|Noah Webster's Dictionary|
1. (n.) A name or appellation which is added to, or over and above, the baptismal or Christian name, and becomes a family name.
2. (n.) An appellation added to the original name; an agnomen.
3. (v. t.) To name or call by an appellation added to the original name; to give a surname to.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
sur'-nam (kanah; epikalein): A word derived from the French., meaning "an additional name"; in modern English always the family name of a person. Indeed, the spelling "surname" in the King James Version 1 Maccabees 1:10; 2:02; 6:43 may be due to a confusion with "sire's name." But the custom of family names was entirely unknown among the Hebrews. The word is used twice in the King James Version of the Old Testament, namely, Isaiah 44:5; Isaiah 45:4. The Hebrew word means "to give flattering or honorary titles." In the former passage foreigners are so envious of the prosperity of the Jews that they are anxious to be surnamed by the name of Israel, i.e. to be enrolled as members of the Jewish nation. In the latter case Yahweh gives Cyrus an honorary title, namely, "servant of Yahweh," and thus appoints him to be His instrument in the restoration of His people. The same word is rendered in Job 32:21, the King James Version "give flattering titles." Elihu declares his intention to examine the situation without fear or favor. He will not allow such high-sounding titles as "Your Worship" or "My Lord" to stand in his way. He will not be overawed by Job's social position. In the New Testament the word is used in the case of Peter-Simon whose surname is Peter (Acts 10:5, 32; Acts 11:13); of Mark-John whose surname was Mark (Acts 12:12, 25; Acts 15:37); of Judas-surnamed Iscariot (Luke 22:3); of Barsabbas-who was surnamed Justus (Acts 1:23); and of Judas-surnamed Barsabbas (Acts 15:22). It was a widespread custom in the ancient world to give honorary and symbolical titles. our Lord surnamed Simon Peter (Mark 3:16), and James and John Boanerges (Mark 3:17). Acts 15:37 the King James Version has "surname" for the simple "call" (so the Revised Version (British and American)).
Surname (11 Occurrences)
Matthew 10:3 Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 3:16 And Simon he surnamed Peter; (Root in KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS RSV)
Mark 3:17 James the son of Zebedee; John, the brother of James, and he surnamed them Boanerges, which means, Sons of Thunder; (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS RSV)
Acts 10:5 Now send men to Joppa, and get Simon, who is surnamed Peter. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 10:32 Send therefore to Joppa, and summon Simon, who is surnamed Peter. He lodges in the house of Simon a tanner, by the seaside. When he comes, he will speak to you.' (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 11:13 He told us how he had seen the angel standing in his house, and saying to him,'Send to Joppa, and get Simon, whose surname is Peter, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 12:12 Thinking about that, he came to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together and were praying. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 12:25 Barnabas and Saul returned to Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their service, also taking with them John whose surname was Mark. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Acts 15:37 And Barnabas determined to take with them John, whose surname was Mark. (KJV WBS)
Isaiah 44:5 One shall say, I am the LORD's; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the LORD, and surname himself by the name of Israel. (KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Isaiah 45:4 For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel my chosen, I have called you by your name. I have surnamed you, though you have not known me. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)