|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(Hebrews tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. It is described as "flourishing" (Psalm 92:12), tall (Cant. 7:7), "upright" (Jeremiah 10:5). Its branches are a symbol of victory (Revelation 7:9). "Rising with slender stem 40 or 50, at times even 80, feet aloft, its only branches, the feathery, snow-like, pale-green fronds from 6 to 12 feet long, bending from its top, the palm attracts the eye wherever it is seen." The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i.e., "the land of palms." Tadmor in the desert was called by the Greeks and Romans Palmyra, i.e., "the city of palms." The finest specimens of this tree grew at Jericho (Deuteronomy 34:3) and Engedi and along the banks of the Jordan. Branches of the palm tree were carried at the feast of Tabernacles (Leviticus 23:40). At our Lord's triumphal entrance into Jerusalem the crowds took palm branches, and went forth to meet him, crying, "Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord" (Matthew 21:8; John 12:13). (see DATE.)
Palm trees, The city of
The name given to Jericho (q.v.), Deuteronomy 34:3; Judges 1:16; 3:13.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) The inner and somewhat concave part of the hand between the bases of the fingers and the wrist.
2. (n.) A lineal measure equal either to the breadth of the hand or to its length from the wrist to the ends of the fingers; a hand; -- used in measuring a horse's height.
3. (n.) A metallic disk, attached to a strap, and worn the palm of the hand, -- used to push the needle through the canvas, in sewing sails, etc.
4. (n.) The broad flattened part of an antler, as of a full-grown fallow deer; -- so called as resembling the palm of the hand with its protruding fingers.
5. (n.) The flat inner face of an anchor fluke.
6. (n.) Any endogenous tree of the order Palmae or Palmaceae; a palm tree.
7. (n.) A branch or leaf of the palm, anciently borne or worn as a symbol of victory or rejoicing.
8. (n.) Any symbol or token of superiority, success, or triumph; also, victory; triumph; supremacy.
9. (v. t.) To handle.
10. (v. t.) To manipulate with, or conceal in, the palm of the hand; to juggle.
11. (v. t.) To impose by fraud, as by sleight of hand; to put by unfair means; -- usually with off.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
CITY OF PALM TREES
pam'-trez (`ir ha-temarim).
See JERICHO (Deuteronomy 34:3 Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13 2 Chronicles 28:15).
PALM (OF THE HAND)
pam (kaph): The Hebrew word which is used in a variety of senses (see HAND; PAW) is usually translated "hand" in English Versions of the Bible, but the translation "palm" is found in 5 passages of the Old Testament, in 3 of which the Hebrew text adds the word yadh ("hand," 1 Samuel 5:4 2 Kings 9:35; Daniel 10:10). It would properly mean the "hollow hand" (root kaphaph, "to bend," "to curve"), which receives or grasps things. It is therefore used in reference to filling the priest's hands with sacrificial portions (Leviticus 14:15, 26). The palms of the hands of Dagon are mentioned as cut off, when the idol was found mutilated in the presence of the ark of Yahweh (1 Samuel 5:4), from which may be inferred that this idol probably was represented with hands spread out in blessing, as we find in numerous Babylonian representations of divinities.
In a beautiful metaphor God answers the repentant people of Jerusalem, who thought Yahweh had forgotten and forsaken them: "Behold, I have graven thee upon the palms of my hands" (Isaiah 49:16; see also Ecclesiasticus 18:3). Daniel is touched upon the palms of his hands to wake him from sleep (Daniel 10:10).
In the New Testament we find the phrase, "to smite with the palms of the hands," as a translation of the Greek verb rhapizo (Matthew 26:67; see also 5:39 and Septuagint Hosea 11:4; 1 Esdras 4:30), and, derived from the same verb, rhapisma, a blow of the palm on the cheek, etc. (Mark 14:65 John 18:22; John 19:3, where, however, in English Versions of the Bible the word "palm" has not been given). The marginal translation "to smite or strike with rods" (Matthew 26:67 John 18:22; John 19:3) and "strokes of rods" (Mark 14:65 margin) does not seem to be applicable to the Greek text of the Old Testament and New Testament, while it is a frequent meaning of the words in classical language. It would therefore be better to eliminate these marginal additions.
H. L. E. Luering
pam'-tre (tamar, same as the Aramaic and Ethiopic, but in Arabic = "date"; phoinix (Exodus 15:27 Leviticus 23:40 Numbers 33:9 Deuteronomy 34:3 Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13 2 Chronicles 28:15 Nehemiah 8:15 Psalm 92:12 Songs 7:7 Joel 1:12); tomer, Deborah "dwelt under the palm-tree" (Judges 4:5); "They are like a palm-tree (margin "pillar"), of turned work" (Jeremiah 10:5); timorah (only in the plural), the palm tree as an architectural feature (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35; 1 Kings 7:36 2 Chronicles 3:5 Ezekiel 40:16); Greek only Ecclesiasticus 50:12; John 12:13 Revelation 7:9):
1. Palm Trees:
The palm, Phoenix dactylifera (Natural Order Palmeae), Arabic nakhl, is a tree which from the earliest times has been associated with the Semitic peoples. In Arabia the very existence of man depends largely upon its presence, and many authorities consider this to have been its original habitat. It is only natural that such a tree should have been sacred both there and in Assyria in the earliest ages. In Palestine the palm leaf appears as an ornament upon pottery as far back as 1800 B.C. (compare PEF, Gezer Mere., II, 172). In Egypt the tall palm stem forms a constant feature in early architecture, and among the Hebrews it was extensively used as a decoration of the temple (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35; 1 Kings 7:36 2 Chronicles 3:5). It is a symbol of beauty (Songs 7:7) and of the righteous man:
"The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree:
He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.
They are planted in the house of Yahweh;
They shall flourish in the courts of our God.
They shall still bring forth fruit in old age;
They shall be full of sap and green" (Psalm 92:12-14).
The palm tree or branch is used extensively on Jewish coinage and most noticeably appears as a symbol of the land upon the celebrated Judea Capta coins of Vespasian. A couple of centuries or so later it forms a prominent architectural feature in the ornamentation of the Galilean synagogues, e.g. at Tell Chum (Capernaum). The method of artificial fertilization of the pistillate (female) flowers by means of the staminate (male) flowers appears to have been known in the earliest historic times. Winged figures are depicted on some of the early Assyrian sculptures shaking a bunch of the male flowers over the female for the same purpose as the people of modern Gaza ascend the tall trunks of the fruit-bearing palms and tie among the female flowers a bunch of the pollen-bearing male flowers.
2. Their Ancient Abundance in Palestine:
In Palestine today the palm is much neglected; there are few groves except along the coast, e.g. at the bay of Akka, Jaffa and Gaza; solitary palms occur all over the land in the courtyards of mosques (compare Psalm 92:13) and houses even in the mountains. Once palms flourished upon the Mount of Olives (Nehemiah 8:15), and Jericho was long known as the "city of palm-trees" (Deuteronomy 34:3 Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13 2 Chronicles 28:15; Josephus BJ, IV, viii, 2-3), but today the only palms are scarce and small; under its name Hazazon-tamar (2 Chronicles 20:2), En-gedi would appear to have been as much a place of palms in ancient days as we know it was in later history. A city, too, called Tamar ("date palm") appears to have been somewhere near the southwestern corner of the Dead Sea (Ezekiel 47:19; Ezekiel 48:28). Today the numerous salt-encrusted stumps of wild palm trees washed up all along the shores of the Dead Sea witness to the existence of these trees within recent times in some of the deep valleys around.
3. Palm Branches:
Branches of palms have been symbolically associated with several different ideas. A palm branch is used in Isaiah 9:14; Isaiah 19:15 to signify he "head," the highest of the people, as contrasted with the rush, the "tail," or humblest of the people. Palm branches appear from early times to have been associated with rejoicing. On the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles the Hebrews were commanded to take branches of palms, with other trees, and rejoice before God (Leviticus 23:40; compare Nehemiah 8:15; 2 Maccabees 10:7). The palm branch still forms the chief feature of the lulabh carried daily by every pious Jew to the synagogue, during the feast. Later it was connected with the idea of triumph and victory. Simon Maccabeus entered the Akra at Jerusalem after its capture, "with thanksgiving, and branches of palm trees, and with harps, and cymbals, and with viols, and hymns, and songs: because there was destroyed a great enemy out of Israel" (1 Maccabees 13:51 the King James Version; compare 2 Maccabees 10:7). The same idea comes out in the use of palm branches by the multitudes who escorted Jesus to Jerusalem (John 12:13) and also in the vision of the "great multitude, which no man could number.... standing before the.... Lamb, arrayed in white robes, and palms in their hands" (Revelation 7:9). Today palms are carried in every Moslem funeral procession and are laid on the new-made grave.
See also TAMAR as a proper name.
E. W. G. Masterman
Palm (49 Occurrences)
John 12:13 they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, " Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? (KJV WBS)
Revelation 7:9 After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:27 They came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water, and seventy palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 9:17 and he bringeth near the present, and filleth his palm with it, and maketh perfume on the altar, apart from the burnt-offering of the morning. (YLT)
Leviticus 14:15 The priest shall take some of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:16 and the priest hath dipped his right finger in the oil which 'is' on his left palm, and hath sprinkled of the oil with his finger seven times before Jehovah. (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 14:17 And of the residue of the oil which 'is' on his palm, the priest putteth on the tip of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot, on the blood of the guilt-offering; (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 14:18 and the remnant of the oil which 'is' on the palm of the priest, he putteth on the head of him who is to be cleansed, and the priest hath made atonement for him before Jehovah. (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 14:26 The priest shall pour some of the oil into the palm of his own left hand; (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 14:27 and the priest hath sprinkled with his right finger of the oil which 'is' on his left palm, seven times before Jehovah. (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 14:28 And the priest hath put of the oil which 'is' on his palm, on the tip of the right ear of him who is to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the great toe of his right foot, on the place of the blood of the guilt-offering; (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 14:29 and the remnant of the oil which 'is' on the palm of the priest he doth put on the head of him who is to be cleansed, to make atonement for him, before Jehovah. (YLT NAS NIV)
Leviticus 23:40 You shall take on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before Yahweh your God seven days. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 33:9 They traveled from Marah, and came to Elim: and in Elim were twelve springs of water, and seventy palm trees; and they encamped there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 34:3 and the South, and the Plain of the valley of Jericho the city of palm trees, to Zoar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 1:16 The children of the Kenite, Moses' brother-in-law, went up out of the city of palm trees with the children of Judah into the wilderness of Judah, which is in the south of Arad; and they went and lived with the people. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 3:13 He gathered to him the children of Ammon and Amalek; and he went and struck Israel, and they possessed the city of palm trees. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 4:5 She lived under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim: and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 6:29 He carved all the walls of the house around with carved figures of cherubim and palm trees and open flowers, inside and outside. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 6:32 So he made two doors of olive wood; and he carved on them carvings of cherubim and palm trees and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold; and he spread the gold on the cherubim, and on the palm trees. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 6:35 He carved thereon cherubim and palm trees and open flowers; and he overlaid them with gold fitted on the engraved work. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 7:36 On the plates of its stays, and on its panels, he engraved cherubim, lions, and palm trees, according to the space of each, with wreaths all around. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 18:44 And it cometh to pass, at the seventh, that he saith, 'Lo, a little thickness as the palm of a man is coming up out of the sea.' And he saith, 'Go up, say unto Ahab, 'Bind -- and go down, and the shower doth not restrain thee.' (YLT)
2 Chronicles 3:5 The greater house he made a ceiling with fir wood, which he overlaid with fine gold, and ornamented it with palm trees and chains. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 28:15 The men who have been mentioned by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all who were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them on donkeys, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, to their brothers: then they returned to Samaria. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 8:15 and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth to the mountain, and get olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 15:32 It shall be accomplished before his time. His branch shall not be green. (See NAS)
Psalms 92:12 The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree. He will grow like a cedar in Lebanon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Song of Songs 7:7 This, your stature, is like a palm tree, your breasts like its fruit. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Song of Songs 7:8 I said, "I will climb up into the palm tree. I will take hold of its fruit." Let your breasts be like clusters of the vine, the smell of your breath like apples, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 9:14 Therefore Yahweh will cut off from Israel head and tail, palm branch and reed, in one day. (WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 19:15 Neither shall there be for Egypt any work, which head or tail, palm branch or rush, may do. (WEB JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 10:5 They are like a palm tree, of turned work, and don't speak: they must be carried, because they can't go. Don't be afraid of them; for they can't do evil, neither is it in them to do good." (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Ezekiel 6:11 Thus said the Lord Jehovah: 'Smite with thy palm, and stamp with thy foot, And say: Alas, for all the evil abominations of the house of Israel, Who by sword, by famine, and by pestilence do fall. (YLT)
Ezekiel 40:16 There were closed windows to the lodges, and to their posts within the gate all around, and likewise to the arches; and windows were around inward; and on each post were palm trees. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 40:22 The windows of it, and its arches, and the palm trees of it, were after the measure of the gate whose prospect is toward the east; and they went up to it by seven steps; and its arches were before them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 40:26 There were seven steps to go up to it, and its arches were before them; and it had palm trees, one on this side, and another on that side, on its posts. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 40:31 The arches of it were toward the outer court; and palm trees were on its posts: and the ascent to it had eight steps. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 40:34 The arches of it were toward the outer court; and palm trees were on its posts, on this side, and on that side: and the ascent to it had eight steps. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 40:37 The posts of it were toward the outer court; and palm trees were on its posts, on this side, and on that side: and the ascent to it had eight steps. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 41:18 It was made with cherubim and palm trees; and a palm tree was between cherub and cherub, and every cherub had two faces; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 41:19 so that there was the face of a man toward the palm tree on the one side, and the face of a young lion toward the palm tree on the other side. thus was it made through all the house all around: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 41:20 from the ground to above the door were cherubim and palm trees made: thus was the wall of the temple. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 41:25 There were made on them, on the doors of the temple, cherubim and palm trees, like as were made on the walls; and there was a threshold of wood on the face of the porch outside. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 41:26 There were closed windows and palm trees on the one side and on the other side, on the sides of the porch: thus were the side chambers of the house, and the thresholds. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:5 In the same hour came forth the fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaster of the wall of the king's palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote. (See JPS)
Daniel 5:24 Then was the part of the hand sent from before him, and this writing was inscribed. (See JPS)
Joel 1:12 The vine has dried up, and the fig tree withered; the pomegranate tree, the palm tree also, and the apple tree, even all of the trees of the field are withered; for joy has withered away from the sons of men. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)