|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (superl.) Having active physical power, or great physical power to act; having a power of exerting great bodily force; vigorous.
2. (superl.) Having passive physical power; having ability to bear or endure; firm; hale; sound; robust; as, a strong constitution; strong health.
3. (superl.) Solid; tough; not easily broken or injured; able to withstand violence; able to sustain attacks; not easily subdued or taken; as, a strong beam; a strong rock; a strong fortress or town.
4. (superl.) Having great military or naval force; powerful; as, a strong army or fleet; a nation strong at sea.
5. (superl.) Having great wealth, means, or resources; as, a strong house, or company of merchants.
6. (superl.) Reaching a certain degree or limit in respect to strength or numbers; as, an army ten thousand strong.
7. (superl.) Moving with rapidity or force; violent; forcible; impetuous; as, a strong current of water or wind; the wind was strong from the northeast; a strong tide.
8. (superl.) Adapted to make a deep or effectual impression on the mind or imagination; striking or superior of the kind; powerful; forcible; cogent; as, a strong argument; strong reasons; strong evidence; a strong example; strong language.
9. (superl.) Ardent; eager; zealous; earnestly engaged; as, a strong partisan; a strong Whig or Tory.
10. (superl.) Having virtues of great efficacy; or, having a particular quality in a great degree; as, a strong powder or tincture; a strong decoction; strong tea or coffee.
11. (superl.) Full of spirit; containing a large proportion of alcohol; intoxicating; as, strong liquors.
12. (superl.) Affecting any sense powerfully; as, strong light, colors, etc.; a strong flavor of onions; a strong scent.
13. (superl.) Solid; nourishing; as, strong meat.
14. (superl.) Well established; firm; not easily overthrown or altered; as, a strong custom; a strong belief.
15. (superl.) Violent; vehement; earnest; ardent.
16. (superl.) Having great force, vigor, power, or the like, as the mind, intellect, or any faculty; as, a man of a strong mind, memory, judgment, or imagination.
17. (superl.) Vigorous; effective; forcible; powerful.
18. (superl.) Tending to higher prices; rising; as, a strong market.
19. (superl.) Pertaining to, or designating, a verb which forms its preterit (imperfect) by a variation in the root vowel, and the past participle (usually) by the addition of -en (with or without a change of the root vowel); as in the verbs strive, strove, striven; break, broke, broken; drink, drank, drunk. Opposed to weak, or regular. See Weak.
20. (superl.) Applied to forms in Anglo-Saxon, etc., which retain the old declensional endings. In the Teutonic languages the vowel stems have held the original endings most firmly, and are called strong; the stems in -n are called weak other constant stems conform, or are irregular.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(shekhar; sikera; from shakhar, "to be or become drunk"; probably from the same root as sugar, saccharine): With the exception of Numbers 28:7, "strong drink" is always coupled with "wine." The two terms are commonly used as mutually exclusive, and as together exhaustive of all kinds of intoxicants.
Originally shekhar seems to have been a general term for intoxicating drinks of all kinds, without reference to the material out of which they were made; and in that sense, it would include wine. Reminiscences of this older usage may be found in Numbers 28:7 (where shekhar is clearly equivalent to wine, as may be seen by comparing it with 28:14, and with Exodus 29:40, where the material of the drink offering is expressly designated "wine").
When the Hebrews were living a nomadic life, before their settlement in Canaan, the grape-wine was practically unknown to them, and there would be no need of a special term to describe it. But when they settled down to an agricultural life, and came to cultivate the vine, it would become necessary to distinguish it from the older kinds of intoxicants; hence, the borrowed word yayin ("wine") was applied to the former, while the latter would be classed together under the old term shekhar, which would then come to mean all intoxicating beverages other than wine (Leviticus 10:9 Numbers 6:3 Deuteronomy 14:26 Proverbs 20:1 Isaiah 24:9). The exact nature of these drinks is not clearly indicated in the Bible itself. The only fermented beverage other than grape-wine specifically named is pomegranate-wine (Songs 8:2: "the juice of my pomegranate," the Revised Version, margin "sweet wine of my pomegranate"); but we may infer that other kinds of shekhar besides that obtained from pomegranates were in use, such as drinks made from dates, honey, raisins, barley, apples, etc. Probably Jerome (circa 400 A.D.) was near the mark when he wrote, "Sikera in the Hebrew tongue means every kind of drink which can intoxicate, whether made from grain or from the juice of apples, or when honeycombs are boiled down into a sweet and strange drink, or the fruit of palm oppressed into liquor, and when water is colored and thickened from boiled herbs" (Ep. ad Nepotianum). Thus shekhar is a comprehensive term for all kinds of fermented drinks, excluding wine.
Probably the most common sort of shekhar used in Biblical times was palm or date-wine. This is not actually mentioned in the Bible, and we do not meet with its Hebrew name yen temarim ("wine of dates") until the Talmudic period. But it is frequently referred to in the Assyrian-Babylonian contract tablets (cuneiform), and from this and other evidence we infer that it was very well known among the ancient Semitic peoples. Moreover, it is known that the palm tree flourished abundantly in Biblical lands, and the presumption is therefore very strong that wine made of the juice of dates was a common beverage. It must not be supposed, however, that the term shekhar refers exclusively to date-wine. It rather designates all intoxicating liquors other than grape-wine, while in few cases it probably includes even wine.
There can be no doubt that shekhar was intoxicating. This is proved
(1) from the etymology of the word, it being derived from shakhar, "to be or become drunk" (Genesis 9:21 Isaiah 29:9 Jeremiah 25:27, etc.); compare the word for drunkard (shikkar), and for drunkenness (shikkaron) from the same root;
(2) from descriptions of its effects: e.g. Isaiah graphically describes the stupefying effect of shekhar on those who drink it excessively (Isaiah 28:7, 8).
Hannah defended herself against the charge of being drunk by saying, "I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink," i.e. neither wine nor any other intoxicating liquor (1 Samuel 1:15). The attempt made to prove that it was simply the unfermented juice of certain fruits is quite without foundation. Its immoderate use is strongly condemned (Isaiah 5:11, 12 Proverbs 20:1; see DRUNKENNESS). It was forbidden to ministering priests (Leviticus 10:9), and to Nazirites (Numbers 6:3 Judges 13:4, 7, 14; compare Luke 1:15), but was used in the sacrificial meal as drink offering (Numbers 28:7), and could be bought with the tithe-money and consumed by the worshipper in the temple (Deuteronomy 14:26). It is commended to the weak and perishing as a means of deadening their pain; but not to princes, lest it might lead them to pervert justice (Proverbs 31:4-7).
D. Miall Edwards
Strong (736 Occurrences)
Matthew 8:31 And the evil spirits made strong prayers to him, saying, If you send us out, let us go into the herd of pigs. (BBE)
Matthew 9:12 But Jesus hearing it, said, They that are strong have not need of a physician, but those that are ill. (DBY)
Matthew 10:22 And you will be hated by all men because of my name: but he who is strong to the end will have salvation. (BBE)
Matthew 12:29 Or how can one enter into the house of the strong man, and plunder his goods, unless he first bind the strong man? Then he will plunder his house. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 14:30 But when he saw that the wind was strong, he was afraid, and beginning to sink, he cried out, saying, "Lord, save me!" (WEB DBY)
Matthew 15:31 So that the people were full of wonder when they saw that those who had no voice were talking, the feeble were made strong, those whose bodies were broken had the power of walking, and the blind were able to see: and they gave glory to the God of Israel. (BBE)
Mark 2:17 And Jesus having heard it says to them, They that are strong have not need of a physician, but those who are ill. I have not come to call righteous men, but sinners. (DBY YLT)
Mark 3:27 But no one can enter into the house of the strong man to plunder, unless he first binds the strong man; and then he will plunder his house. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 4:39 And he came out of his sleep, and gave strong orders to the wind, and said to the sea, Peace, be at rest. And the wind went down, and there was a great calm. (BBE)
Mark 5:4 for many a time he had been left securely bound in fetters and chains, but afterwards the chains lay torn link from link, and the fetters in fragments, and there was no one strong enough to master him. (WEY BBE NAS NIV)
Mark 5:10 And he made strong prayers to him not to send them away out of the country. (BBE)
Mark 5:23 And made strong prayers to him, saying, My little daughter is near to death: it is my prayer that you will come and put your hands on her, so that she may be made well, and have life. (BBE)
Mark 12:1 Then He began to speak to them in figurative language. "There was once a man," He said, "who planted a vineyard, fenced it round, dug a pit for the wine-tank, and built a strong lodge. Then he let the place to vine-dressers and went abroad. (WEY)
Luke 1:15 For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Luke 1:49 For he who is strong has done great things for me; and holy is his name. (BBE)
Luke 1:80 The child was growing, and becoming strong in spirit, and was in the desert until the day of his public appearance to Israel. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 2:40 The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom, and the grace of God was upon him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 11:21 "When the strong man, fully armed, guards his own dwelling, his goods are safe. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 14:31 Or what king, going to war with another king, will not first take thought if he will be strong enough, with ten thousand men, to keep off him who comes against him with twenty thousand? (BBE NAS)
Luke 16:3 "Then the steward said within himself, "'What am I to do? For my master is taking away the stewardship from me. I am not strong enough for field labour: to beg, I should be ashamed. (WEY NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 21:36 But keep watch at all times with prayer, that you may be strong enough to come through all these things and take your place before the Son of man. (BBE)
Luke 22:32 But I have made prayer for you, that your faith may not go from you: and when you are turned again, make your brothers strong. (BBE)
John 5:14 After a time Jesus came across him in the Temple and said to him, See, you are well and strong; do no more sin for fear a worse thing comes to you. (BBE)
John 6:18 The Lake also was getting rough, because a strong wind was blowing. (WEY BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
John 11:33 Seeing her weeping aloud, and the Jews in like manner weeping who had come with her, Jesus, curbing the strong emotion of His spirit, (WEY)
John 11:38 Jesus, however, again restraining His strong feeling, came to the tomb. It was a cave, and a stone had been laid against the mouth of it. (WEY)
John 16:12 I have still much to say to you, but you are not strong enough for it now. (BBE)
Acts 2:2 when suddenly there came from the sky a sound as of a strong rushing blast of wind. This filled the whole house where they were sitting; (WEY)
Acts 3:7 And he took him by his right hand, lifting him up; and straight away his feet and the bones of his legs became strong, (BBE DBY RSV NIV)
Acts 3:16 By faith in his name, his name has made this man strong, whom you see and know. Yes, the faith which is through him has given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Acts 9:31 And so the church through all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria had peace and was made strong; and, living in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the Holy Spirit, was increased greatly. (BBE)
Acts 12:5 So Peter was kept in prison: but the church made strong prayer to God for him. (BBE)
Acts 13:17 The God of this people Israel made selection of our fathers, lifting the people up from their low condition when they were living in the land of Egypt, and with a strong arm took them out of it. (BBE)
Acts 14:22 Making strong the souls of the disciples, saying to them that they were to keep the faith, and that we have to go through troubles of all sorts to come into the kingdom of God. (BBE)
Acts 15:10 Why then are you testing God, by putting on the neck of the disciples a yoke so hard that not even our fathers or we were strong enough for it? (BBE)
Acts 15:29 to abstain from things offered to idols, and blood, and a strangled thing, and whoredom; from which keeping yourselves, ye shall do well; be strong!' (YLT)
Acts 15:32 And Judas and Silas, who themselves were prophets, gave teaching to the brothers and made them strong in the faith. (BBE)
Acts 16:5 So the Churches went on gaining a stronger faith and growing in numbers from day to day. (Root in WEY BBE)
Acts 18:23 And having been there for some time, he went through the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, making the disciples strong in the faith. (BBE)
Acts 20:32 And now, I give you into the care of God and the word of his grace, which is able to make you strong and to give you your heritage among all the saints. (BBE)
Acts 23:30 and a plot having been intimated to me against this man -- about to be of the Jews -- at once I sent unto thee, having given command also to the accusers to say the things against him before thee; be strong.' (YLT)
Romans 1:11 For I have a strong desire to see you, and to give you some grace of the spirit, so that you may be made strong; (BBE NIV)
Romans 4:20 Yet, looking to the promise of God, he didn't waver through unbelief, but grew strong through faith, giving glory to God, (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV)
Romans 8:19 For the strong desire of every living thing is waiting for the revelation of the sons of God. (BBE)
Romans 10:2 For I give witness of them that they have a strong desire for God, but not with knowledge. (BBE)
Romans 15:1 Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of the weak, and not to please ourselves. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 15:2 Let every one of us give pleasure to his neighbour for his good, to make him strong. (BBE)
Romans 16:25 To Him who has it in His power to make you strong, as declared in the Good News which I am spreading, and the proclamation concerning Jesus Christ, in harmony with the unveiling of the Truth which in the periods of past Ages remained unuttered, (WEY BBE)
1 Corinthians 1:26 For you see God's design for you, my brothers, that he has not taken a great number of the wise after the flesh, not the strong, not the noble: (BBE)
1 Corinthians 1:27 but God chose the foolish things of the world that he might put to shame those who are wise. God chose the weak things of the world, that he might put to shame the things that are strong; (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 3:2 I fed you with milk and not with solid food, since for this you were not yet strong enough. And even now you are not strong enough: (WEY)
1 Corinthians 4:10 We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wise in Christ. We are weak, but you are strong. You have honor, but we have dishonor. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 6:10 Or is a thief, or the worse for drink, or makes use of strong language, or takes by force what is not his, will have any part in the kingdom of God. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 7:36 But if any man thinks that he is behaving inappropriately toward his virgin, if she is past the flower of her age, and if need so requires, let him do what he desires. He doesn't sin. Let them marry. (See RSV)
1 Corinthians 7:37 But the man who is strong in mind and purpose, who is not forced but has control over his desires, does well if he comes to the decision to keep her a virgin. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 8:7 Still, all men have not that knowledge: but some, being used till now to the image, are conscious that they are taking food which has been offered to the image; and because they are not strong in the faith, their minds are troubled. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 15:58 For this cause, my dear brothers, be strong in purpose and unmoved, ever giving yourselves to the work of the Lord, because you are certain that your work is not without effect in the Lord. (BBE)
1 Corinthians 16:13 Watch! Stand firm in the faith! Be courageous! Be strong! (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 1:21 Now he who makes our faith strong together with you, in Christ, and has given us of his grace, is God; (BBE)
2 Corinthians 2:14 But praise be to God who makes us strong to overcome in Christ, and makes clear through us in every place the value of the knowledge of him. (BBE)
2 Corinthians 4:1 For this reason, because we have been made servants of this new order, through the mercy given to us, we are strong: (BBE)
2 Corinthians 7:15 And his strong and tender affection is all the more drawn out towards you when he recalls to mind the obedience which all of you manifested by the timidity and nervous anxiety with which you welcomed him. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 8:19 And more than that, he is the one who was chosen by the vote of the Churches to travel with us, sharing our commission in the administration of this generous gift to promote the Lord's glory and gratify our own strong desire. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 8:22 And we send with them our brother, of whose zeal we have had frequent proof in many matters, and who is now more zealous than ever through the strong confidence which he has in you. (WEY)
2 Corinthians 10:4 for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but mighty before God to the throwing down of strongholds, (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 10:10 For, "His letters," they say, "are weighty and strong, but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech is despised." (WEB ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
2 Corinthians 12:10 Therefore I take pleasure in weaknesses, in injuries, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses, for Christ's sake. For when I am weak, then am I strong. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
2 Corinthians 13:3 Seeing that you are looking for a sign of Christ giving out his word in me; who is not feeble in relation to you, but is strong in you: (BBE)
2 Corinthians 13:9 For we rejoice when we are weak and you are strong. And this we also pray for, even your perfecting. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 5:10 For my part I have strong confidence in you in the Lord that you will adopt my view of the matter. But the man--be he who he may--who is troubling you, will have to bear the full weight of the judgement to be pronounced on him. (WEY)
Ephesians 3:16 That in the wealth of his glory he would make you strong with power through his Spirit in your hearts; (BBE)
Ephesians 3:17 I pray that Christ may make His home in your hearts through your faith; so that having your roots deep and your foundations strong, in love, you may become mighty to grasp the idea, (WEY)
Ephesians 3:18 may be strong to apprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, (ASV)
Ephesians 6:10 Finally, be strong in the Lord, and in the strength of his might. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 6:13 For this reason take up all the arms of God, so that you may be able to be strong in the evil day, and, having done all, to keep your place. (BBE)
Ephesians 6:18 With prayers and deep desires, making requests at all times in the Spirit, and keeping watch, with strong purpose, in prayer for all the saints, (BBE)
Philippians 1:20 In the measure of my strong hope and belief that in nothing will I be put to shame, but that without fear, as at all times, so now will Christ have glory in my body, by life or by death. (BBE)
Philippians 1:27 Only let your behaviour do credit to the good news of Christ, so that if I come and see you or if I am away from you, I may have news of you that you are strong in one spirit, working together with one soul for the faith of the good news; (BBE)
Philippians 4:1 So my brothers, well loved and very dear to me, my joy and crown, be strong in the Lord, my loved ones. (BBE)
Colossians 2:7 Rooted and based together in him, strong in the faith which the teaching gave you, giving praise to God at all times. (BBE)
1 Thessalonians 2:2 but having suffered before and been shamefully treated, as you know, at Philippi, we grew bold in our God to tell you the Good News of God in much conflict. (See NIV)
1 Thessalonians 3:1 At last our desire to have news of you was so strong that, while we ourselves were waiting at Athens, (BBE)
1 Thessalonians 3:13 So that your hearts may be strong and free from all sin before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. (BBE)
2 Thessalonians 2:11 And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: (KJV WBS RSV)
2 Thessalonians 2:15 So then, brothers, be strong in purpose, and keep the teaching which has been given to you by word or by letter from us. (BBE)
1 Timothy 1:12 I am thankful to Him who made me strong--even Christ Jesus our Lord--because He has judged me to be faithful and has put me into His service, (WEY)
1 Timothy 1:18 This order I give to you, Timothy my son, in harmony with the words of the prophets about you, so that by them you may be strong, fighting the good fight, (BBE)
2 Timothy 2:1 Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. (KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Timothy 2:19 But God's strong base is unchanging, having this sign, The Lord has knowledge of those who are his: and, Let everyone by whom the name of the Lord is named be turned away from evil. (BBE)
2 Timothy 2:22 Keep a strong curb, however, on your youthful cravings; and strive for integrity, good faith, love, peace, in company with all who pray to the Lord with pure hearts. (WEY BBE)
Philemon 1:7 For I had great joy and comfort in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been made strong again through you, brother. (BBE)
Hebrews 4:11 Because of this, let us have a strong desire to come into that rest, and let no one go after the example of those who went against God's orders. (BBE)
Hebrews 4:14 Having then a great high priest, who has made his way through the heavens, even Jesus the Son of God, let us be strong in our faith. (BBE)
Hebrews 5:7 He, in the days of his flesh, having offered up prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to him who was able to save him from death, and having been heard for his godly fear, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Hebrews 5:12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. (KJV WBS YLT)
Hebrews 5:14 But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil. (KJV WBS YLT)
Hebrews 6:18 that by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we may have a strong encouragement, who have fled for refuge to take hold of the hope set before us. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Hebrews 6:19 And this hope is like a strong band for our souls, fixed and certain, and going in to that which is inside the veil; (BBE)
Hebrews 10:23 Let us keep the witness of our hope strong and unshaking, for he is true who has given his word: (BBE)
Hebrews 10:25 Not giving up our meetings, as is the way of some, but keeping one another strong in faith; and all the more because you see the day coming near. (BBE)