|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Used in Colossians 2:17; Hebrews 8:5; 10:1 to denote the typical relation of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) Shade within defined limits; obscurity or deprivation of light, apparent on a surface, and representing the form of the body which intercepts the rays of light; as, the shadow of a man, of a tree, or of a tower. See Shade.
2. (n.) Darkness; shade; obscurity.
3. (n.) A shaded place; shelter; protection; security.
4. (n.) A reflected image, as in a mirror or in water.
5. (n.) That which follows or attends a person or thing like a shadow; an inseparable companion; hence, an obsequious follower.
6. (n.) A spirit; a ghost; a shade; a phantom.
7. (n.) An imperfect and faint representation; adumbration; indistinct image; dim bodying forth; hence, mystical representation; type.
8. (n.) A small degree; a shade.
9. (n.) An uninvited guest coming with one who is invited.
10. (n.) To cut off light from; to put in shade; to shade; to throw a shadow upon; to overspread with obscurity.
11. (n.) To conceal; to hide; to screen.
12. (n.) To protect; to shelter from danger; to shroud.
13. (n.) To mark with gradations of light or color; to shade.
14. (n.) To represent faintly or imperfectly; to adumbrate; hence, to represent typically.
15. (n.) To cloud; to darken; to cast a gloom over.
16. (n.) To attend as closely as a shadow; to follow and watch closely, especially in a secret or unobserved manner; as, a detective shadows a criminal.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
SHADE; SHADOW; SHADOWING
shad, shad'-o, shad'-o-ing (tsel; skia): A shadow is any obscuration of the light and heat with the form of the intervening object, obscurely projected, constantly changing and passing away. "Shadow" is used literally of a roof (Genesis 19:8), of mountains (Judges 9:36), of trees (Judges 9:15, etc.), of wings (Psalm 17:8, etc.), of a cloud (Isaiah 25:5), of a great rock (Isaiah 32:2), of a man (Peter, Acts 5:15), of the shadow on the dial (2 Kings 20:9, etc.), of Jonah's gourd (Jonah 4:5 f). It is used also figuratively
(1) of shelter and protection (of man, Genesis 19:8 Songs 2:3 Isaiah 16:3, etc.; of God, Psalm 36:7; Psalm 91:1 Isaiah 4:6, etc.);
(2) of anything fleeting or transient, as of the days of man's life on earth (1 Chronicles 29:15 Job 8:9 Psalm 109:23);
(3) with the idea of obscurity or imperfection (in Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 10:1, of the Law; compare Colossians 2:17);
(4) of darkness, gloom; see SHADOW OF DEATH.
In James 1:17, we have in the King James Version, "the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning" (aposkiasma); the Revised Version (British and American) "shadow that is cast by turning"; the reference is to the unchangeableness of God as contrasted with the changes of the heavenly bodies. the Revised Version (British and American) has "of the rustling of wings" for "shadowing with wings" in Isaiah 18:1; the American Standard Revised Version has "shade" for "shadow" in various places (Judges 9:15 Job 40:22 Isaiah 4:6, etc.). In Job 40:21, 22, for "shady trees" the Revised Version (British and American) has "lotus-trees."
W. L. Walker
SHADOW OF DEATH
(tsalmaweth): The Hebrew word translated "shadow of death" is used poetically for thick darkness (Job 3:5), as descriptive of Sheol (Job 10:21; Job 12:22; Job 38:17); figuratively of deep distress (Job 12:22; Job 16:16; Job 24:17; Job 28:3; Job 34:22 (in the last three passages the American Standard Revised Version has "thick darkness" and "thick gloom"); Psalm 23:4, the Revised Version margin "deep darkness (and so elsewhere)"; 44:19:00; 107:10, 14; Isaiah 9:2 Jeremiah 2:6; Jeremiah 13:16 Amos 5:8 Matthew 4:16 Luke 1:79, skia thanatou). The Hebrew word is perhaps composed of tsel, "shadow," and maweth, "death," and the idea of "the valley of the shadow of death" was most probably derived from the deep ravines, darkened by over-hanging briars, etc., through which the shepherd had sometimes to lead or drive his sheep to new and better pastures.
W. L. Walker
Shadow (72 Occurrences)
Matthew 4:16 the people who sat in darkness saw a great light, to those who sat in the region and shadow of death, to them light has dawned." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 4:32 yet when it is sown, grows up, and becomes greater than all the herbs, and puts out great branches, so that the birds of the sky can lodge under its shadow." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY)
Luke 1:79 to shine on those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death; to guide our feet into the way of peace." (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:15 They even carried out the sick into the streets, and laid them on cots and mattresses, so that as Peter came by, at the least his shadow might overshadow some of them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Colossians 2:17 which are a shadow of the things to come; but the body is Christ's. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 8:5 who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain." (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 10:1 For the law, having a shadow of the good to come, not the very image of the things, can never with the same sacrifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect those who draw near. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 1:17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom can be no variation, nor turning shadow. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:8 See now, I have two virgin daughters. Please let me bring them out to you, and you may do to them what seems good to you. Only don't do anything to these men, because they have come under the shadow of my roof." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Judges 9:15 And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow: and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon. (KJV JPS WBS YLT)
Judges 9:36 When Gaal saw the people, he said to Zebul, "Behold, people are coming down from the tops of the mountains." Zebul said to him, "You see the shadow of the mountains as if they were men." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 20:9 Isaiah said, "This shall be the sign to you from Yahweh, that Yahweh will do the thing that he has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten steps, or go back ten steps?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 20:10 Hezekiah answered, "It is a light thing for the shadow to go forward ten steps. Nay, but let the shadow return backward ten steps." (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 20:11 Isaiah the prophet cried to Yahweh; and he brought the shadow ten steps backward, by which it had gone down on the dial of Ahaz. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Chronicles 29:15 For we are strangers before you, and foreigners, as all our fathers were: our days on the earth are as a shadow, and there is no abiding. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 3:5 Let darkness and the shadow of death claim it for their own. Let a cloud dwell on it. Let all that makes black the day terrify it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NIV)
Job 7:2 As a servant who earnestly desires the shadow, as a hireling who looks for his wages, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Job 8:9 (For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing, because our days on earth are a shadow.) (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 10:21 before I go where I shall not return from, to the land of darkness and of the shadow of death; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS NIV)
Job 10:22 the land dark as midnight, of the shadow of death, without any order, where the light is as midnight.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS NIV)
Job 12:22 He uncovers deep things out of darkness, and brings out to light the shadow of death. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NIV)
Job 14:2 He comes forth like a flower, and is cut down. He also flees like a shadow, and doesn't continue. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 16:16 My face is foul with weeping, and on my eyelids is the shadow of death; (KJV JPS ASV DBY NIV)
Job 17:7 My eye also is dim by reason of sorrow. All my members are as a shadow. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 24:17 For the morning is to them even as the shadow of death: if one know them, they are in the terrors of the shadow of death. (KJV JPS DBY)
Job 28:3 He setteth an end to darkness, and searcheth out all perfection: the stones of darkness, and the shadow of death. (KJV JPS DBY NAS)
Job 34:22 There is no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves. (KJV JPS DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Job 38:17 Have the gates of death been revealed to you? Or have you seen the gates of the shadow of death? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NIV)
Job 40:22 The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about. (KJV JPS WBS YLT NIV)
Psalms 17:8 Keep me as the apple of your eye. Hide me under the shadow of your wings, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 23:4 Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me. Your rod and your staff, they comfort me. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 36:7 How precious is your loving kindness, God! The children of men take refuge under the shadow of your wings. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 39:6 "Surely every man walks like a shadow. Surely they busy themselves in vain. He heaps up, and doesn't know who shall gather. (WEB RSV)
Psalms 44:19 Though you have crushed us in the haunt of jackals, and covered us with the shadow of death. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS)
Psalms 57:1 For the Chief Musician. To the tune of "Do Not Destroy." A poem by David, when he fled from Saul, in the cave. Be merciful to me, God, be merciful to me, for my soul takes refuge in you. Yes, in the shadow of your wings, I will take refuge, until disaster has passed. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 63:7 For you have been my help. I will rejoice in the shadow of your wings. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 80:10 The mountains were covered with its shadow. Its boughs were like God's cedars. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS)
Psalms 91:1 He who dwells in the secret place of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 102:11 My days are like a long shadow. I have withered like grass. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 107:10 Some sat in darkness and in the shadow of death, being bound in affliction and iron, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS)
Psalms 107:14 He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and broke their bonds in sunder. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NAS)
Psalms 109:23 I fade away like an evening shadow. I am shaken off like a locust. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 144:4 Man is like a breath. His days are like a shadow that passes away. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ecclesiastes 6:12 For who knows what is good for man in life, all the days of his vain life which he spends like a shadow? For who can tell a man what will be after him under the sun? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ecclesiastes 8:13 But it shall not be well with the wicked, neither shall he lengthen days like a shadow; because he doesn't fear God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Song of Songs 2:3 As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight, his fruit was sweet to my taste. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV)
Isaiah 4:6 And there shall be a tabernacle for a shadow in the day time from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain. (KJV JPS YLT)
Isaiah 9:2 The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light. Those who lived in the land of the shadow of death, on them the light has shined. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY NIV)
Isaiah 16:3 Take counsel, execute judgment; make thy shadow as the night in the midst of the noonday; hide the outcasts; bewray not him that wandereth. (KJV JPS DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 25:4 For thou hast been a strength to the poor, a strength to the needy in his distress, a refuge from the storm, a shadow from the heat, when the blast of the terrible ones is as a storm against the wall. (KJV JPS DBY YLT)
Isaiah 25:5 Thou shalt bring down the noise of strangers, as the heat in a dry place; even the heat with the shadow of a cloud: the branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low. (KJV JPS DBY YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 30:2 who set out to go down into Egypt, and have not asked my advice; to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to take refuge in the shadow of Egypt! (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 30:3 Therefore the strength of Pharaoh will be your shame, and the refuge in the shadow of Egypt your confusion. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 32:2 And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. (KJV JPS DBY YLT NIV)
Isaiah 34:15 There shall the great owl make her nest, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shadow: there shall the vultures also be gathered, every one with her mate. (KJV JPS DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Isaiah 38:8 Behold, I will cause the shadow on the sundial, which has gone down on the sundial of Ahaz with the sun, to return backward ten steps. So the sun returned ten steps on the sundial on which it had gone down."'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 49:2 and he has made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand has he hid me: and he has made me a polished shaft; in his quiver has he kept me close: (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 51:16 I have put my words in your mouth, and have covered you in the shadow of my hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and tell Zion,'You are my people.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 2:6 Neither said they, Where is Yahweh who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, who led us through the wilderness, through a land of deserts and of pits, through a land of drought and of the shadow of death, through a land that none passed through, and where no man lived? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY)
Jeremiah 13:16 Give glory to Yahweh your God, before he causes darkness, and before your feet stumble on the dark mountains, and, while you look for light, he turns it into the shadow of death, and makes it gross darkness. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY)
Jeremiah 48:45 Those who fled stand without strength under the shadow of Heshbon; for a fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and has devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the tumultuous ones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Lamentations 4:20 The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Yahweh, was taken in their pits; Of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the nations. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 17:23 In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant it: and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit, and be a goodly cedar: and under it shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in the shadow of the branches thereof shall they dwell. (KJV JPS DBY)
Ezekiel 31:6 All the birds of the sky made their nests in its boughs; and under its branches did all the animals of the field bring forth their young; and under its shadow lived all great nations. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY RSV)
Ezekiel 31:12 Strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him: on the mountains and in all the valleys his branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the watercourses of the land; and all the peoples of the earth are gone down from his shadow, and have left him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY RSV)
Ezekiel 31:17 They also went down into Sheol with him to those who are slain by the sword; yes, those who were his arm, that lived under his shadow in the midst of the nations. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY RSV)
Daniel 4:12 The leaves of it were beautiful, and its fruit much, and in it was food for all: the animals of the field had shadow under it, and the birds of the sky lived in its branches, and all flesh was fed from it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV)
Hosea 4:13 They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow thereof is good: therefore your daughters shall commit whoredom, and your spouses shall commit adultery. (KJV JPS ASV)
Hosea 14:7 They that dwell under his shadow shall return; they shall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine: the scent thereof shall be as the wine of Lebanon. (KJV JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Amos 5:8 seek him who made the Pleiades and Orion, and turns the shadow of death into the morning, and makes the day dark with night; who calls for the waters of the sea, and pours them out on the surface of the earth, Yahweh is his name, (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY)
Jonah 4:5 So Jonah went out of the city, and sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a booth, and sat under it in the shadow, till he might see what would become of the city. (KJV JPS)
Jonah 4:6 And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd. (KJV JPS)