|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (a.) Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a thing; belonging to native character; according to nature; essential; characteristic; not artificial, foreign, assumed, put on, or acquired; as, the natural growth of animals or plants; the natural motion of a gravitating body; natural strength or disposition; the natural heat of the body; natural color.
2. (a.) Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature; consonant to the methods of nature; according to the stated course of things, or in accordance with the laws which govern events, feelings, etc.; not exceptional or violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural consequence of crime; a natural death.
3. (a.) Having to do with existing system to things; dealing with, or derived from, the creation, or the world of matter and mind, as known by man; within the scope of human reason or experience; not supernatural; as, a natural law; natural science; history, theology.
4. (a.) Conformed to truth or reality
5. (a.) Springing from true sentiment; not artificial or exaggerated; -- said of action, delivery, etc.; as, a natural gesture, tone, etc.
6. (a.) Resembling the object imitated; true to nature; according to the life; -- said of anything copied or imitated; as, a portrait is natural.
7. (a.) Having the character or sentiments properly belonging to one's position; not unnatural in feelings.
8. (a.) Connected by the ties of consanguinity.
9. (a.) Begotten without the sanction of law; born out of wedlock; illegitimate; bastard; as, a natural child.
10. (a.) of or pertaining to the lower or animal nature, as contrasted with the higher or moral powers, or that which is spiritual; being in a state of nature; unregenerate.
11. (a.) Belonging to, to be taken in, or referred to, some system, in which the base is 1; -- said or certain functions or numbers; as, natural numbers, those commencing at 1; natural sines, cosines, etc., those taken in arcs whose radii are 1.
12. (a.) Produced by natural organs, as those of the human throat, in distinction from instrumental music.
13. (a.) of or pertaining to a key which has neither a flat nor a sharp for its signature, as the key of C major.
14. (a.) Applied to an air or modulation of harmony which moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but little from the original key.
15. (n.) A native; an aboriginal.
16. (n.) Natural gifts, impulses, etc.
17. (n.) One born without the usual powers of reason or understanding; an idiot.
18. (n.) A character [/] used to contradict, or to remove the effect of, a sharp or flat which has preceded it, and to restore the unaltered note.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
nat'-u-ral, nach'-u-ral (psuchikos anthropos): Man as he is by nature, contrasted with man as he becomes by grace. This phrase is exclusively Pauline.
I. Biblical Meaning.
The classical passage in which it occurs is 1 Corinthians 2:14 King James Version: "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned." In his anthropology Paul uses four groups of descriptive adjectives in contrasted pairs:
(1) the old man and the new man (Romans 6:6 Ephesians 4:22 Colossians 3:9 Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24 Colossians 3:10);
(2) the outward man and the inward man (2 Corinthians 4:16 Romans 7:22 Ephesians 3:16);
(3) the carnal man and the spiritual man (Romans 8:1-14 1 Corinthians 3:1, 3, 4);
(4) the natural man and the spiritual man (2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 3:3, 4 Ephesians 2:3 1 Corinthians 2:15; 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Corinthians 15:46 Galatians 6:1).
A study of these passages will show that the adjectives "old," "outward," "carnal," and "natural" describe man, from different points of view, prior to his conversion; while the adjectives "new," "inward" and "spiritual" describe him, from different points of view, after his conversion. To elucidate the meaning, the expositor must respect these antitheses and let the contrasted words throw light and meaning upon each other.
1. The Old Man:
The "old man" is the "natural man" considered chronologically-prior to that operation of the Holy Spirit by which he is renovated into the "new man."
The old house is the house as it was before it was remodeled; an old garment is the garment as it was before it was re-fashioned; and the "old man" is man as he was before he was regenerated and sanctified by the grace of the Spirit. "Our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin" (Romans 6:6 the King James Version). Here the "old man" is called the "body of sin," as the physical organism is called the body of the soul or spirit, and is to be "crucified" and "destroyed," in order that man may no longer be the "servant of sin." "Put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt..... Put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness" (Ephesians 4:22, 24 the King James Version). Here the "old man" is said to be "corrupt," and we are called upon to "put it off." The figure is that of putting off old clothes which are unclean, and putting on those garments which have come from the wash clean and snowy white. We have the same idea, in different language and with a slightly different imagery.
When Paul calls the "natural man" the "old man," and describes it as the "body of sin" which is "corrupt" in its nature and "deeds," and tells us that it must be "crucified" and "destroyed" and "put off" in order that we may "not serve sin," but may have "righteousness" and "true holiness" and "knowledge" and the "image" of God, we get some conception of the moral meaning which he is endeavoring to convey by these contrasts (Galatians 5:19-24). He has reference to that sinful nature in man which is as old as the individual, as old as the race of which he is a member, which must be graciously renovated according to that gospel which he preached to Corinthians, Colossians, Ephesians, Romans and all the world.
See OLD MAN; MAN, I, 3.
2. The Outward Man:
The apostle also establishes a contrast between "the inward man" and "the outward man." "Though our outward man is decaying, yet our inward man is renewed day by day" (2 Corinthians 4:16). Now what sort of man is the "outward man" as contrasted with the "inward man"? In Greek, the exo-anthropos is set over against the eso-anthropos.
See OUTWARD MAN.
"The contrast here drawn between the `outward' and the `inward man,' though illustrated by the contrast in Romans 7:22 between the `law in the members' and `the inner man,' and in Ephesians 4:22 Colossians 3:9 between `the old man' and `the new man' is not precisely the same. Those contrasts relate to the difference between the sensual and the moral nature, `the flesh' and `the spirit'; this to the difference between the material and the spiritual nature" (Stanley, in the place cited.).
"The outward man" is the body, and "the inward man" is the soul, or immaterial principle in the human make-up. As the body is wasted by the afflictions of life, the soul is renewed; what is death to the body is life to the soul; as afflictions depotentiate man's physical organism, they impotentiate man's spiritual principle. That is, the afflictions of life, culminating in death itself, have diametrically opposite effects upon the body and upon the soul. They kill the one; they quicken the other.
"The inward man" is the whole human nature as renewed and indwelt and dominated by the Spirit of God as interpenetrated by the spirit of grace. As the one is broken down by the adverse dispensations of life, the other is upbuilt by the sanctifying discipline of the Spirit.
3. The Carnal Man:
There is another Pauline antithesis which it is necessary for us to interpret in order to understand what he means by the "natural man." It is the distinction which he draws between the "carnal mind" and the "spiritual mind." The critical reference is Romans 8:1-14. In this place the "carnal mind" is identified with the "law of death," and the "spiritual mind" is identified with the "law of the Spirit." These two "laws" are two principles and codes: the one makes man to be at "enmity against God" and leads to "death"; the other makes him the friend of God, and conducts to "life and peace." The word "carnal" connotes all that is fallen and sinful and unregenerate in man's nature. In its gross sense the "carnal" signifies that which is contrary to nature, or nature expressing itself in low and bestial forms of sin.
4. The Natural Man:
The "natural man" is the "old man," the "outward man," the "carnal man"-man as he is by nature, as he is firstborn, contra-distinguished to man as he is changed by the Spirit, as he is second-born or regenerated. There. is an "old" life, an "outward" life, a "carnal" life, a "natural" life, as contrasted with the "new" life, the "inward" life, the "spiritual" life, the "gracious" life. The "natural man" is a bold and vivid personification of that depraved nature which we inherit from Adam fallen, the source and seat of all actual and personal transgressions.
II. Theological Meaning.
We know what we mean by the nature of the lion, by the nature of the lamb. We are using perfectly comprehensible language when we speak of the lion as naturally fierce, and of the lamb when we say he is naturally gentle. We have reference to the dominant dispositions of these animals, that resultant of their qualities which defines their character and spontaneity. So we are perfectly plain when we say that man is naturally sinful. We are but saying that sinfulness is to man what fierceness is to the lion, what gentleness is to the lamb. The "natural man" is a figure of speech for that sinful human nature, common to us all. It is equivalent to the theological phrases: the "sinful inclination," the "evil disposition," the "apostate will," "original sin," "native depravity." It manifests itself in the understanding as blindness, in the heart as hardness, in the will as obstinacy.
Robert Alexander Webb
fe'-turz: As has been pointed out by various authors (compare HGHL), the principal physical features of Palestine run in North and South lines, or rather about from South-Southwest to North-Northeast.
The lowland or Shephelah (the King James Version "vale, valley, plain, or low country") includes the maritime plain and the western foothills.
The hill country consists of the mountains of Judea, and its features are continued northward to the plain of Esdraelon and southward to the Sinaitic peninsula. It is rocky and has very little water. Except for the few fountains, the scanty population depends upon rain water collected during the winter months.
The Arabah (Revised Version) includes the Jordan valley from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, as well as the depression running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akabah. It is to the latter depression that the name Wady-ul-`Arabah is now applied by the Arabs. It is bounded on the East by Mt. Seir or Edom, and on the West by the mountains of the Sinaitic peninsula. Its highest point, about halfway between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akabah, is a few hundred ft. higher than the level of the Mediterranean, but nearly 2,000 ft. above the level of the Dead Sea. From this point the valley slopes southward to the Gulf of Akabah, and northward to the Dead Sea. The lower Jordan valley slopes from about 600 ft. below ocean-level at the Sea of Galilee to about 1,300 ft. below ocean-level at the Dead Sea.
To the East are the highlands of Gilead and Moab rising abruptly from the valley, as does the hill country of Judea on the West. The country to the East of the Jordan-Dead Sea-Arabah depression, to the whole of which the name Ghaur (Ghor) is applied by the Arabs, is a great table-land sloping gradually to the East from the sharp edge which overlooks the Ghaur. It has no conspicuous peaks. What appear to be peaks when viewed from the Ghaur are irregularities of its western contour, which are invisible or appear as slight mounds to the observer who looks westward from any point some miles to the East Mt. Nebo, for instance, when seen from Medeba is not readily distinguishable. This is because it really does not rise above the general level of the table-land. The small annual rainfall on the heights near the Ghaur diminishes eastward, and the desert begins within from 20 to 40 miles.
Another term much used by Old Testament writers is South or Negeb, which embraces the southernmost portion of the promised land, and was never effectively occupied by the Israelites. Its uttermost boundary was the "river of Egypt" (al-`Arish), and coincides roughly with the present boundary between the Ottoman territory on the East and the Anglo-Egyptian territory of Sinai on the West.
The term slopes, 'ashedhoth, the King James Version "springs," occurs in Joshua 10:40, "So Joshua smote all the land, the hill country.... and the lowland, and the slopes, and all their kings"; and again in Joshua 12:7, 8, "And Joshua gave it.... for a possession according to their divisions; in the hill-country, and in the lowland, and in the Arabah, and in the slopes, and in the wilderness, and in the South." In the former passage, it seems to refer to the foothills which form the eastern or higher part of the lowland or Shephelah. In the latter passage, it might mean the same, or it might mean the descent from the Judean hills to the Ghaur. In Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49 Joshua 12:3; Joshua 13:20, we have "the slopes of Pisgah" ('ashdoth-ha-pisgah, "springs of Pisgah"), which denotes the descent from the heights of Moab to the Ghaur. The same word occurs in the sing in Numbers 21:15, referring to the descent to the Arnon. "Slopes," therefore, does not seem to be a term applied to any particular region.
The wilderness is usually the desert of the wandering, including the central part of the Sinaitic peninsula, but it is by no means always used in this sense,. e.g. Joshua 8:15, 20, 24, where it clearly refers to a region near Ai. "The wilderness" of Matthew 4:1 is thought to be the barren portion of Judea between Jerusalem and the Jordan.
See CHAMPAIGN; COUNTRY; DESERT; EAST; HILL; LOWLAND; SOUTH.
Alfred Ely Day
See ANIMAL; BOTANY; BIRDS; FISH; INSECTS; ZOOLOGY.
nat'-u-ral, na'-tur (leach; psuchikos, phusikos, phusis):
1. As Used in the Old Testament:
"Natural" is the translation of leach, "freshness or vigor" (Deuteronomy 34:7). Of Moses it is said, "His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated."
"Nature" in the sense of a system or constitution does not occur in the Old Testament. The world and men, each individual, were conceived as being the direct creation of a supra-mundane God, and conserved by His power and Spirit. The later conception of "nature" came in through Greek influences.
In the Apocrypha, we find "nature" in the sense of innate character or constitution (The Wisdom of Solomon 7:20, "the natures (phuseis) of living creatures"; The Wisdom of Solomon 13:1, "Surely vain are all men by nature" (phusei), 3 Maccabees 3:29, "mortal nature" (phusis)).
2. As Used in the New Testament:
In the New Testament "nature" (phusis) is frequently found in the latter sense (Romans 1:26, "against nature"; Romans 2:14, "by nature"; Romans 2:27; Romans 11:24, also "contrary to nature"; 1 Corinthians 11:14, "Doth not even nature itself teach you?"; Galatians 2:15; Galatians 4:8 Ephesians 2:3; in 2 Peter 1:4, we have "that ye might be partakers of the divine nature," the Revised Version margin "or, a"); phusis occurs also in James 3:7, "every kind of beasts," the Revised Version margin "Greek: nature," also "mankind" (3:7), the Revised Version margin "Greek: the human nature." "Natural" (Romans 11:21, 24) is the translation of kata phusin, "according to nature." Paul in 1 Corinthians speaks of "the natural man" (2:14, the American Revised Version margin "or unspiritual, Greek: physical") and of a "natural body" (1 Corinthians 15:44 twice), the Greek word being psuchikos, "of the soul" (psuche), the animal, natural, principle, as contrasted with what pertains to the higher principle of the spirit (pneuma). In 1 Corinthians 15:46 the contrast is expressed, "Howbeit that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural," the American Revised Version margin "Greek: physical." The "natural man" is the man in whom the spirit is unquickened, the "natural body" is that corresponding to the psychical or soul-nature, the "spiritual body" that corresponding to the Spirit as the dominant principle of the life. In Jude 1:10, we have phusikos, "naturally" "naturally, as brute beasts," the Revised Version (British and American) "naturally, like the creatures without reason"; genesis, "origin," "birth," is translated "natural" (James 1:23, "his natural face," the Revised Version margin "Greek: the face of his birth"); and "nature" (James 3:6, "the course of nature" the Revised Version (British and American) "the wheel of nature" margin "or birth") ("wheel" probably means "circle of nature" (the whole creation; see COURSE)); gnesios, "genuine" ("true to right nature") "legitimate," "sincere," is translated "naturally" (Philippians 2:20, "who will naturally care for your state," the Revised Version (British and American) "truly," margin "Greek: genuinely").
W. L. Walker
NATURAL MAN, THE
See MAN, NATURAL.
Natural (49 Occurrences)
Matthew 8:12 while the natural heirs of the Kingdom will be driven out into the darkness outside: there will be the weeping aloud and the gnashing of teeth." (WEY)
John 1:13 who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (See NIV)
John 8:44 You are the children of your father the Evil One and it is your pleasure to do his desires. From the first he was a taker of life; and he did not go in the true way because there is no true thing in him. When he says what is false, it is natural to him, for he is false and the father of what is false. (BBE)
John 11:13 Now Jesus had spoken of his death, but they thought that he spoke of taking rest in sleep. (See NIV)
Romans 1:26 For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 1:27 Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 1:31 without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Romans 2:14 For when Gentiles who have no Law obey by natural instinct the commands of the Law, they, without having a Law, are a Law to themselves; (WEY BBE)
Romans 6:19 I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. (See RSV NIV)
Romans 9:8 In other words, it is not the children by natural descent who count as God's children, but the children made such by the promise are regarded as Abraham's posterity. (WEY NIV)
Romans 11:18 beware of glorying over the natural branches. Or if you are so glorying, do not forget that it is not you who uphold the root: the root upholds you. (WEY)
Romans 11:21 for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 11:24 For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 2:14 Now the natural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they are foolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they are spiritually discerned. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
1 Corinthians 3:3 Because you are still in the flesh: for when there is envy and division among you, are you not still walking after the way of the flesh, even as natural men? (BBE)
1 Corinthians 3:4 For when one says, I am of Paul; and another says, I am of Apollos; are you not talking like natural men? (BBE)
1 Corinthians 11:14 Does it not seem natural to you that if a man has long hair, it is a cause of shame to him? (BBE)
1 Corinthians 15:44 It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritual body. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Corinthians 15:46 However that which is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then that which is spiritual. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Ephesians 6:5 Servants, do what is ordered by those who are your natural masters, having respect and fear for them, with all your heart, as to Christ; (BBE)
Colossians 2:13 And to you--dead as you once were in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your natural state--He has nevertheless given Life with Himself, having forgiven us all our transgressions. (WEY)
Colossians 2:23 These things seem to have a sort of wisdom in self-ordered worship and making little of oneself, and being cruel to the body, not honouring it by giving it its natural use. (BBE)
Colossians 3:22 Servants, in all things do the orders of your natural masters; not only when their eyes are on you, as pleasers of men, but with all your heart, fearing the Lord: (BBE)
2 Timothy 3:3 without natural affection, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, no lovers of good, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Hebrews 2:4 And God was a witness with them, by signs and wonders, and by more than natural powers, and by his distribution of the Holy Spirit at his pleasure. (BBE)
James 1:23 For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man looking at his natural face in a mirror; (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
James 3:15 This is not the wisdom which comes down from above, but earthly, natural, devilish. (DBY NAS)
2 Peter 2:12 But these, as unreasoning creatures, born natural animals to be taken and destroyed, speaking evil in matters about which they are ignorant, will in their destroying surely be destroyed, (WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Jude 1:10 But these speak evil of whatever things they don't know. What they understand naturally, like the creatures without reason, they are destroyed in these things. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT)
Jude 1:19 These are the men who make divisions, natural men, not having the Spirit. (BBE DBY YLT NIV)
Genesis 19:31 And the older daughter said to her sister, Our father is old, and there is no man to be a husband to us in the natural way: (BBE)
Leviticus 7:24 And the fat of that which comes to a natural death, and the fat of that which is attacked by beasts, may be used for other purposes, but not in any way for food. (BBE)
Leviticus 11:39 And if any beast which may be used for food comes to a natural death, anyone touching its dead body will be unclean till evening. (BBE)
Leviticus 17:15 And anyone who takes as food anything which has come to a natural end, or anything which has been put to death by beasts, if he is one of you by birth, or of another nation, will have to have his clothing washed and his body bathed in water and be unclean till evening, and then he will be clean. (BBE)
Leviticus 22:8 That which comes to a natural death, or is attacked by beasts, he may not take as food, for it will make him unclean: I am the Lord. (BBE)
Leviticus 22:23 An ox or a lamb which has more or less than its natural parts, may be given as a free offering; but it will not be taken in payment of an oath. (BBE)
Leviticus 25:7 And for your cattle and the beasts on the land; all the natural increase of the land will be for food. (BBE)
Leviticus 25:12 For it is the Jubilee, and it is holy to you; your food will be the natural increase of the field. (BBE)
Numbers 16:29 If these men have the common death of men, or if the natural fate of all men overtakes them, then the Lord has not sent me. (BBE NIV)
Numbers 19:16 And anyone touching one who has been put to death with the sword in the open country, or the body of one who has come to his end by a natural death, or a man's bone, or the resting-place of a dead body, will be unclean for seven days. (BBE NAS NIV)
Numbers 19:18 And a clean person is to take hyssop and put it in the water, shaking it over the tent, and all the vessels, and the people who were there, and over him by whom the bone, or the body of one who has been put to death with the sword, or the body of one who has come to his end by a natural death, or the resting-place was touched. (BBE NAS NIV)
Deuteronomy 14:21 You may not have as food anything which has come to a natural death; the man from another country who is living with you may take it for food, or you may get a price for it from one of another nation; for you are a holy people to the Lord your God. The young goat is not to be cooked in its mother's milk. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 34:7 Moses was one hundred twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS RSV)
1 Samuel 26:10 And David said, By the living Lord, the Lord will send destruction on him; the natural day of his death will come, or he will go into the fight and come to his end. (BBE)
Nehemiah 2:3 And said to the king, May the king be living for ever: is it not natural for my face to be sad, when the town, the place where the bodies of my fathers are at rest, has been made waste and its doorways burned with fire? (BBE)
Proverbs 26:1 Like snow in summer and rain when the grain is being cut, so honour is not natural for the foolish. (BBE)
Ezekiel 4:14 Then I said, Ah, Lord! see, my soul has never been unclean, and I have never taken as my food anything which has come to a natural death or has been broken by beasts, from the time when I was young even till now; no disgusting flesh has ever come into my mouth. (BBE)
Ezekiel 44:31 The priests may not take for food any bird or beast which has come to a natural death or whose death has been caused by another animal. (BBE NAS)
Daniel 10:8 So I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength. (See NAS)