|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
An Assyrian king (Hosea 10:14), identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken (2 Kings 17:3-5; 18:9) by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
shal'-man (shalman): A name of uncertain meaning, found only once in the Old Testament (Hosea 10:14), in connection with a place-name, equally obscure, "as Shalman destroyed Betharbel." Shalman is most commonly interpreted as a contracted form of Shalmaneser, the name of several Assyrian kings. If this explanation is correct, the king referred to cannot be identified. Some have thought of Shalmaneser IV, who is said to have undertaken expeditions against the West in 775 and in 773-772. Others have proposed Shalmaneser V, who attacked Samaria in 725. This, however, is improbable, because the activity of Hosea ceased before Shalmaneser V became king. Shalman has also been identified with Salamanu, a king of Moab in the days of Hosea, who paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser V of Assyria; and with Shalmah, a North Arabian tribe that invaded the Negeb. The identification of BETH-ARBEL (which see) is equally uncertain. From the reference it would seem that the event in question was well known and, therefore, probably one of recent date and considerable importance, but our present historical knowledge does not enable us to connect any of the persons named with the destruction of any of the localities suggested for Beth-arbel. The ancient translations offer no solution; they too seem to have been in the dark.
F. C. Eiselen
Shalman (1 Occurrence)
Hosea 10:14 Therefore a battle roar will arise among your people, and all your fortresses will be destroyed, as Shalman destroyed Beth Arbel in the day of battle. The mother was dashed in pieces with her children. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)