|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) A country or region, more or less remote from the city of Rome, brought under the Roman government; a conquered country beyond the limits of Italy.
2. (n.) A country or region dependent on a distant authority; a portion of an empire or state, esp. one remote from the capital.
3. (n.) A region of country; a tract; a district.
4. (n.) A region under the supervision or direction of any special person; the district or division of a country, especially an ecclesiastical division, over which one has jurisdiction; as, the province of Canterbury, or that in which the archbishop of Canterbury exercises ecclesiastical authority.
5. (n.) The proper or appropriate business or duty of a person or body; office; charge; jurisdiction; sphere.
6. (n.) Specif.: Any political division of the Dominion of Canada, having a governor, a local legislature, and representation in the Dominion parliament. Hence, colloquially, The Provinces, the Dominion of Canada.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
prov'-ins (medhinah, "jurisdiction"; eparchia (English Versions of the Bible, province) (Acts 23:34; Acts 25:1)):
1. Meaning of the Term
2. Roman Provincial Administration
(1) First Period
(2) Second Period
(3) Third Period
3. Division of Provinces
4. Province of Judea
1. Meaning of the Term:
Province (provincia) did not originally denote a territorial circumscription in Roman usage, since the employment of the word was much more ancient than any of the conquests of the Romans outside of Italy. In the most comprehensive official sense it signified a magistrate's sphere of administrative action, which in one instance might be the direction of jurisdiction at Rome, in another the management of military operations against a particular hostile community. When the imperium was conferred upon two consuls at the beginning of the Republic, and upon a praetor in 367 B.C., and finally upon a second praetor in 241 B.C., it became necessary in practice to define their individual competence which was unlimited in theory. When the Romans extended their control over lands situated outside of Italy, it became expedient to fix territorial limits to the exercise of authority by the magistrates who were regularly sent abroad, so that provincia signified henceforth in an abstract sense the rule of the governor, and in a concrete sense the specified region entrusted to his care; and with the development and consolidation of the Roman system of administration, the geographical meaning of the word became more and more significant.
2. Roman Provincial Administration:
The history of Roman provincial administration in the more definite sense commences in 227 B.C., when four praetors were elected for the first time, of whom two were assigned to the government of the provinces. Three periods may be distinguished in the history of the system of provincial administration:
(1) from 227 B.C. to Sulla,
(2) from Sulla to Augustus, and
(3) the Empire.
(1) First Period.
During the first period, provision was made for the government of the provinces by means of special praetors, or, in exceptional circumstances, by consuls, during their term of office. Accordingly, the number of praetors was increased from four in 227 B.C. to eight at the time of Sulla.
(2) Second Period.
In accordance with the reforms of Sulla all the consuls and praetors remained at Rome during their year of office, and were entrusted with the administration of provinces a subsequent year with the title proconsul (pro consule) or propraetor (pro praetore). The proconsuls were sent to the more important provinces. The senate determined the distinction between consular and praetorian provinces and generally controlled the assignment of the provinces to the ex-magistrates. Julius Caesar increased the praetors to sixteen, but Augustus reduced them to twelve.
(3) Third Period.
In 27 B.C., Augustus as commander-in-chief of the Roman army definitely assumed the administration of all provinces which required the presence of military forces and left the other provinces to the control of the senate. There were then twelve imperial and ten senatorial provinces, but all provinces added after 27 B.C. came under imperial administration. The emperor administered his provinces through the agency of personal delegates, legati Augusti of senatorial, and praefecti or procuratores of equestrian, rank. The term of their service was not uniform, but continued usually for more than a single year. The senatorial administration was essentially a continuation of the post-Sullan, republican regime. The senatorial governors were called proconsuls generally, whether they were of consular or praetorian rank; but Africa and Asia alone were reserved for exconsuls, the eight remaining senatorial provinces being attributed to ex-praetors. The financial administration of each imperial province was entrusted to a procurator, that of each senatorial province to a quaestor.
3. Division of Provinces:
The provinces were divided into smaller circumscriptions (civitates) for the purposes of local government. In the older provinces these districts corresponded generally with the urban communities which had been the units of sovereignty before the advent of the Romans. Under Roman rule they were divided into different classes on the basis of their dignity and prerogatives, as follows:
Roman or Latin colonies established after the model of the Italian commonwealths.
(2) Civitates Foederatae:
Communities whose independence had been guaranteed by a formal treaty with Rome.
(3) Civitates Liberae:
Communities whose independence the Romans respected, although not bound to do so by a formal obligation.
(4) Civitates Stipendiariae:
Communities which had surrendered to the discretion of the Romans and to which limited powers of local government were granted by the conquerors as a matter of convenience.
The civitates stipendiariae, and in some cases the colonies, paid taxes to the Roman government, the greater part of which was in the form either of a certain proportion of the annual products of the soil, such as a fifth or tenth, or a fixed annual payment in money or kind.
4. Province of Judea:
Judaea became a part of the province of Syria in 63 B.C., but was assigned in 40 B.C. as a kingdom to Herod the Great, whose sovereignty became effective three years later. The provincial regime was reestablished in 6 A.D., and was broken only during the years 41-44 A.D., when Herod Agrippa was granted royal authority over the land (Josephus, Josephus, Antiquities XIX, viii, 2). The Roman administration was in the hands of the procurators (see PROCURATOR) who resided at Caesarea (Josephus, BJ, II, xv, 6; Acts 23:23, 33; Acts 25:1) in the palace of Herod the Great (Acts 23:1-35). The procurators of Judea were subject to the authority of the imperial governors of Syria, as is evident from the deposition of Pontius Pilate by Vitellius (Josephus, Ant, XVIII, iv, 2; Tacitus, Annals vi.32). The procurator was competent to exercise criminal jurisdiction over the provincials in cases involving a capital sentence (Josephus, BJ, II, viii, 1), but he was bound to grant an appeal by Roman citizens for trial at Rome (Acts 25:11). A death sentence by the Sanhedrin required the sanction of the procurator, as appears in the process against the Saviour. Under Roman rule cities like Caesarea, Sebaste, and Jerusalem became organs for local government, like the urban communities in other parts of the Empire.
The revenue of Palestine under Claudius is said to have been 12,000,000 denarii (about USD2, 400,000, or 500,000 British pounds (in 1915); compare Josephus, Ant XIX, viii, 2). In addition to the ground tax, the amount of which is not known, a variety of indirect contributions were collected on auctions, salt, highways, bridges, etc., which constituted, no doubt, the field of activity in which the publicans gained their unenviable reputation.
The reader may be directed to Marquardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung, I, 497-502, 517-57, for a general discussion of the Roman system of provincial administration, and to the same volume, pp. 405-12, for the provincial government of Palestine.
George H. Allen
Province (66 Occurrences)
Acts 2:9 Some of us are Parthians, Medes, Elamites. Some are inhabitants of Mesopotamia, of Judaea or Cappadocia, of Pontus or the Asian Province, of Phrygia or Pamphylia, (WEY)
Acts 16:6 Then Paul and his companions passed through Phrygia and Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to proclaim the Message in the province of Asia. (WEY NIV)
Acts 19:10 This went on for two years, so that all the inhabitants of the province of Asia, Jews as well as Greeks, heard the Lord's Message. (WEY NIV)
Acts 19:22 Having sent into Macedonia two of those who served him, Timothy and Erastus, he himself stayed in Asia for a while. (See NIV)
Acts 19:26 and you see and hear that, not in Ephesus only but throughout almost the whole province of Asia, this fellow Paul has led away a vast number of people by inducing them to believe that they are not gods at all that are made by men's hands. (WEY NIV)
Acts 19:27 There is danger, therefore, not only that this our trade will become of no account, but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana will fall into utter disrepute, and that before long she will be actually deposed from her majestic rank--she who is now worshipped by the whole province of Asia; nay, by the whole world." (WEY NIV)
Acts 19:31 Certain also of the Asiarchs, being his friends, sent to him and begged him not to venture into the theater. (See NIV)
Acts 20:4 He was accompanied as far as the province of Asia by Sopater the Beroean, the son of Pyrrhus; by the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; by Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy; and by the Asians, Tychicus and Trophimus. (WEY NIV)
Acts 20:16 For Paul's plan was to sail past Ephesus, so as not to spend much time in the province of Asia; since he was very desirous of being in Jerusalem, if possible, on the day of the Harvest Festival. (WEY NIV)
Acts 20:18 Upon their arrival he said to them, "You Elders well know, from the first day of my setting foot in the province of Asia, the kind of life I lived among you the whole time, (WEY NIV)
Acts 21:27 But, when the seven days were nearly over, the Jews from the province of Asia, having seen Paul in the Temple, set about rousing the fury of all the people against him. (WEY NIV)
Acts 23:34 When the governor had read it, he asked what province he was from. When he understood that he was from Cilicia, he said, (WEB KJV WEY ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 24:18 While I was busy about these, they found me in the Temple purified, with no crowd around me and no uproar; but there were certain Jews from the province of Asia. (WEY)
Acts 24:19 They ought to have been here before you, and to make accusation, if they had anything against me. (See NIV)
Acts 25:1 Festus therefore, having come into the province, after three days went up to Jerusalem from Caesarea. (WEB KJV WEY ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 27:2 and going on board a ship of Adramyttium which was about to sail to the ports of the province of Asia, we put to sea; Aristarchus, the Macedonian, from Thessalonica, forming one of our party. (WEY NIV)
Acts 27:2 and going on board a ship of Adramyttium which was about to sail to the ports of the province of Asia, we put to sea; Aristarchus, the Macedonian, from Thessalonica, forming one of our party. (WEY NIV)
Romans 16:5 Greetings, too, to the Church that meets at their house. Greetings to my dear Epaenetus, who was the earliest convert to Christ in the province of Asia; (WEY NIV)
1 Corinthians 16:19 The Churches in the province of Asia send you greetings; and Aquila and Prisca, in hearty Christian love, do the same, together with the Church which meets at their house. (WEY NIV)
2 Corinthians 1:8 For as for our troubles which came upon us in the province of Asia, we would have you know, brethren, that we were exceedingly weighed down, and felt overwhelmed, so that we renounced all hope even of life. (WEY NIV)
2 Corinthians 10:13 But we will not glory beyond 'our' measure, but according to the measure of the province which God apportioned to us as a measure, to reach even unto you. (ASV)
2 Corinthians 10:15 not glorying beyond 'our' measure, 'that is,' in other men's labors; but having hope that, as your faith groweth, we shall be magnified in you according to our province unto 'further' abundance, (ASV)
2 Corinthians 10:16 so as to preach the gospel even unto the parts beyond you, 'and' not to glory in another's province in regard of things ready to our hand. (ASV)
Revelation 1:4 John sends greetings to the seven Churches in the province of Asia. May grace be granted to you, and peace, from Him who is and was and evermore will be; and from the seven Spirits which are before His throne; (WEY NIV)
Ezra 2:1 Now these are the children of the province, who went up out of the captivity of those who had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away to Babylon, and who returned to Jerusalem and Judah, everyone to his city; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 4:10 and the rest of the nations whom the great and noble Osnappar brought over, and set in the city of Samaria, and in the rest of the country beyond the River, and so forth. (See RSV)
Ezra 4:11 This is the copy of the letter that they sent to Artaxerxes the king: Your servants the men beyond the River, and so forth. (See RSV)
Ezra 4:16 We inform the king that, if this city be built, and the walls finished, by this means you shall have no portion beyond the River. (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 4:17 Then sent the king an answer to Rehum the chancellor, and to Shimshai the scribe, and to the rest of their companions who dwell in Samaria, and in the rest of the country beyond the River: Peace, and so forth. (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 4:20 There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, who have ruled over all the country beyond the River; and tribute, custom, and toll, was paid to them. (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 5:3 At the same time came to them Tattenai, the governor beyond the River, and Shetharbozenai, and their companions, and said thus to them, Who gave you a decree to build this house, and to finish this wall? (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 5:6 The copy of the letter that Tattenai, the governor beyond the River, and Shetharbozenai, and his companions the Apharsachites, who were beyond the River, sent to Darius the king; (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 5:8 Be it known to the king, that we went into the province of Judah, to the house of the great God, which is built with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls; and this work goes on with diligence and prospers in their hands. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Ezra 6:2 There was found at Achmetha, in the palace that is in the province of Media, a scroll, and therein was thus written for a record: (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:6 Now therefore, Tattenai, governor beyond the River, Shetharbozenai, and your companions the Apharsachites, who are beyond the River, you must stay far from there. (See NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:13 Then Tattenai, the governor beyond the River, Shetharbozenai, and their companions, because that Darius the king had sent, did accordingly with all diligence. (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 7:16 and all the silver and gold that you shall find in all the province of Babylon, with the freewill offering of the people, and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their God which is in Jerusalem; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 7:21 I, even I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the treasurers who are beyond the River, that whatever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, shall require of you, it be done with all diligence, (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 7:25 You, Ezra, after the wisdom of your God who is in your hand, appoint magistrates and judges, who may judge all the people who are beyond the River, all such as know the laws of your God; and teach him who doesn't know them. (See NAS RSV)
Ezra 8:36 They delivered the king's commissions to the king's satraps, and to the governors beyond the River: and they furthered the people and the house of God. (See NAS RSV)
Nehemiah 1:3 They said to me, The remnant who are left of the captivity there in the province are in great affliction and reproach: the wall of Jerusalem also is broken down, and its gates are burned with fire. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 2:7 Moreover I said to the king, If it please the king, let letters be given me to the governors beyond the River, that they may let me pass through until I come to Judah; (See NAS RSV)
Nehemiah 2:9 Then I came to the governors beyond the River, and gave them the king's letters. Now the king had sent with me captains of the army and horsemen. (See NAS RSV)
Nehemiah 3:7 Next to them repaired Melatiah the Gibeonite, and Jadon the Meronothite, the men of Gibeon, and of Mizpah, that appertained to the throne of the governor beyond the River. (See NAS RSV)
Nehemiah 7:6 These are the children of the province, who went up out of the captivity of those who had been carried away, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away, and who returned to Jerusalem and to Judah, everyone to his city; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 11:3 Now these are the chiefs of the province who lived in Jerusalem: but in the cities of Judah lived everyone in his possession in their cities, to wit, Israel, the priests, and the Levites, and the Nethinim, and the children of Solomon's servants. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Esther 1:22 for he sent letters into all the king's provinces, into every province according to its writing, and to every people in their language, that every man should rule his own house, speaking in the language of his own people. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 2:3 Let the king appoint officers in all the provinces of his kingdom, that they may gather together all the beautiful young virgins to the citadel of Susa, to the women's house, to the custody of Hegai the king's eunuch, keeper of the women. Let cosmetics be given them; (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 3:12 Then the king's scribes were called in on the first month, on the thirteenth day of the month; and all that Haman commanded was written to the king's satraps, and to the governors who were over every province, and to the princes of every people, to every province according its writing, and to every people in their language. It was written in the name of King Ahasuerus, and it was sealed with the king's ring. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 3:14 A copy of the letter, that the decree should be given out in every province, was published to all the peoples, that they should be ready against that day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 4:3 In every province, wherever the king's commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 8:9 Then the king's scribes were called at that time, in the third month Sivan, on the twenty-third day of the month; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded to the Jews, and to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India to Ethiopia, one hundred twenty-seven provinces, to every province according to its writing, and to every people in their language, and to the Jews in their writing, and in their language. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 8:11 In those letters, the king granted the Jews who were in every city to gather themselves together, and to defend their life, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, their little ones and women, and to plunder their possessions, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 8:13 A copy of the letter, that the decree should be given out in every province, was published to all the peoples, that the Jews should be ready for that day to avenge themselves on their enemies. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 8:17 In every province, and in every city, wherever the king's commandment and his decree came, the Jews had gladness, joy, a feast, and a good day. Many from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen on them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 9:28 and that these days should be remembered and kept throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city; and that these days of Purim should not fail from among the Jews, nor the memory of them perish from their seed. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ecclesiastes 5:8 If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and violent perverting of judgment and justice in a province, marvel not at the matter: for he that is higher than the highest regardeth; and there be higher than they. (KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Daniel 2:48 Then the king made Daniel great, and gave him many great gifts, and made him to rule over the whole province of Babylon, and to be chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 2:49 Daniel requested of the king, and he appointed Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the province of Babylon: but Daniel was in the gate of the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 3:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king made an image of gold, whose height was sixty cubits, and its breadth six cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura, in the province of Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 3:2 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the satraps, the deputies, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counselors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Daniel 3:3 Then the satraps, the deputies, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counselors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together to the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Daniel 3:12 There are certain Jews whom you have appointed over the affairs of the province of Babylon: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; these men, O king, have not respected you. They don't serve your gods, nor worship the golden image which you have set up. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 3:30 Then the king promoted Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the province of Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 8:2 I saw in the vision; now it was so, that when I saw, I was in the citadel of Susa, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in the vision, and I was by the river Ulai. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 11:24 In time of security shall he come even on the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them prey, and spoil, and substance: yes, he shall devise his devices against the strongholds, even for a time. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)