|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Of various forms, from the mere sandal (q.v.) to the complete covering of the foot. The word so rendered (A.V.) in Deuteronomy 33:25, min'al, "a bar," is derived from a root meaning "to bolt" or "shut fast," and hence a fastness or fortress. The verse has accordingly been rendered "iron and brass shall be thy fortress," or, as in the Revised Version, "thy bars [marg., "shoes"] shall be iron and brass."
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A covering for the human foot, usually made of leather, having a thick and somewhat stiff sole and a lighter top. It differs from a boot on not extending so far up the leg.
2. (n.) Anything resembling a shoe in form, position, or use.
3. (n.) A plate or rim of iron nailed to the hoof of an animal to defend it from injury.
4. (n.) A band of iron or steel, or a ship of wood, fastened to the bottom of the runner of a sleigh, or any vehicle which slides on the snow.
5. (n.) A drag, or sliding piece of wood or iron, placed under the wheel of a loaded vehicle, to retard its motion in going down a hill.
6. (n.) The part of a railroad car brake which presses upon the wheel to retard its motion.
7. (n.) A trough-shaped or spout-shaped member, put at the bottom of the water leader coming from the eaves gutter, so as to throw the water off from the building.
8. (n.) The trough or spout for conveying the grain from the hopper to the eye of the millstone.
9. (n.) An inclined trough in an ore-crushing mill.
10. (n.) An iron socket or plate to take the thrust of a strut or rafter.
11. (n.) An iron socket to protect the point of a wooden pile.
12. (n.) A plate, or notched piece, interposed between a moving part and the stationary part on which it bears, to take the wear and afford means of adjustment; -- called also slipper, and gib.
13. (n.) To furnish with a shoe or shoes; to put a shoe or shoes on; as, to shoe a horse, a sled, an anchor.
14. (n.) To protect or ornament with something which serves the purpose of a shoe; to tip.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
shoo, shoo'-lach-et (na`al, literally, "that which is fastened," with denominative verb na`al, "to provide with shoes" (2 Chronicles 28:15 Ezekiel 16:10); hupodema (Sirach 46:19; Matthew 3:11, etc.), from the verb hupodeo (Mark 6:9 Ephesians 6:15), "to bind under," sandalion, "sandal" (Judith 10:4; 16:09; Mark 6:9 Acts 12:8); the King James Version, the Revised Version margin also have "shoe" for min`al, "bar" (so the Revised Version (British and American) text) in Deuteronomy 33:25; the "latchet" is either serokh, "twisted thing" (Genesis 14:23 Isaiah 5:27), or himas, "leather thong" (Mark 1:7 Luke 3:16 John 1:27)): The na`al was a simple piece of leather tied on the foot with the serokh, so easy of construction that its low cost was proverbial (Amos 2:6; Amos 8:6; Sir 46:19; compare Genesis 14:23), and to be without it was a sign of extreme poverty (2 Chronicles 28:15 Isaiah 20:2). Women, however, might have ornamental sandals (Songs 7:1; Jdt 16:9), and Ezekiel names "sealskin" (16:10) as a particularly luxurious material, but the omission of sandals from the list of Isaiah 3:18-23 shows that they were not commonly made articles of great expense. The hupodema was likewise properly a sandal, but the word was also used to denote a shoe that covered the foot. The contrast between hupodema in Matthew 10:10 and sandalion in Mark 6:9 seems to show that this meaning is not unknown in the New Testament, the "shoe" being regarded as an article of luxury (compare Luke 15:22). But in Matthew 3:11 and parallel's, only the sandal can be meant.
Sandals were not worn indoors, so that putting them on was a sign of readiness for activity (Exodus 12:11 Acts 12:8 Ephesians 6:15), the more wealthy having them brought (Matthew 3:11) and fastened (Mark 1:7 and parallel's) by slaves. When one entered a house they were removed; all the more, naturally, on entering a sanctuary (Exodus 3:5 Joshua 5:15 Acts 7:33). Mourners, however, did not wear them even out of doors, as a sign of grief (Ezekiel 24:17, 23), perhaps for the same reason that other duties of the toilet were neglected (2 Samuel 12:20, etc.). A single long journey wore out a pair of sandals (Joshua 9:5, 13), and the preservation of "the latchet of their shoes" from being broken (Isaiah 5:27) would require almost miraculous help.
Ruth 4:7 states as a "custom in former times in Israel," that when any bargain was closed "a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor." This was of course simply a special form of earnest-money, used in all transactions. In Deuteronomy 25:9 the custom appears in a different light. If a man refused to perform his duty to his deceased brother's wife, the elders of the city were to remove his shoe and disgrace him publicly, "And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe loosed." The removal of the shoe is apparently connected with the rite in Ruth 4:7 as a renunciation of the man's privilege. But the general custom seems to have become obsolete, for the removal of the shoe is now a reproach. The meaning of Psalm 60:8 parallel 108:9, "Upon (margin "unto") Edom will I cast my shoe," is uncertain. `al, may mean either "upon" or "unto." If the former, some (otherwise unsubstantiated) custom of asserting ownership of land may be meant. If the latter, the meaning is "Edom I will treat as a slave," to whom the shoes are cast on entering a house.
Burton Scott Easton
Shoe (13 Occurrences)
John 1:27 He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose. (KJV ASV BBE WBS)
Genesis 14:23 That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich: (Root in KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT)
Deuteronomy 25:9 then his brother's wife shall come to him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, "So shall it be done to the man who does not build up his brother's house." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT)
Deuteronomy 25:10 His name shall be called in Israel, The house of him who has his shoe untied. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Deuteronomy 29:5 I have led you forty years in the wilderness: your clothes have not grown old on you, and your shoes have not grown old on your feet. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT)
Joshua 5:15 The prince of Yahweh's army said to Joshua, "Take your shoes off of your feet; for the place on which you stand is holy." Joshua did so. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT RSV)
Ruth 4:7 Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man took off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS)
Ruth 4:8 So the near kinsman said to Boaz, "Buy it for yourself." He took off his shoe. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS)
2 Chronicles 28:15 And those men who have been named went up and took the prisoners, clothing those among them who were uncovered, with things from the goods which had been taken in the war, and putting robes on them and shoes on their feet; and they gave them food and drink and oil for their bodies, and seating all the feeble among them on asses, they took them to Jericho, the town of palm-trees, to their people, and then went back to Samaria. (Root in BBE YLT)
Psalms 60:8 Moab is my wash basin. I will throw my shoe on Edom. I shout in triumph over Philistia." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Psalms 108:9 Moab is my washpot; over Edom will I cast out my shoe; over Philistia will I triumph. (KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Isaiah 20:2 at that time Yahweh spoke by Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying, "Go, and loosen the sackcloth from off your waist, and take your shoes from off your feet." He did so, walking naked and barefoot. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV)
Ezekiel 16:10 And I had you clothed with needlework, and put leather shoes on your feet, folding fair linen about you and covering you with silk. (Root in BBE YLT)