|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) A lash; a strap or cord; especially, a lash used to inflict pain or punishment; an instrument of punishment or discipline; a whip.
2. (n.) Hence, a means of inflicting punishment, vengeance, or suffering; an infliction of affliction; a punishment.
3. (n.) To whip severely; to lash.
4. (n.) To punish with severity; to chastise; to afflict, as for sins or faults, and with the purpose of correction.
5. (n.) To harass or afflict severely.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
skurj, skur'-jing (mastix], mastigoo; in Acts 22:25 mastizo, in Mark 15:15 parallel Matthew 27:26 phragelloo): A Roman implement for severe bodily punishment. Horace calls it horribile flagellum. It consisted of a handle, to which several cords or leather thongs were affixed, which were weighted with jagged pieces of bone or metal, to make the blow more painful and effective. It is comparable, in its horrid effects, only with the Russian knout. The victim was tied to a post (Acts 22:25) and the blows were applied to the back and loins, sometimes even, in the wanton cruelty of the executioner, to the face and the bowels. In the tense position of the body, the effect can easily be imagined. So hideous was the punishment that the victim usually fainted and not rarely died under it. Eusebius draws a horribly realistic picture of the torture of scourging (Historia Ecclesiastica, IV, 15). By its application secrets and confessions were wrung from the victim (Acts 22:24). It usually preceded capital punishment (Livy xxxiii.36). It was illegal to apply the flagallum to a Roman citizen (Acts 22:25), since the Porcian and Sempronian laws, 248 and 123 B.C., although these laws were not rarely broken in the provinces (Tac. Hist. iv0.27; Cic. Verr. v.6, 62; Josephus, BJ, II, xiv, 9). As among the Russians today, the number of blows was not usually fixed, the severity of the punishment depending entirely on the commanding officer. In the punishment of Jesus, we are reminded of the words of Psalm 129:3. Among the Jews the punishment of flagellation was well known since the Egyptian days, as the monuments abundantly testify. The word "scourge" is used in Leviticus 19:20, but the American Standard Revised Version translates "punished," the original word biqqoreth expressing the idea of investigation. Deuteronomy 25:3 fixed the mode of a Jewish flogging and limits the number of blows to 40. Apparently the flogging was administered by a rod. The Syrians reintroduced true scourging into Jewish life, when Antiochus Epiphanes forced them by means of it to eat swine's flesh (2 Maccabees 6:30; 7:1). Later it was legalized by Jewish law and became customary (Matthew 10:17; Matthew 23:34 Acts 22:19; Acts 26:11), but the traditional limitation of the number of blows was still preserved. Says Paul in his "foolish boasting": "in stripes above measure," "of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one," distinguishing it from the "beatings with rods," thrice repeated (2 Corinthians 11:23-25).
The other Old Testament references (Job 5:21; Job 9:23 Isaiah 10:26; Isaiah 28:15, 18 shot; Joshua 23:13 shotet) are figurative for "affliction." Notice the curious mixture of metaphors in the phrase "over-flowing scourge" (Isaiah 28:15-18).
Henry E. Dosker
Scourge (24 Occurrences)
Matthew 10:17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Matthew 20:19 and will hand him over to the Gentiles to mock, to scourge, and to crucify; and the third day he will be raised up." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Matthew 23:34 Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city; (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Mark 5:29 And immediately her fountain of blood was dried up, and she knew in her body that she was cured from the scourge. (DBY)
Mark 5:34 And he said to her, Daughter, thy faith has healed thee; go in peace, and be well of thy scourge. (DBY)
Mark 10:34 They will mock him, spit on him, scourge him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Luke 12:48 But he who had not been told it and yet did what deserved the scourge, will receive but few lashes. To whomsoever much has been given, from him much will be required; and to whom much has been entrusted, of him a larger amount will be demanded. (WEY)
Luke 18:33 They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
John 2:15 And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; (KJV ASV DBY WBS NAS)
John 19:1 Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. (Root in KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Acts 16:22 And the crowd rose up too against them; and the praetors, having torn off their clothes, commanded to scourge them. (DBY)
Acts 22:25 When they had tied him up with thongs, Paul asked the centurion who stood by, "Is it lawful for you to scourge a man who is a Roman, and not found guilty?" (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Joshua 23:13 know for a certainty that Yahweh your God will no longer drive these nations from out of your sight; but they shall be a snare and a trap to you, a scourge in your sides, and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from off this good land which Yahweh your God has given you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
1 Kings 12:11 And now whereas my father did burden you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.' (See NIV)
1 Kings 12:14 and spoke to them after the counsel of the young men, saying: 'My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.' (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 10:11 And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.' (See NIV)
2 Chronicles 10:14 and spoke to them after the counsel of the young men, saying: 'My father made your yoke heavy, but I will add thereto; my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.' (See NIV)
Job 5:21 You shall be hidden from the scourge of the tongue, neither shall you be afraid of destruction when it comes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Job 9:23 If the scourge kills suddenly, he will mock at the trial of the innocent. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Psalms 39:10 Remove your scourge away from me. I am overcome by the blow of your hand. (WEB NIV)
Psalms 91:10 no evil shall happen to you, neither shall any plague come near your dwelling. (See RSV)
Isaiah 10:26 Yahweh of Armies will stir up a scourge against him, as in the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb. His rod will be over the sea, and he will lift it up like he did against Egypt. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 28:15 "Because you have said,'We have made a covenant with death, and with Sheol are we in agreement. When the overflowing scourge passes through, it won't come to us; for we have made lies our refuge, and we have hidden ourselves under falsehood.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 28:18 Your covenant with death shall be annulled, and your agreement with Sheol shall not stand. When the overflowing scourge passes through, then you will be trampled down by it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)