|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Hebrews Madai, which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1) "Madai," Genesis 10:2; (2) "Medes," 2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; (3) "Media," Esther 1:3; 10:2; Isaiah 21:2; Dan. 8:20; (4) "Mede," only in Dan. 11:1.
We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform records, under the name of Amada, about B.C. 840. They appear to have been a branch of the Aryans, who came from the east bank of the Indus, and were probably the predominant race for a while in the Mesopotamian valley. They consisted for three or four centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief, who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (2 Kings 17:6). From this subjection they achieved deliverance, and formed themselves into an empire under Cyaxares (B.C. 633). This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B.C. 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nahum 1:8; 2:5, 6; 3:13, 14).
Media now rose to a place of great power, vastly extending its boundaries. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom. It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (B.C. 558).
The "cities of the Medes" are first mentioned in connection with the deportation of the Israelites on the destruction of Samaria (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). Soon afterwards Isaiah (13:17; 21:2) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction of Babylon (Comp. Jeremiah 51:11, 28). Daniel gives an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus (Dan. 6:1-28). The decree of Cyrus, Ezra informs us (6:2-5), was found in "the palace that is in the province of the Medes," Achmetha or Ecbatana of the Greeks, which is the only Median city mentioned in Scripture.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) pl. of Medium.
2. (n.) One of the sonant mutes /, /, / (b, d, g), in Greek, or of their equivalents in other languages, so named as intermediate between the tenues, /, /, / (p, t, k), and the aspiratae (aspirates) /, /, / (ph or f, th, ch). Also called middle mute, or medial, and sometimes soft mute.
3. (n.) Plural of Medium.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
me'-di-a (madhay; Achaem. Persian Mada; Media): Lay to the West and Southwest of the Caspian, and extended thence to the Zagrus Mountains on the West On the North in later times it was bounded by the rivers Araxes and Cyrus, which separated it from Armenia. Its eastern boundaries were formed by Hyrcania and the Great Salt Desert (now called the Kavir), and it was bounded on the South by Susiana. In earlier times its limits were somewhat indefinite. It included Atropatene, (Armenian Atrpatakan, the name, "Fire-guarding," showing devotion to the worship of Fire) to the North, and Media Magna to the South, the former being the present A'zarbaijan. Near the Caspian the country is low, damp and unhealthy, but inland most of it is high and mountainous, Mt. Demavand in the Alburz range reaching 18,600 ft. Atropatene was famed for the fertility of its valleys and table-lands, except toward the North. Media Magna is high; it has fruitful tracts along the course of the streams, but suffers much from want of water, though this was doubtless more abundant in antiquity. It contained the Nisaean Plain, famous for its breed of horses. The chief cities of ancient Media were Ecbatana, Gazaea, and Ragae. The Orontes range near Ecbatana is the present Alvand. Lake Spauta is now known as Urmi (Urumiah).
W. St. Clair Tisdall
Media (14 Occurrences)
Acts 2:9 Men of Parthia, Media, and Elam, and those living in Mesopotamia, in Judaea and Cappadocia, in Pontus and Asia, (BBE)
Ezra 6:2 There was found at Achmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a scroll, and therein was thus written for a record: (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:3 in the third year of his reign, he made a feast for all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:14 and the next to him were Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the king's face, and sat first in the kingdom), (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:18 Today, the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the queen's deed will tell all the king's princes. This will cause much contempt and wrath. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 1:19 If to the king 'it be' good, there goeth forth a royal word from before him, and it is written with the laws of Persia and Media, and doth not pass away, that Vashti doth not come in before the king Ahasuerus, and her royalty doth the king give to her companion who 'is' better than she; (YLT NAS NIV)
Esther 10:2 All the acts of his power and of his might, and the full account of the greatness of Mordecai, to which the king advanced him, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 21:2 A grievous vision is declared to me. The treacherous man deals treacherously, and the destroyer destroys. Go up, Elam; attack! I have stopped all of Media's sighing. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 25:25 And all the kings of Zimri, And all the kings of Elam, And all the kings of Media, (YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 51:28 Prepare against her the nations with the kings of Media, her captains, and all her rulers, and all the land of his dominion. (WBS YLT)
Daniel 6:8 Now, O king, thou dost establish the interdict, and sign the writing, that it is not to be changed, as a law of Media and Persia, that doth not pass away.' (YLT)
Daniel 6:12 then they have come near, yea, they are saying before the king concerning the king's interdict: 'Hast thou not signed an interdict, that any man who seeketh from any god and man until thirty days, save of thee, O king, is cast into a den of lions?' Answered hath the king, and said, 'The thing 'is' certain as a law of Media and Persia, that doth not pass away.' (YLT)
Daniel 6:15 Then these men have assembled near the king, and are saying to the king, 'know, O king, that the law of Media and Persia 'is': That any interdict and statute that the king doth establish is not to be changed.' (YLT)
Daniel 8:20 The ram which you saw, that had the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)