|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(Hebrews always with the article, "the" Millo).
(1.) Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north as its outermost defence. It is always rendered Akra i.e., "the citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing when David conquered Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:9). He extended it to the right and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27) and repaired by Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:5).
(2.) In Judges 9:6, 20 it is the name of a rampart in Shechem, probably the "tower of Shechem" (9:46, 49).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
mil'-o. (millo generally interpreted to mean a "filling," e.g. a solid tower or an earth embankment; in Judges 9:6, 20 2 Kings 12:20, we get beth millo', translated in English Versions of the Bible "House of Millo," which Winckler thinks may have been the original Jebusite temple-shrine of Jerusalem (see BETH-MILLO); Septuagint reads Bethmaalon, also Maalon and oikos Maallon):
1. Old Testament References
It is generally supposed that "The Millo" was some kind of fortress or other defense, but many speculations have been made regarding its position. In 2 Samuel 5:9, we read that David built round about from the Millo and inward, or (in the Septuagint, Septuagint) "he fortified it, the city, round about from the Millo and his house" (compare 1 Chronicles 11:8). In connection with Solomon's strengthening of the fortifications, there are several references to Millo. In 1 Kings 9:15, Solomon raised a levy "to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem," etc.; in 9:24, "Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David unto her house which Solomon had built for her: then did he build Millo"; in 1 Kings 11:27, Solomon "built Millo, and repaired the breach of the city of David his father." At a later time Hezekiah "took courage, and built up all the wall that was broken down, and raised it up to the towers, and the other wall without, and strengthened Millo in the city of David" (2 Chronicles 32:5 2 Kings 12:20); Joash was slain by his servants "at the house of Millo, on the way that goeth down to Silla," but possibly this may have been in Shechem (compare Judges 9:6).
2. Identical with the Akra Site:
The mention of the site in the days of David and the reference to it in connection with the city of David (1 Kings 11:27) point to some part of the southeastern hill South of the temple. It is suggestive that Millo is in Septuagint always translated by "Akra." It seems to the present writer very probable that it was a fortress crowning the hill on which at a later time stood the Syrian Akra, which hill, if we are to believe Josephus (BJ, V, iv, 1, etc.), was cut down because its commanding situation dominated the temple. This hill cannot have been the site of Zion afterward known as "David's Burg" (City of David), because the tombs of the Judean kings were within its walls, and that alone would have made the complete leveling of the site impossible, but whereas the Jebusite fortress was probably not far from Gihon, this fortified summit may have been, as Watson suggests for the Akra, as far north as where the present Al Aqsa mosque is situated. In David's time it may have been an isolated and detached fort guarding the north approach, but if it was originally a Jebusite high place (Winckler) partly of sun-dried brick like similar constructions in Babylonia, the account of its being leveled would be much more credible. The importance of this site in the days of Solomon is fully explicable if this was the citadel guarding the newly built temple and royal palaces.
Dr. G.A. Smith is inclined to think that Millo may have been a fortress "off the south end of Ophel, to retain and protect the old pool," and Vincent suggests that the site of Millo is that now occupied by the great causeway connecting the Western and Eastern hills along which runs the Tariq bab es silsileh.
E. W. G. Masterman
Millo (9 Occurrences)
Judges 9:6 All the men of Shechem assembled themselves together, and all the house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech king, by the oak of the pillar that was in Shechem. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 9:20 but if not, let fire come out from Abimelech, and devour the men of Shechem, and the house of Millo; and let fire come out from the men of Shechem, and from the house of Millo, and devour Abimelech." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Samuel 5:9 David lived in the stronghold, and called it the city of David. David built around from Millo and inward. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Kings 9:15 This is the reason of the levy which king Solomon raised, to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Kings 9:24 But Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David to her house which Solomon had built for her: then did he build Millo. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Kings 11:27 This was the reason why he lifted up his hand against the king: Solomon built Millo, and repaired the breach of the city of David his father. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
2 Kings 12:20 His servants arose, and made a conspiracy, and struck Joash at the house of Millo, on the way that goes down to Silla. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 11:8 He built the city all around, from Millo even around; and Joab repaired the rest of the city. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
2 Chronicles 32:5 He took courage, and built up all the wall that was broken down, and raised it up to the towers, and the other wall outside, and strengthened Millo in the city of David, and made weapons and shields in abundance. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)