|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Tree of life
Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Genesis 2:9; 3:22). Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to the tree of life (Proverbs 3:18). The "tree of life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.
Tree of the knowledge of good and evil
Stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life (Genesis 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (see ADAM.)
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) Any perennial woody plant of considerable size (usually over twenty feet high) and growing with a single trunk.
2. (n.) Something constructed in the form of, or considered as resembling, a tree, consisting of a stem, or stock, and branches; as, a genealogical tree.
3. (n.) A piece of timber, or something commonly made of timber; -- used in composition, as in axletree, boottree, chesstree, crosstree, whiffletree, and the like.
4. (n.) A cross or gallows; as Tyburn tree.
5. (n.) Wood; timber.
6. (n.) A mass of crystals, aggregated in arborescent forms, obtained by precipitation of a metal from solution. See Lead tree, under Lead.
7. (v. t.) To drive to a tree; to cause to ascend a tree; as, a dog trees a squirrel.
8. (v. t.) To place upon a tree; to fit with a tree; to stretch upon a tree; as, to tree a boot. See Tree, n., 3.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
ba'-tre' (the King James Version only; Psalm 37:35; 'ezrach): The word means "native," "indigenous," and the Revised Version (British and American) translations "a green tree in its native soil."
oil tre ('ets shemen (Isaiah 41:19), margin "oleaster," in Nehemiah 8:15, translated "wild olive," the King James Version "pine"; 'atse shemen, in 1 Kings 6:23, 31, 32, translated "olive wood"): The name "oleaster" used to be applied to the wild olive, but now belongs to quite another plant, the silver-berry, Eleagnus hortensis (Natural Order Elaeagnaceae), known in Arabic as Zeizafan. It is a pretty shrub with sweet-smelling white flowers and silver-grey-green leaves. It is difficult to see how all the three references can apply to this tree; it will suit the first two, but this small shrub would never supply wood for carpentry work such as that mentioned in 1 Kings, hence, the translation "olive wood." On the other hand, in the reference in Nehemiah 8:15, olive branches are mentioned just before, so the translation "wild olive" (the difference being too slight) is improbable. Post suggests the translation of 'ets shemen by PINE (which see), which if accepted would suit all the requirements.
E. W. G. Masterman
ol'-iv tre (zayith, a word occurring also in Aramaic, Ethiopic and Arabic; in the last it means "olive oil," and zaitun, "the olive tree"; elaia):
1. The Olive Tree:
The olive tree has all through history been one of the most characteristic, most valued and most useful of trees in Palestine. It is only right that it is the first named "king" of the trees (Judges 9:8, 9). When the children of Israel came to the land they acquired olive trees which they planted not (Deuteronomy 6:11; compare Joshua 24:13). The cultivation of the olive goes back to the earliest times in Canaan. The frequent references in the Bible, the evidences (see 4 below) from archaeology and the important place the product of this tree has held in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria make it highly probable that this land is the actual home of the cultivated olive. The wild olive is indigenous there. The most fruitful trees are the product of bare and rocky ground (compare Deuteronomy 32:13) situated preferably at no great distance from the sea. The terraced hills of Palestine, where the earth lies never many inches above the limestone rocks, the long rainless summer of unbroken sunshine, and the heavy "clews" of the autumn afford conditions which are extraordinarily favorable to at least the indigenous olive.
The olive, Olea Europaea (Natural Order Oleaceae), is a slow-growing tree, requiring years of patient labor before reaching full fruitfulness. Its growth implies a certain degree of settlement and peace, for a hostile army can in a few days destroy the patient work of two generations. Possibly this may have something to do with its being the emblem of peace. Enemies of a village or of an individual often today carry out revenge by cutting away a ring of bark from the trunks of the olives, thus killing the trees in a few months. The beauty of this tree is referred to in Jeremiah 11:16 Hosea 14:6, and its fruitfulness in Psalm 128:3. The characteristic olive-green of its foliage, frosted silver below and the twisted and gnarled trunks-often hollow in the center-are some of the most picturesque and constant signs of settled habitations. In some parts of the land large plantations occur: the famous olive grove near Beirut is 5 miles square; there are also fine, ancient trees in great numbers near Bethlehem.
In starting an oliveyard the fellah not infrequently plants young wild olive trees which grow plentifully over many parts of the land, or he may grow from cuttings. When the young trees are 3 years old they are grafted from a choice stock and after another three or four years they may commence to bear fruit, but they take quite a decade more before reaching full fruition. Much attention is, however, required. The soil around the trees must be frequently plowed and broken up; water must be conducted to the roots from the earliest rain, and the soil must be freely enriched with a kind of marl known in Arabic as chuwwarah. If neglected, the older trees soon send up a great many shoots from the roots all around the parent stem (perhaps the idea in Psalm 128:3); these must be pruned away, although, should the parent stem decay, some of these may be capable of taking its place. Being, however, from the root, below the original point of grafting, they are of the wild olive type-with smaller, stiffer leaves and prickly stem-and need grafting before they are of use. The olive tree furnishes a wood valuable for many forms of carpentry, and in modern Palestine is extensively burnt as fuel.
2. The Fruit:
The olive is in flower about May; it produces clusters of small white flowers, springing from the axils of the leaves, which fall as showers to the ground (Job 15:33). The first olives mature as early as September in some places, but, in the mountain districts, the olive harvest is not till November or even December. Much of the earliest fruit falls to the ground and is left by the owner ungathered until the harvest. The trees are beaten with long sticks (Deuteronomy 24:20), the young folks often climbing into the branches to reach the highest fruit, while the women and older girls gather up the fruit from the ground. The immature fruit left after such an ingathering is described graphically in Isaiah 17:6: "There shall be left therein gleanings, as the shaking (margin "beating") of an olive-tree, two or three berries in the top of the uppermost bough, four or five in the outmost branches of a fruitful tree." Such gleanings belonged to the poor (Deuteronomy 24:20), as is the case today. Modern villages in Palestine allow the poor of even neighboring villages to glean the olives. The yield of an olive tree is very uncertain; a year of great fruitfulness may be followed by a very scanty crop or by a succession of such.
The olive is an important article of diet in Palestine. Some are gathered green and pickled in brine, after slight bruising, and others, the "black" olives, are gathered quite ripe and are either packed in salt or in brine. In both cases the salt modifies the bitter taste. They are eaten with bread.
More important commercially is the oil. This is sometimes extracted in a primitive way by crushing a few berries by hand in the hollow of a stone (compare Exodus 27:20), from which a shallow channel runs for the oil. It is an old custom to tread them by foot (Micah 6:15).
3. Olive Oil:
Oil is obtained on a larger scale in one of the many varieties of oil mills. The berries are carried in baskets, by donkeys, to the mill, and they are crushed by heavy weights. A better class of oil can be obtained by collecting the first oil to come off separately, but not much attention is given to this in Palestine, and usually the berries are crushed, stones and all, by a circular millstone revolving upright round a central pivot. A plenteous harvest of oil was looked upon as one of God's blessings (Joel 2:24; Joel 3:13). That the "labor of the olive" should fail was one of the trials to faith in Yahweh (Habakkuk 3:17). Olive oil is extensively used as food, morsels of bread being dipped into it in eating; also medicinally (Luke 10:34 James 5:14). In ancient times it was greatly used for anointing the person (Psalm 23:5 Matthew 6:17). In Rome's days of luxury it was a common maxim that a long and pleasant life depended upon two fiuids-"wine within and oil without." In modern times this use of oil for the person is replaced by the employment of soap, which in Palestine is made from olive oil. In all ages this oil has been used for illumination (Matthew 25:3).
4. Greater Plenty of Olive Trees in Ancient Times:
Comparatively plentiful as olive trees are today in Palestine, there is abundant evidence that the cultivation was once much more extensive. "The countless rock-cut oil-presses and wine-presses, both within and without the walls of the city (of Gezer), show that the cultivation of the olive and vine was of much greater importance than it is anywhere in Palestine today..... Excessive taxation has made olive culture unprofitable" ("Gezer Mem," PEF, II, 23). A further evidence of this is seen today in many now deserted sites which are covered with wild olive trees, descendants of large plantations of the cultivated tree which have quite disappeared.
5. Wild Olives:
Many of these spring from the old roots; others are from the fallen drupes. Isolated trees scattered over many parts of the land, especially in Galilee, are sown by the birds. As a rule the wild olive is but a shrub, with small leaves, a stem more or less prickly, and a small, hard drupe with but little or no oil. That a wild olive branch should be grafted into a fruitful tree would be a proceeding useless and contrary to Nature (Romans 11:17, 24). On the mention of "branches of wild olive" in Nehemiah 8:15, see OIL TREE.
E. W. G. Masterman
pam'-tre (tamar, same as the Aramaic and Ethiopic, but in Arabic = "date"; phoinix (Exodus 15:27 Leviticus 23:40 Numbers 33:9 Deuteronomy 34:3 Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13 2 Chronicles 28:15 Nehemiah 8:15 Psalm 92:12 Songs 7:7 Joel 1:12); tomer, Deborah "dwelt under the palm-tree" (Judges 4:5); "They are like a palm-tree (margin "pillar"), of turned work" (Jeremiah 10:5); timorah (only in the plural), the palm tree as an architectural feature (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35; 1 Kings 7:36 2 Chronicles 3:5 Ezekiel 40:16); Greek only Ecclesiasticus 50:12; John 12:13 Revelation 7:9):
1. Palm Trees:
The palm, Phoenix dactylifera (Natural Order Palmeae), Arabic nakhl, is a tree which from the earliest times has been associated with the Semitic peoples. In Arabia the very existence of man depends largely upon its presence, and many authorities consider this to have been its original habitat. It is only natural that such a tree should have been sacred both there and in Assyria in the earliest ages. In Palestine the palm leaf appears as an ornament upon pottery as far back as 1800 B.C. (compare PEF, Gezer Mere., II, 172). In Egypt the tall palm stem forms a constant feature in early architecture, and among the Hebrews it was extensively used as a decoration of the temple (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35; 1 Kings 7:36 2 Chronicles 3:5). It is a symbol of beauty (Songs 7:7) and of the righteous man:
"The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree:
He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.
They are planted in the house of Yahweh;
They shall flourish in the courts of our God.
They shall still bring forth fruit in old age;
They shall be full of sap and green" (Psalm 92:12-14).
The palm tree or branch is used extensively on Jewish coinage and most noticeably appears as a symbol of the land upon the celebrated Judea Capta coins of Vespasian. A couple of centuries or so later it forms a prominent architectural feature in the ornamentation of the Galilean synagogues, e.g. at Tell Chum (Capernaum). The method of artificial fertilization of the pistillate (female) flowers by means of the staminate (male) flowers appears to have been known in the earliest historic times. Winged figures are depicted on some of the early Assyrian sculptures shaking a bunch of the male flowers over the female for the same purpose as the people of modern Gaza ascend the tall trunks of the fruit-bearing palms and tie among the female flowers a bunch of the pollen-bearing male flowers.
2. Their Ancient Abundance in Palestine:
In Palestine today the palm is much neglected; there are few groves except along the coast, e.g. at the bay of Akka, Jaffa and Gaza; solitary palms occur all over the land in the courtyards of mosques (compare Psalm 92:13) and houses even in the mountains. Once palms flourished upon the Mount of Olives (Nehemiah 8:15), and Jericho was long known as the "city of palm-trees" (Deuteronomy 34:3 Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13 2 Chronicles 28:15; Josephus BJ, IV, viii, 2-3), but today the only palms are scarce and small; under its name Hazazon-tamar (2 Chronicles 20:2), En-gedi would appear to have been as much a place of palms in ancient days as we know it was in later history. A city, too, called Tamar ("date palm") appears to have been somewhere near the southwestern corner of the Dead Sea (Ezekiel 47:19; Ezekiel 48:28). Today the numerous salt-encrusted stumps of wild palm trees washed up all along the shores of the Dead Sea witness to the existence of these trees within recent times in some of the deep valleys around.
3. Palm Branches:
Branches of palms have been symbolically associated with several different ideas. A palm branch is used in Isaiah 9:14; Isaiah 19:15 to signify he "head," the highest of the people, as contrasted with the rush, the "tail," or humblest of the people. Palm branches appear from early times to have been associated with rejoicing. On the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles the Hebrews were commanded to take branches of palms, with other trees, and rejoice before God (Leviticus 23:40; compare Nehemiah 8:15; 2 Maccabees 10:7). The palm branch still forms the chief feature of the lulabh carried daily by every pious Jew to the synagogue, during the feast. Later it was connected with the idea of triumph and victory. Simon Maccabeus entered the Akra at Jerusalem after its capture, "with thanksgiving, and branches of palm trees, and with harps, and cymbals, and with viols, and hymns, and songs: because there was destroyed a great enemy out of Israel" (1 Maccabees 13:51 the King James Version; compare 2 Maccabees 10:7). The same idea comes out in the use of palm branches by the multitudes who escorted Jesus to Jerusalem (John 12:13) and also in the vision of the "great multitude, which no man could number.... standing before the.... Lamb, arrayed in white robes, and palms in their hands" (Revelation 7:9). Today palms are carried in every Moslem funeral procession and are laid on the new-made grave.
See also TAMAR as a proper name.
E. W. G. Masterman
pin tre: (1) `ets shemen, translated the Revised Version (British and American) "wild olive," the King James Version "pine" (Nehemiah 8:15); the Revised Version (British and American) "oil-tree," m "oleaster" (Isaiah 41:19); "olive-wood" (1 Kings 6:23, 31-33). See OIL TREE. (2) tidhhar (Isaiah 41:19, margin "plane"; Isaiah 60:13); peuke, "fir." Lagarde, from similarity of tidhhar to the Syriac deddar, usually the "elm," considers this the best translation. Symmachus also translated tidhhar (Isaiah 41:19) by ptelea, the "elm." The elm, Ulmus campestris, is rare in Palestine and the Lebanon, though it is found today N. of Aleppo. Post (HDB, III, 592-93) considers that
(1) should be translated as "pine," which he describes as a "fat wood tree"; it is perhaps as probably a correct translation for
(2), but great uncertainty remains.
Two species of pine are plentiful in the Lebanon and flourish in most parts of Palestine when given a chance. These are the stone pine, Pinus pinea, and the Aleppo pine, P. halepensis; all the highlands looking toward the sea are suited to their growth.
E. W. G. Masterman
plan'-tre ('armon; platanos (Genesis 30:37), elate ("pine" or "fir") (Ezekiel 31:8); the King James Version chestnut): `Armon is supposed to be derived from the root aram, meaning "to be bare" or "naked"; this is considered a suitable term for the plane, which sheds its bark annually. The chestnut of the King James Version is not an indigenous tree, but the plane (Planus orientalis) is one of the finest trees in Palestine, flourishing especially by water courses (compare Ecclesiasticus 24:14).
SHITTAH; TREE; SHITTIM WOOD
shit'a, (shiTTah; Septuagint xulon asepton; the Revised Version (British and American) ACACIA TREE (Isaiah 41:19)); (`ace shiTTim; the Revised Version (British and American) ACACIA WOOD (Exodus 25:5, 10, 13; Exodus 26:15, 26; 27:1, 6 Deuteronomy 10:3)): The word was originally shinTah, derived from the Arabic sanT, now a name confined to one species of acacia, Acacia nilotica (Natural Order, Leguminosae), but possibly was once a more inclusive term. The Acacia nilotica is at present confined to the Sinaitic peninsula and to Egypt. Closely allied species, the Acacia tortilis and Acacia seyal, both classed together under the Arabic name sayyal, are plentiful in the valleys about the Dead Sea from Engedi southward. Those who have ridden from `Ain Jidy to Jebel Usdum will never forget these most striking features of the landscape. They are most picturesque trees with their gnarled trunks, sometimes 2 ft. thick, their twisted, thorny branches, which often give the whole tree an umbrella-like form, and their fine bipinnate leaves with minute leaflets. The curiously twisted pods and the masses of gum arabic which exude in many parts are also peculiar features. The trees yield a valuable, hard, close-grained timber, not readily attacked by insects.
E. W. G. Masterman
sik'-a-min, (sukaminos (Luke 17:6)): This is generally accepted as the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra; Natural Order, Urlicaceae), known in Arabic as tut shrami, "the Damascus mulberry," a fine tree which grows to the height of 30 ft. It produces the dark blood-red mulberry juice referred to in 1 Maccabees 6:34 (moron), "the blood of.... mulberries," which was shown to the elephants of the Syrians. The white mulberry, M. alba, has white and less juicy fruit, and it is cultivated largely for the sake of its leaves with which the silkworms of the Lebanon are fed.
E. W. G. Masterman
sik'-o-mor, (shiqmah, Aramaic shiqema' plural shiqmim; in Septuagint wrongly translated by sukaminos, "the mulberry"; see SYCAMINE (1 Kings 10:27 1 Chronicles 27:28 2 Chronicles 1:15; 2 Chronicles 9:27 Isaiah 9:10 Amos 7:14): shiqkmoth (Psalm 78:47); sukomoraia (Luke 19:4)): The sycomore-fig, Ficus sycomorus (Natural Order, Urticaceae), known in Arabic as Jummeiz, is one of the finest of the lowland trees of Palestine, and attains still greater proportions in Lower Egypt. It is evident from 1 Kings 10:27 2 Chronicles 1:15 that it was once abundant, and at a later period it was so plentiful in the neighborhood of what is now Haifa as to give the name Sykaminon to the town which once stood near there. It is a tree which cannot flourish in the cooler mountain heights; it cannot stand frost (Psalm 78:47). It was one of the distinguishing marks of Lower, as contrasted with Upper, Galilee that the sycomore could flourish there. It is highly improbable that sycomores could ever have flourished near Tekoa (compare Amos 7:14), but it is quite possible that the town or individual inhabitants may have held lands in the Jordan valley or in the Shephelah on which these trees grew. Villages in Palestine today not infrequently possess estates at considerable distances; the village of Silwan (Siloam), for example, possesses and cultivates extensive fertile lands halfway to the Dead Sea. The sycomore produces small, rounded figs, about an inch long, which grow upon tortuous, leafless twigs springing from the trunk or the older branches; they are more or less tasteless. It would appear that in ancient times some treatment was adopted, such as piercing the apex of the fruit to hasten the ripening. Amos was a "nipper" (bolec) of sycomore figs (Amos 7:14). The tree not uncommonly attains a height of 50 ft., with an enormous trunk; in many parts, especially where, as near the coast, the tree grows out of sandy soil, the branching roots stand out of the ground for some distance. The timber is of fair quality and was much valued in ancient times (1 Kings 10:27 2 Chronicles 1:15; 2 Chronicles 9:27 Isaiah 9:10). Mummy cases and many of the best preserved wooden utensils of ancient Egyptian life are made of it. This tree must be distinguished from the English sycamore, Acer pseudo-platanus (Natural Order, Spindaceae), the "false plane tree," a kind of maple.
E. W. G. Masterman
tel the King James Version Isaiah 6:13 = the Revised Version (British and American) TEREBINTH (which see).
TREE OF LIFE
(`ets chayyim; xulon tes zoes): The expression "tree of life" occurs in four groups or connections: (1) in the story of the Garden of Eden, (2) in the Proverbs of the Wise Men, (3) in the apocryphal writings, and (4) in the Apocalypse of John.
1. The Tree of Life in the Garden of Eden:
The tree was in the midst of the Garden, and its fruit of such a nature as to produce physical immortality (Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22). After guiltily partaking of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the sinful tendency having thus been implanted in their natures, the man and woman are driven forth from the Garden lest they should eat of the tree of life and live forever (Genesis 3:22). The idea seems to be that, if they should eat of it and become immortalized in their sinful condition, it would be an unspeakable calamity to them and their posterity. For sinful beings to live forever upon earth would be inconceivably disastrous, for the redemption and development of the race would be an impossibility in that condition. Earth would soon have been a hell with sin propagating itself forever. To prevent such a possibility they were driven forth, cherubim were placed at the entrance of the Garden, the flame of a sword revolving every way kept the way of the tree of life, and this prevented the possibility of man possessing a physical immortality. It is implied that they had not yet partaken of this tree and the opportunity is now forever gone. Immortality must be reached in some other way.
The interpretation of the story is a standing problem. Is it mythical, allegorical, or historical? Opinions vary from one of these extremes to the other with all degrees of difference between. In general, interpreters may be divided into three classes:
(1) Many regard the story as a myth, an ancient representation of what men then conceived early man to have been, but with no historical basis behind it. All rationalistic and modern critical scholars are practically agreed on this. Budde in his Urgeschichte says there was but one tree, that is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the intimation of a tree of life is an interpolation. Barton has endeavored to show that the tree of life was really the date-palm, and the myth gathered around this tree because of its bisexual nature. He holds that man came to his self-realization through the sexual relation, and therefore the date-palm came to be regarded as the tree of life, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. But this difference came in later when the knowledge of its origin became obscured. He calls attention to the fact that the sacred palm is found in the sanctuary of Ea at Eridu. All such interpretations are too obviously based upon a materialistic evolution hypothesis.
(2) There are those who regard the entire story as literal: one tree would actually impart physical immortality, the other the knowledge of evil. But this involves endless difficulties also, requires tremendous differences between the laws of Nature then and now, vast differences in fruits, men and animals, and an equally vast difference in God's dealings with man.
(3) We prefer to regard it as a pictorial-spiritual story, the representing of great spiritual facts and religious history in the form of a picture. This is the usual Bible method. It was constantly employed by the prophets, and Jesus continually "pictured" great spiritual facts by means of material objects. Such were most of His parables. John's Apocalypse is also a series of pictures representing spiritual and moral history. So the tree of life is a picture of the glorious possibilities which lay before primitive man, and which might have been realized by him had not his sin and sinful condition prevented it. God's intervention was a great mercy to the human race. Immortality in sin is rendered impossible, and this has made possible an immortality through redemption; man at first is pictured as neither mortal nor immortal, but both are possible, as represented by the two trees. He sinned and became mortal, and then immortality was denied him. It has since been made possible in a much higher and more glorious way.
2. A Common Poetic Simile:
This picture was not lost to Israel. The "tree of life," became a common poetic simile to represent that which may be a source of great blessing. In the Book of Pr the conception deepens from a physical source of a mere physical immortality to a moral and spiritual source of a full life, mental moral and spiritual, which will potentially last forever. Life, long life, is here attributed to a certain possession or quality of mind and heart. Wisdom is a source and supply of life to man. This wisdom is essentially of a moral quality, and this moral force brings the whole man into right relations with the source of life. Hence, a man truly lives by reason of this relationship (Proverbs 3:18). The allusion in this verse is doubtless to Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22. An expression very similar is Proverbs 10:11, where the mouth of the righteous is declared to be a fountain of life. Good words are a power for good, and hence, produce good living. Proverbs 11:30 has a like thought: "The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life," i.e. the good life is a source of good in its influence on others. Proverbs 13:12 says: "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick; but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life." The meaning seems to be that the gratification of good and lawful desires produces those pleasures and activities which make up life and its blessings. Proverbs 15:4 says: "A gentle tongue is a tree of life," i.e. its beneficent influences help others to a better life.
3. The Apocryphal Writings:
The apocryphal writings contain a few references to the tree of life, but use the phrase in a different sense from that in which it is used in the canonical books: "They shall have the tree of life for an ointment of sweet savour" (2 Esdras 2:12). Ecclesiasticus 1:20 has only an indirect reference to it. Ethiopic Enoch, in his picture of the Messianic age, uses his imagination very freely in describing it: "It has a fragrance beyond all fragrances; its leaves and bloom and wood wither not forever; its fruit is beautiful and resembles the date-palm" (24:4). Slavonic Enoch speaks thus: "In the midst there is the tree of life.... and this tree cannot be described for its excellence and sweet odor" (8:3). 2 Esdras describing the future says: "Unto you is paradise opened, the tree of life is planted" (8:52).
4. The Book of Revelation:
The Apocalypse of John refers to the tree of life in three places (Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, 14). These are pictures of the glorious possibilities of life which await the redeemed soul. In Ezekiel's picture of the ideal state and the Messianic age, there flows from the sanctuary of God a life-giving river having trees upon its banks on either side, yielding fruit every month. The leaf of this tree would not wither, nor its fruit fail, because that which gave moisture to its roots flowed from the sanctuary. This fruit was for food and the leaves for medicine (Ezekiel 47:12). Very similar to this and probably an expansion of it is John's picture in Revelation: "To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of God" (2:7). This means that all the possibilities of a complete and glorious life are open to the one that overcomes, and by overcoming is prepared to become immortal in a vastly higher sense than was possible to primitive man. In his picture of the few Jerusalem, the river of water of life has the tree of life on either side (22:2). Its leaf never fades and its monthly fruitage never fails. Food and medicine these are to be to the world, supplied freely to all that all may enjoy the highest possibilities of activity and blessedness which can come to those who are in right relationships with God and Jesus Christ. In 22:14 John pronounces a blessing on those who wash their robes, who lead the clean and pure Christ life, for they thereby have the right and privilege of entering into the gates of the City and partaking of the tree of life. This means not only immortal existence, but such relations with Jesus Christ and the church that each has unrestricted access to all that is good in the universe of God. The limit is his own limited capacity.
James Josiah Reeve
Tree (245 Occurrences)
Matthew 3:10 "Even now the axe lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:17 Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:18 A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 7:19 Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 12:33 "Either make the tree good, and its fruit good, or make the tree corrupt, and its fruit corrupt; for the tree is known by its fruit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 13:32 which indeed is smaller than all seeds. But when it is grown, it is greater than the herbs, and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in its branches." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 21:19 Seeing a fig tree by the road, he came to it, and found nothing on it but leaves. He said to it, "Let there be no fruit from you forever!" Immediately the fig tree withered away. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 21:20 When the disciples saw it, they marveled, saying, "How did the fig tree immediately wither away?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 21:21 Jesus answered them, "Most certainly I tell you, if you have faith, and don't doubt, you will not only do what was done to the fig tree, but even if you told this mountain,'Be taken up and cast into the sea,' it would be done. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 24:32 "Now from the fig tree learn this parable. When its branch has now become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that the summer is near. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 11:13 Seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came to see if perhaps he might find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 11:14 and He said to the tree, "Let no one ever again eat fruit from thee!" And His disciples heard this. (WEY NIV)
Mark 11:20 As they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 11:21 Peter, remembering, said to him, "Rabbi, look! The fig tree which you cursed has withered away." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 13:28 "Now from the fig tree, learn this parable. When the branch has now become tender, and puts forth its leaves, you know that the summer is near; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:9 Even now the axe also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire." (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 6:43 For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 6:44 For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 13:6 He spoke this parable. "A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it, and found none. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 13:7 He said to the vine dresser,'Behold, these three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and found none. Cut it down. Why does it waste the soil?' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and put in his own garden. It grew, and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky lodged in its branches." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:6 The Lord said, "If you had faith like a grain of mustard seed, you would tell this sycamore tree,'Be uprooted, and be planted in the sea,' and it would obey you. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 19:4 He ran on ahead, and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was to pass that way. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 21:29 He told them a parable. "See the fig tree, and all the trees. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 23:31 For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
John 1:48 Nathanael said to him, "How do you know me?" Jesus answered him, "Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 1:50 Jesus answered him, "Because I told you,'I saw you underneath the fig tree,' do you believe? You will see greater things than these!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 5:30 The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree. (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Acts 10:39 We are witnesses of everything he did both in the country of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they also killed, hanging him on a tree. (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Acts 13:29 When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Romans 11:16 Now if the firstfruits of the dough are holy, so also is the whole mass; and if the root of a tree is holy, so also are the branches. (WEY)
Romans 11:17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 11:23 And they, if they do not go on without faith, will be united to the tree again, because God is able to put them in again. (BBE)
Romans 11:24 For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Galatians 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree," (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 3:12 Can a fig tree, my brothers, yield olives, or a vine figs? Thus no spring yields both salt water and fresh water. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 2:24 who his own self bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live to righteousness; by whose stripes you were healed. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Revelation 2:7 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of my God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:13 The stars of the sky fell to the earth, like a fig tree dropping its unripe figs when it is shaken by a great wind. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 7:1 After this, I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, so that no wind would blow on the earth, or on the sea, or on any tree. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 9:4 They were told that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree, but only those people who don't have God's seal on their foreheads. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 22:2 in the middle of its street. On this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve kinds of fruits, yielding its fruit every month. The leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 22:14 Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 22:19 If anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, may God take away his part from the tree of life, and out of the holy city, which are written in this book. (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:11 God said, "Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit after their kind, with its seed in it, on the earth;" and it was so. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:12 The earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with its seed in it, after their kind; and God saw that it was good. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:29 God said, "Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree, which bears fruit yielding seed. It will be your food. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 2:9 Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the middle of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 2:16 Yahweh God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 2:17 but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it; for in the day that you eat of it you will surely die." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent was more subtle than any animal of the field which Yahweh God had made. He said to the woman, "Has God really said,'You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:3 but of the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said,'You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:6 When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit, and ate; and she gave some to her husband with her, and he ate. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:11 God said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:12 The man said, "The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I ate." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:17 To Adam he said, "Because you have listened to your wife's voice, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying,'You shall not eat of it,' cursed is the ground for your sake. In toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:22 Yahweh God said, "Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now, lest he put forth his hand, and also take of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever..." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:24 So he drove out the man; and he placed Cherubs at the east of the garden of Eden, and the flame of a sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 12:6 And Abram went through the land till he came to Shechem, to the holy tree of Moreh. At that time, the Canaanites were still living in the land. (BBE NIV)
Genesis 13:18 And Abram, moving his tent, came and made his living-place by the holy tree of Mamre, which is in Hebron, and made an altar there to the Lord. (BBE NIV)
Genesis 14:13 And one who had got away from the fight came and gave word of it to Abram the Hebrew, who was living by the holy tree of Mamre, the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol and Aner, who were friends of Abram. (BBE NIV)
Genesis 18:1 Now the Lord came to him by the holy tree of Mamre, when he was seated in the doorway of his tent in the middle of the day; (BBE NIV)
Genesis 18:4 Now let a little water be fetched, wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 18:8 He took butter, milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them. He stood by them under the tree, and they ate. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 21:15 And when all the water in the skin was used up, she put the child down under a tree. (BBE)
Genesis 21:33 Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba, and called there on the name of Yahweh, the Everlasting God. (WEB JPS ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 30:37 Jacob took to himself rods of fresh poplar, almond, plane tree, peeled white streaks in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS NIV)
Genesis 35:4 Then they gave to Jacob all the strange gods which they had, and the rings which were in their ears; and Jacob put them away under the holy tree at Shechem. (BBE)
Genesis 35:8 And Deborah, the servant who had taken care of Rebekah from her birth, came to her end, and was put to rest near Beth-el, under the holy tree: and they gave it the name of Allon-bacuth. (BBE)
Genesis 40:19 Within three more days, Pharaoh will lift up your head from off you, and will hang you on a tree; and the birds will eat your flesh from off you." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 3:2 And the angel of the Lord was seen by him in a flame of fire coming out of a thorn-tree: and he saw that the tree was on fire, but it was not burned up. (BBE)
Exodus 3:3 And Moses said, I will go and see this strange thing, why the tree is not burned up, (BBE)
Exodus 3:4 And when the Lord saw him turning to one side to see, God said his name out of the tree, crying, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. (BBE)
Exodus 9:25 The hail struck throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and animal; and the hail struck every herb of the field, and broke every tree of the field. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 10:5 and they shall cover the surface of the earth, so that one won't be able to see the earth. They shall eat the residue of that which has escaped, which remains to you from the hail, and shall eat every tree which grows for you out of the field. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 10:15 For they covered the surface of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened, and they ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left. There remained nothing green, either tree or herb of the field, through all the land of Egypt. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:25 Then he cried to Yahweh. Yahweh showed him a tree, and he threw it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There he made a statute and an ordinance for them, and there he tested them; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Leviticus 19:23 "'When you come into the land, and have planted all kinds of trees for food, then you shall count their fruit as forbidden. Three years shall they be forbidden to you. It shall not be eaten. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 26:4 then I will give you your rains in their season, and the land shall yield its increase, and the trees of the field shall yield their fruit. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 26:20 and your strength will be spent in vain; for your land won't yield its increase, neither will the trees of the land yield their fruit. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 27:30 "'All the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land or of the fruit of the trees, is Yahweh's. It is holy to Yahweh. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 6:4 All the days of his separation shall he eat nothing that is made of the vine tree, from the kernels even to the husk. (KJV WBS)
Deuteronomy 11:30 Are they not on the other side of Jordan, looking west, in the land of the Canaanites living in the Arabah, opposite Gilgal, by the holy tree of Moreh? (BBE NIV)
Deuteronomy 12:2 You shall surely destroy all the places in which the nations that you shall dispossess served their gods, on the high mountains, and on the hills, and under every green tree: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 16:21 You shall not plant for yourselves an Asherah of any kind of tree beside the altar of Yahweh your God, which you shall make for yourselves. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 19:5 as when a man goes into the forest with his neighbor to chop wood, and his hand fetches a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slips from the handle, and lights on his neighbor, so that he dies; he shall flee to one of these cities and live: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:19 When you shall besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, you shall not destroy its trees by wielding an axe against them; for you may eat of them, and you shall not cut them down; for is the tree of the field man, that it should be besieged of you? (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 20:20 Only the trees of which you know that they are not trees for food, you shall destroy and cut them down; and you shall build bulwarks against the city that makes war with you, until it fall. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 21:22 If a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and you hang him on a tree; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 21:23 his body shall not remain all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him the same day; for he who is hanged is accursed of God; that you don't defile your land which Yahweh your God gives you for an inheritance. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 22:6 If a bird's nest chance to be before you in the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the hen sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the hen with the young: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 24:20 When you beat your olive tree, you shall not go over the boughs again: it shall be for the foreigner, for the fatherless, and for the widow. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 33:16 The good things of the earth and all its wealth, the good pleasure of him who was seen in the burning tree: may they come on the head of Joseph, on the head of him who was prince among his brothers. (BBE)
Joshua 8:29 He hanged the king of Ai on a tree until the evening, and at the sundown Joshua commanded, and they took his body down from the tree, and threw it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raised a great heap of stones on it that remains to this day. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 19:33 And their limit was from Heleph, from the oak-tree in Zaanannim, and Adami-hannekeb and Jabneel, as far as Lakkum, ending at Jordan; (BBE NIV)
Judges 4:5 She lived under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim: and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE WBS YLT NAS)
Judges 4:11 Now Heber the Kenite, separating himself from the rest of the Kenites, from the children of Hobab, the brother-in-law of Moses, had put up his tent as far away as the oak-tree in Zaanannim, by Kedesh. (BBE NIV)
Judges 6:25 The same night the Lord said to him, Take ten men of your servants and an ox seven years old, and after pulling down the altar of Baal which is your father's, and cutting down the holy tree by its side, (BBE)
Judges 6:26 Make an altar to the Lord your God on the top of this rock, in the ordered way and take the ox and make a burned offering with the wood of the holy tree which has been cut down. (BBE)
Judges 6:28 And the men of the town got up early in the morning, and they saw the altar of Baal broken down, and the holy tree which was by it cut down, and the ox offered on the altar which had been put up there. (BBE)