|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) The joint, or the region of the joint, by which the fore limb is connected with the body or with the shoulder girdle; the projection formed by the bones and muscles about that joint.
2. (n.) The flesh and muscles connected with the shoulder joint; the upper part of the back; that part of the human frame on which it is most easy to carry a heavy burden; -- often used in the plural.
3. (n.) Fig.: That which supports or sustains; support.
4. (n.) That which resembles a human shoulder, as any protuberance or projection from the body of a thing.
5. (n.) The upper joint of the fore leg and adjacent parts of an animal, dressed for market; as, a shoulder of mutton.
6. (n.) The angle of a bastion included between the face and flank.
7. (n.) An abrupt projection which forms an abutment on an object, or limits motion, etc., as the projection around a tenon at the end of a piece of timber, the part of the top of a type which projects beyond the base of the raised character, etc.
8. (v. t.) To push or thrust with the shoulder; to push with violence; to jostle.
9. (v. t.) To take upon the shoulder or shoulders; as, to shoulder a basket; hence, to assume the burden or responsibility of; as, to shoulder blame; to shoulder a debt.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
shol'-der (shekhem, katheph, zeroa` or zerowa`, or zero`ah, shoq; omos, brachion (Sirach 7:31 only)): The meanings of the Hebrew words are rather varied. The first (shekhem) has perhaps the widest application. It is used for the part of the body on which heavy loads are carried (Genesis 21:14; Genesis 24:15, 45 Exodus 12:34 Joshua 4:5 Judges 9:48). King Saul's impressive personality is thus described: "There was not among the children of Israel a goodlier person than he: from his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people" (1 Samuel 9:2; 1 Samuel 10:23). To carry loads on the shoulder or to have "a staff on the shoulder" is expressive of subjection and servitude, yea, of oppression and cruel punishment, and the removal of such burdens or of the rod of the oppressor connotes delivery and freedom (Isaiah 9:4; Isaiah 14:25).
The shoulders also bear responsibility and power. Thus it is said of King Messiah, that "the government shall be upon his shoulder" (Isaiah 9:6) and "the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; and he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open" (Isaiah 22:22). Job declares that he will refute all accusations of unlawful conduct made against him, in the words: "Oh.... that I had the indictment which mine adversary hath written! Surely I would carry it upon my shoulder" (Job 31:35 f).
The Hebrew word katheph comes very close in meaning to the above, though it is occasionally used in the sense of arm-piece and shoulder-piece of a garment. Like Hebrew shekhem, it is used to describe the part of the body accustomed to carry loads. On it the Levites carried the implements of the sanctuary (Numbers 7:9 1 Chronicles 15:15 2 Chronicles 35:3). Oriental mothers and fathers carried their children on the shoulder astride (Isaiah 49:22; compare Isaiah 60:4); thus also the little bundle of the poor is borne (Ezekiel 12:6, 7, 12). The loaded shoulder is likely to be "worn" or chafed under the burden (Ezekiel 29:18). In the two passages of the New Testament in which we find the Greek equivalent of shoulder (omos, fairly common in Apocrypha), it corresponds most closely with this use (Matthew 23:4 Luke 15:5). Of the shoulders of animals the word katheph is used in Ezekiel 34:21 (of sheep, where, however, men are intended) and in Isaiah 30:6 (of asses).
Stubborn opposition and unwillingness is expressed by "withdrew the shoulder" (Nehemiah 9:29), or "pulled away the shoulder" (Zechariah 7:11), where the marginal rendering is "they gave (or "turned") a stubborn shoulder." Contrast "bow the shoulder," i.e. "submit" (Baruch 2:21). Compare "stiffnecked"; see NECK. Somewhat difficult for the understanding of Occidentals is the poetical passage in the blessing of Moses: "Of Benjamin he said, The beloved of Yahweh shall dwell in safety by him; he covereth him all the day long, and he dwelleth between his shoulders" (Deuteronomy 33:12). The "shoulders" refer here to the mountain saddles and proclivities of the territory of Benjamin between which Jerusalem, the beloved of Yahweh, which belonged to Judah, lay nestling close upon the confines of the neighboring tribe, or even built in part on ground belonging to Benjamin.
Much less frequently than the above-mentioned words. we find zeroa`, zero`ah, which is used of the "boiled shoulder of the ram" which was a wave offering at the consecration of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:19) and of one of the priestly portions of the sacrifice (Deuteronomy 18:3). In Sirach 7:31 this portion is called brachion, properly "arm," but both the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) translate "shoulder." Regarding the wave and heave offerings see SACRIFICE. the King James Version frequently translates Hebrew shoq, literally, "leg," "thigh" (which see) by "shoulder," which the Revised Version (British and American) occasionally retains in the margin (e.g. Numbers 6:20).
H. L. E. Luering
Shoulder (72 Occurrences)
Luke 15:5 When he has found it, he carries it on his shoulders, rejoicing. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Philippians 1:27 Only let the lives you live be worthy of the Good News of the Christ, in order that, whether I come and see you or, being absent, only hear of you, I may know that you are standing fast in one spirit and with one mind, fighting shoulder to shoulder for the faith of the Good News. (WEY)
Genesis 9:23 Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it on both their shoulders, went in backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were backwards, and they didn't see their father's nakedness. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 21:14 Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder; and gave her the child, and sent her away. She departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. Exodus (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 24:15 It happened, before he had finished speaking, that behold, Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, with her pitcher on her shoulder. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 24:45 Before I had finished speaking in my heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder. She went down to the spring, and drew. I said to her,'Please let me drink.' (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 24:46 She hurried and let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and said,'Drink, and I will also give your camels a drink.' So I drank, and she also gave the camels a drink. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 49:15 He saw a resting place, that it was good, the land, that it was pleasant. He bows his shoulder to the burden, and becomes a servant doing forced labor. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 12:34 The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:7 It shall have two shoulder straps joined to the two ends of it, that it may be joined together. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:12 You shall put the two stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel: and Aaron shall bear their names before Yahweh on his two shoulders for a memorial. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:25 The other two ends of the two braided chains you shall put on the two settings, and put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod in its forepart. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 28:27 You shall make two rings of gold, and shall put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath, in its forepart, close by its coupling, above the skillfully woven band of the ephod. (WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 29:22 Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of consecration: (KJV DBY WBS)
Exodus 29:27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons: (KJV DBY WBS)
Exodus 39:4 They made shoulder straps for it, joined together. At the two ends it was joined together. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:7 He put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod, to be stones of memorial for the children of Israel, as Yahweh commanded Moses. by the hands of artificers. Who then offers willingly to consecrate himself this day to Yahweh? (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:18 The other two ends of the two braided chains they put on the two settings, and put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod, in its front. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 39:20 They made two rings of gold, and put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath, in its front, close by its coupling, above the skillfully woven band of the ephod. (WEB JPS ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 7:32 And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings. (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 7:33 He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his part. (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 7:34 For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel. (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 8:25 And he took the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right shoulder: (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 8:26 And out of the basket of unleavened bread, that was before the LORD, he took one unleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, and put them on the fat, and upon the right shoulder: (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 9:21 And the breasts and the right shoulder Aaron waved for a wave offering before the LORD; as Moses commanded. (KJV DBY WBS)
Leviticus 10:15 The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the LORD hath commanded. (KJV DBY WBS)
Numbers 6:19 The priest shall take the boiled shoulder of the ram, and one unleavened cake out of the basket, and one unleavened wafer, and shall put them on the hands of the Nazirite, after he has shaved the head of his separation; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 7:9 But to the sons of Kohath he gave none, because the service of the sanctuary belonged to them; they carried it on their shoulders. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 18:18 And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave breast and as the right shoulder are thine. (KJV DBY WBS)
Numbers 34:11 and the border hath gone down from Shepham to Riblah, on the east of Ain, and the border hath gone down, and hath smitten against the shoulder of the sea of Chinnereth eastward; (YLT RSV)
Deuteronomy 18:3 This shall be the priests' due from the people, from those who offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give to the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 4:5 Joshua said to them, "Pass over before the ark of Yahweh your God into the middle of the Jordan, and each of you pick up a stone and put it on your shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of the children of Israel; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 15:8 The border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom to the side of the Jebusite southward (the same is Jerusalem); and the border went up to the top of the mountain that lies before the valley of Hinnom westward, which is at the farthest part of the valley of Rephaim northward. (See RSV)
Joshua 15:10 and the border turned about from Baalah westward to Mount Seir, and passed along to the side of Mount Jearim on the north (the same is Chesalon), and went down to Beth Shemesh, and passed along by Timnah; (See RSV)
Joshua 15:11 and the border went out to the side of Ekron northward; and the border extended to Shikkeron, and passed along to Mount Baalah, and went out at Jabneel; and the goings out of the border were at the sea. (See RSV)
Joshua 18:12 Their border on the north quarter was from the Jordan. The border went up to the side of Jericho on the north, and went up through the hill country westward. It ended at the wilderness of Beth Aven. (See RSV)
Joshua 18:13 The border passed along from there to Luz, to the side of Luz (the same is Bethel), southward. The border went down to Ataroth Addar, by the mountain that lies on the south of Beth Horon the lower. (See RSV)
Joshua 18:16 The border went down to the farthest part of the mountain that lies before the valley of the son of Hinnom, which is in the valley of Rephaim northward. It went down to the valley of Hinnom, to the side of the Jebusite southward, and went down to En Rogel. (See RSV)
Joshua 18:18 It passed along to the side over against the Arabah northward, and went down to the Arabah. (See RSV)
Judges 9:48 Abimelech got him up to Mount Zalmon, he and all the people who were with him; and Abimelech took an axe in his hand, and cut down a bough from the trees, and took it up, and laid it on his shoulder: and he said to the people who were with him, "What you have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Samuel 9:2 He had a son, whose name was Saul, an impressive young man; and there was not among the children of Israel a better person than he. From his shoulders and upward he was higher than any of the people. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Samuel 9:24 And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was upon it, and set it before Saul. And Samuel said, Behold that which is left! set it before thee, and eat: for unto this time hath it been kept for thee since I said, I have invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel that day. (KJV DBY WBS)
1 Samuel 10:9 And it hath been, at his turning his shoulder to go from Samuel, that God turneth to him another heart, and all these signs come on that day, (YLT)
1 Samuel 10:23 They ran and fetched him there; and when he stood among the people, he was higher than any of the people from his shoulders and upward. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Kings 6:8 The opening of the middle side 'is' at the right shoulder of the house, and with windings they go up on the middle one, and from the middle one unto the third. (YLT)
2 Kings 11:11 And the runners stand, each with his weapons in his hand, from the right shoulder of the house unto the left shoulder of the house, by the altar and by the house, by the king round about; (YLT)
1 Chronicles 15:15 The children of the Levites bore the ark of God on their shoulders with the poles thereon, as Moses commanded according to the word of Yahweh. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 4:10 And the sea he hath placed on the right shoulder eastward, over-against the south. (YLT)
2 Chronicles 23:10 and he stationeth the whole of the people, and each his dart in his hand, from the right shoulder of the house unto the left shoulder of the house, at the altar, and at the house, by the king, round about. (YLT)
2 Chronicles 35:3 He said to the Levites who taught all Israel, who were holy to Yahweh, Put the holy ark in the house which Solomon the son of David king of Israel did build; there shall no more be a burden on your shoulders: now serve Yahweh your God, and his people Israel. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 9:29 and testified against them, that you might bring them again to your law. Yet they dealt proudly, and didn't listen to your commandments, but sinned against your ordinances, (which if a man do, he shall live in them), and withdrew the shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Job 31:22 then let my shoulder fall from the shoulder blade, and my arm be broken from the bone. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 31:36 Surely I would carry it on my shoulder; and I would bind it to me as a crown. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 81:6 "I removed his shoulder from the burden. His hands were freed from the basket. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 9:4 For the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder, the rod of his oppressor, you have broken as in the day of Midian. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 9:6 For to us a child is born. To us a son is given; and the government will be on his shoulders. His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 10:27 It will happen in that day, that his burden will depart from off your shoulder, and his yoke from off your neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing oil. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 11:14 They will fly down on the shoulders of the Philistines on the west. Together they will plunder the children of the east. They will extend their power over Edom and Moab, and the children of Ammon will obey them. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Isaiah 14:25 that I will break the Assyrian in my land, and tread him under foot on my mountains. Then his yoke will leave them, and his burden leave their shoulders. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 22:22 I will lay the key of the house of David on his shoulder. He will open, and no one will shut. He will shut, and no one will open. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 30:6 The burden of the animals of the South. Through the land of trouble and anguish, of the lioness and the lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they carry their riches on the shoulders of young donkeys, and their treasures on the humps of camels, to an unprofitable people. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Isaiah 46:7 They bear it on the shoulder, they carry it, and set it in its place, and it stands, from its place it shall not move: yes, one may cry to it, yet it can not answer, nor save him out of his trouble. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 12:6 In their sight you shall bear it on your shoulder, and carry it forth in the dark; you shall cover your face, so that you don't see the land: for I have set you for a sign to the house of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 12:7 I did so as I was commanded: I brought forth my stuff by day, as stuff for removing, and in the even I dug through the wall with my hand; I brought it forth in the dark, and bore it on my shoulder in their sight. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 12:12 The prince who is among them shall bear on his shoulder in the dark, and shall go forth: they shall dig through the wall to carry out thereby: he shall cover his face, because he shall not see the land with his eyes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 24:4 gather its pieces into it, even every good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder; fill it with the choice bones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 25:9 Therefore, lo, I am opening the shoulder of Moab -- From the cities -- from his cities -- from his frontier, The beauty of the land, Beth-Jeshimoth, Baal-Meon, and Kiriathaim, (YLT)
Ezekiel 29:7 When they took hold of you by your hand, you broke, and tore all their shoulders; and when they leaned on you, you broke, and paralyzed all of their thighs." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 29:18 Son of man, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon caused his army to serve a great service against Tyre: every head was made bald, and every shoulder was worn; yet had he no wages, nor his army, from Tyre, for the service that he had served against it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 34:21 Because you thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased with your horns, until you have scattered them abroad; (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zephaniah 3:9 For then I will purify the lips of the peoples, that they may all call on the name of Yahweh, to serve him shoulder to shoulder. (WEB YLT NAS NIV)
Zechariah 7:11 But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)