|Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia|
MARKET; MARKETPLACE; MART
mar'-ket, mar'-ketplas, mart (ma`arabh, cachar; agora):
(1) Ma`arabh, from a root meaning "trading" and hence, goods exchanged, and so "merchandise" in the Revised Version (British and American), "market" in the King James Version, occurs only in Ezekiel 27:13, 17, 19, 25, and is translated correctly "merchandise" in both the English Revised Version and the American Standard Revised Version.
(2) Cachar means a "trading emporium," hence, mart, and merchandise. It occurs only in Isaiah 23:3 (see MERCHANDISE).
(3) Agora, from root meaning "to collect," means a "town meeting-place," "resort of the people," so a place where the public generally met to exchange views and wares. No doubt, the central place soon filling up, the people thronged the adjoining streets, and so in time each street thus used came to be called agora, "marketplace"; translated "marketplace(s)" in 1 Esdras 2:18; Tobit 2:3; Matthew 11:16; Matthew 20:3; Matthew 23:7 Mark 6:56; Mark 7:4; Mark 12:38 Luke 7:32; Luke 11:43; Luke 20:46 Acts 16:19; Acts 17:17; "Market of Appius" in Acts 28:15 means, probably, "street" (see APPII FORUM).
The marketplace in New Testament times was the public open space, either simple or ornate, in town, city or country, where (Mark 6:56) the people congregated, not only for exchange of merchandise, but for one or more of the following purposes:
(1) a place where the children came together to sing, dance and play, a "back-to-date" municipal recreation center (Matthew 11:16, 17 Luke 7:32);
(2) a place for loafers, a sort of ancient, irresponsible labor bureau where the out-of-work idler waited the coming of an employer with whom he might bargain for his services, usually by the day (Matthew 20:1-16);
(3) a place where the proud pretender could parade in long robes and get public recognition, "salutations in the market-places," e.g. the scribes and Pharisees against whom Jesus emphatically warns His disciples (Matthew 23:3-7 Mark 12:38 Luke 11:43; Luke 20:46);
(4) a place where the sick were brought for treatment, the poor man's sanatorium, a municipal hospital; Jesus "who went about doing good" often found His opportunity there (Mark 6:56);
(5) a place of preliminary hearing in trials, where the accused might be brought before rulers who were present at the time, e.g. Paul and Silas at Philippi (Acts 16:19);
(6) a place for religious and probably political or philosophical discussion (gossip also), a forum, a free-speech throne; no doubt often used by the early apostles not only as a place of proclaiming some truth of the new religion but also a place of advertisement for a coming synagogue service, e.g. Paul in Athens (Acts 17:17).
The Wisdom of Solomon 15:12 (the King James Version) has "They counted... our time here a market for gain," the Revised Version (British and American) "a gainful fair," margin "a keeping of festival," Greek panegurismos, "an assembly of all." Such assemblies offered particular opportunities for business dealings.
William Edward Raffety
Marketplace (8 Occurrences)
Matthew 20:3 He went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace. (WEB KJV ASV NIV)
Mark 7:4 They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) (WEB NIV)
Luke 7:32 They are like children who sit in the marketplace, and call one to another, saying,'We piped to you, and you didn't dance. We mourned, and you didn't weep.' (WEB KJV ASV NIV)
John 2:16 To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace!" (WEB)
Acts 16:19 But when her masters saw that the hope of their gain was gone, they seized Paul and Silas, and dragged them into the marketplace before the rulers. (WEB KJV ASV NIV)
Acts 17:5 But the unpersuaded Jews took along some wicked men from the marketplace, and gathering a crowd, set the city in an uproar. Assaulting the house of Jason, they sought to bring them out to the people. (WEB NIV)
Acts 17:17 So he reasoned in the synagogue with the Jews and the devout persons, and in the marketplace every day with those who met him. (WEB ASV NIV)
Isaiah 23:3 And on great waters the seed of Shihor, the harvest of the Nile, was her revenue; and she was the mart of nations. (See NIV)