh, "pillars of marble" (Esther 1:6 Songs 5:15); compare shesh, the King James Version margin "silk" or the Revised Version (British and American) "fine linen" (Genesis 41:42 Exodus 25:4, etc.); shoshannim, "lilies" (Songs 2:16, etc.), apparently from a root signifying "white"; marmaros, "marble" (Revelation 18:12)): Marble is properly crystalline limestone, usually pure white or veined with black, the former being in demand for statuary, while the latter is used in architecture, especially for floors and pillars. True marble is not found in Palestine, but is obtained from Greece or Italy. Much of the stone described as marble is non-crystalline limestone capable of being smoothed and polished. White or yellow stone of this character is abundant in Palestine. Non-crystalline rocks of other colors are also sometimes called marble. In the passage from Esther cited above (compare margin), it is a question whether the reference is to marble and other stones or to marble of different colors. In 1 Chronicles 29:2, "marble stones" are mentioned among the materials brought together by David for the building of the temple. In Esther 1:6, pillars and a pavement of marble are features of the palace of Ahasuerus. In Songs 5:15, the various parts of the body of the "beloved" are likened to gold, beryl, ivory, sapphire, and marble. In Revelation 18:12, marble occurs in the list of the merchandise of Babylon. All these references imply a costly stone, and therefore probably one imported from other countries, and make it likely that true crystalline marble is meant.
Alfred Ely Day
Marble (5 Occurrences)
Acts 17:29 Since then we are God's offspring, we ought not to imagine that His nature resembles gold or silver or marble, or anything sculptured by the art and inventive faculty of man. (WEY)
Revelation 18:12 merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, fine linen, purple, silk, scarlet, all expensive wood, every vessel of ivory, every vessel made of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble; (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 29:2 Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the brass for the things of to be set, stones for inlaid work, and of various colors, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Esther 1:6 There were hangings of white, green, and blue material, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and marble pillars. The couches were of gold and silver, on a pavement of red, white, yellow, and black marble. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Song of Songs 5:15 His legs are like pillars of marble set on sockets of fine gold. His appearance is like Lebanon, excellent as the cedars. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NIV)