|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The common Hebrew word for wine is yayin, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is oinos_, and the Latin _vinun. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered.
(1.) Ashishah (2 Samuel 6:19; 1 Chronicles 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hosea 3:1), which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes, or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins.
(2.) `Asis, "sweet wine," or "new wine," the product of the same year (Cant. 8:2; Isaiah 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a root meaning "to tread," hence juice trodden out or pressed out, thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it.
(3.) Hometz. See VINEGAR.
(4.) Hemer, Deuteronomy 32:14 (rendered "blood of the grape") Isaiah 27:2 ("red wine"), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word conveys the idea of "foaming," as in the process of fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root hamar, meaning "to boil up," and also "to be red," from the idea of boiling or becoming inflamed.
(5.) `Enabh, a grape (Deuteronomy 32:14). The last clause of this verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, "and of the blood of the grape [`enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer]." In Hosea 3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, "flagons of wine," is in the Revised Version correctly "cakes of raisins." (Comp. Genesis 49:11; Numbers 6:3; Deuteronomy 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is rendered in the plural "grapes.")
(6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices that increase its stimulating properties (Isaiah 5:22). Psalm 75:8, "The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh];" Proverbs 23:30, "mixed wine;Isaiah 65:11, "drink offering" (R.V., "mingled wine").
(7.) Tirosh, properly "must," translated "wine" (Deuteronomy 28:51); "new wine" (Proverbs 3:10); "sweet wine" (Micah 6:15; R.V., "vintage"). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning "to take possession of" and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Genesis 27:28) mention is made of "plenty of corn and tirosh." Palestine is called "a land of corn and tirosh" (Deuteronomy 33:28; Comp. Isaiah 36:17). See also Deuteronomy 28:51; 2 Chronicles 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hosea 4:11, ("wine [yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart").
(8.) Sobhe (root meaning "to drink to excess, " "to suck up, " "absorb"), found only in Isaiah 1:22, Hosea 4:18 ("their drink;" Gesen. and marg. of R.V., "their carouse"), and Nahum 1:10 ("drunken as drunkards;" lit., "soaked according to their drink;" R.V., "drenched, as it were, in their drink", i.e., according to their sobhe).
(9.) Shekar, "strong drink," any intoxicating liquor; from a root meaning "to drink deeply," "to be drunken", a generic term applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Numbers 28:7, "strong wine" (R.V., "strong drink"). It is sometimes distinguished from wine, c.g., Leviticus 10:9, "Do not drink wine [yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];" Numbers 6:3; Judges 13:4, 7; Isaiah 28:7 (in all these places rendered "strong drink"). Translated "strong drink" also in Isaiah 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12; Proverbs 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11.
(10.) Yekebh (Deuteronomy 16:13, but in R.V. correctly "wine-press"), a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24, "their vats;3:13, "the fats;" Proverbs 3:10, "Thy presses shall burst out with new wine [tirosh];" Haggai 2:16; Jeremiah 48:33, "wine-presses;" 2 Kings 6:27; Job 24:11.
(11.) Shemarim (only in plural), "lees" or "dregs" of wine. In Isaiah 25:6 it is rendered "wines on the lees", i.e., wine that has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine.
(12.) Mesek, "a mixture," mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength, or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Psalm 75:8; Proverbs 23:30).
In Acts 2:13 the word gleukos, rendered "new wine," denotes properly "sweet wine." It must have been intoxicating.
In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they called debash, which was obtained by boiling down must to one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Genesis 43:11 this word is rendered "honey." It was a kind of syrup, and is called by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the phrase "a land flowing with milk and honey" (debash), Exodus 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Leviticus 20:24; Numbers 13: 27. (see HONEY.)
Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jeremiah 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow (Numbers 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were perpetually to abstain from it (Judges 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33). The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Leviticus 10:1, 9-11). "Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a drunken person, in fact, is never seen", (Geikie's Life of Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible.
A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice (Exodus 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits (Leviticus 23:13), and with various other sacrifices (Numbers 15:5, 7, 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when the Lord's Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood.
Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Romans 13:13; Ephesians 5:18; 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) The expressed juice of grapes, esp. when fermented; a beverage or liquor prepared from grapes by squeezing out their juice, and (usually) allowing it to ferment.
2. (n.) A liquor or beverage prepared from the juice of any fruit or plant by a process similar to that for grape wine; as, currant wine; gooseberry wine; palm wine.
3. (n.) The effect of drinking wine in excess; intoxication.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
WINE; WINE PRESS
(1) (yayin), apparently from a non-Tsere root allied to Greek oinos, Latin vinum, etc. This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 times in Massoretic Text.
(2) chemer, perhaps "foaming" (Deuteronomy 32:14 and Massoretic Text Isaiah 27:2 (but see the English Revised Version margin)); Aramaic chamar (Ezra 6:9; Ezra 7:22 Daniel 5:1, 2, 4, 23).
(3) tirosh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also mishreh, Numbers 6:3), even when still in the grape (Isaiah 65:8). But unfermented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and not over-cleanly conditions of ancient Palestine was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties (Judges 9:13 Hosea 4:11; compare Acts 11:13)) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Deuteronomy 12:17; Deuteronomy 18:4, etc.). The Septuagint always (except Isaiah 65:8 Hosea 4:11) translates by oinos and the Targums by chamar. the King James Version has "wine" 26 times, "new wine" 11 times, "sweet wine" in Micah 6:15; the Revised Version (British and American) "vintage" in Numbers 18:12 Micah 6:15 (with the same change in Nehemiah 10:37, 39 the Revised Version margin; Isaiah 62:8 the English Revised Version margin). Otherwise the English Revised Version has left the King James Version unchanged, while the American Standard Revised Version uses "new wine" throughout.
(4) Two apparently poetic words are `acic (the Revised Version (British and American) "sweet wine," Isaiah 49:26 Amos 9:13 Joel 1:5; Joel 3:18, "juice"; Songs 8:2), and cobhe' ("wine," Isaiah 1:22; "drink," Hosea 4:18 (margin "carouse"); Nahum 1:10).
(5) For spiced wine three words occur: mecekh, Psalm 75:8 (English Versions of the Bible "mixture"); mimcakh, Proverbs 23:30 ("mixed wine"); Isaiah 65:11 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); mezegh, Songs 7:2 (the Revised Version (British and American) "mingled wine"); compare also yayin hareqach, Songs 8:2 ("spiced wine").
(6) mamethaqqim, literally, "sweet," Nehemiah 8:10.
(7) shekhar (22 times), translated "strong drink" in English Versions of the Bible. Shekhar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any sort and in Numbers 28:7 is certainly simply "wine" (compare also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isaiah 5:11, 22, etc.). In certain passages (Leviticus 10:9 Numbers 6:3 1 Samuel 1:15, etc.), however, it is distinguished from "wine," and the meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Songs 8:2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc.) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Palestine also. The translation "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor," "brandy," which is hardly in point.
See DRINK, STRONG.
(8) In the Apocrypha and New Testament "wine" represents oinos, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2:13, where the Greek is gleukos, "sweet," English Versions of the Bible "new wine."
See also BLOOD; DRINK; FLAGON; FRUIT; HONEY.
2. Wine Press:
(1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was called gath (Judges 6:11, etc.), and the receiving vat ("fat") yeqebh (Numbers 18:27, etc.), but the names were interchangeable to some degree (Isaiah 16:10 Job 24:11; compare Isaiah 5:2, the Revised Version (British and American) text and margin) and either could be used for the whole apparatus (see GATH and compare Judges 7:25 Zechariah 14:10). In Isaiah 63:3 the Hebrew has purah, "wine trough" a word found also in Haggai 2:16 where it seems to be a gloss (so, apparently, the American Standard Revised Version).
(2) In the Apocrypha (Sirach 33:16) and in the New Testament 21:33; Revelation 14:19, 20 (twice); 19:15) "winepress" is lenos; in Mark 12:1 hupolenion, by which only the receiving vat seems to be meant (the Revised Version (British and American) a pit for a winepress").
1. The Vintage:
For the care of the vine, its distribution, different varieties, etc., see VINE. The ripening of the grapes took place as early as June in the Jordan valley, but on the coast not until August, while in the hills it was delayed until September. In whatever month, however, the coming of the vintage was the signal for the villagers to leave their homes in a body and to encamp in booths erected in the vineyards, so that the work might be carried on without interruption. See TABERNACLES, FEAST OF. It was the great holiday season of the year and the joy of the vintage was proverbial (Isaiah 16:10 Jeremiah 25:30; Jeremiah 48:33; compare Judges 9:27), and fragments of vintage songs seem to be preserved in Isaiah 27:2; Isaiah 65:8. The grapes were gathered usually by cutting off the clusters (see SICKLE), and were carried to the press in baskets.
2. Wine Presses:
Many of the ancient wine presses remain to the present day. Ordinarily they consisted of two rectangular or circular excavations, hewn (Isaiah 5:2) in the solid rock to a depth of 2 or 3 feet. Where possible one was always higher than the other and they were connected by a pipe or channel. Their size, of course, varied greatly, but the upper vat was always wider and shallower than the lower and was the press proper, into which the grapes were thrown, to be crushed by the feet of the treaders (Isaiah 63:1-3, etc.). The juice flowed down through the pipe into the lower vat, from which it was removed into jars (Haggai 2:16) or where it was allowed to remain during the first fermentation.
Many modifications of this form of the press are found. Where there was no rock close to the surface, the vats were dug in the earth and lined with stonework or cement, covered with pitch. Or the pressvat might be built up out of any material (wood was much used in Egypt), and from it the juice could be conducted into a sunken receptacle or into jars. Not infrequently a third (rarely a fourth) vat might be added between the other two, in which a partial settling and straining could take place. Wooden beams are often used either to finish the pressing or to perform the whole operation, and holes into which the ends of these beams fitted can still be seen. A square of wood attached to the beam bore down on the pile of grapes, while the free end of the beam was heavily weighted. In the simpler presses the final result was obtained by piling stones on the mass that remained after the treaders had finished their work.
It is a general principle of wine-making (compare that "the less the pressure the better the product"; therefore the liquid that flowed at the beginning of the process, especially that produced by the mere weight of the grapes themselves when piled in heaps, was carefully kept separate from that which was obtained only under heavy pressure. A still lower grade was made by adding water to the final refuse the mixture to ferment. Possibly this last concoction is sometimes meant by the word "vinegar" (chomets).
In the climate of Palestine fermentation begins almost immediately, frequently on the same day for juice pressed out in the morning, but never later than the next day. At first a slight foam appears on the surface of the liquid, and from that moment, according to Jewish tradition, it is liable to the wine-tithe (Ma`aseroth 1 7). The action rapidly becomes more violent, and while it is in progress the liquid must be kept in jars or in a vat, for it would burst even the newest and strongest of wine-skins (Job 32:19). Within about a week this violent fermentation subsides, and the wine is transferred to other jars or strong wine-skins (Mark 2:22 and parallel's), in which it undergoes the secondary fermentation. At the bottom of the receptacles collects the heavier matter or "lees" (shemarim, Psalm 75:8 ("dregs"); Jeremiah 48:11; Zechariah 1:12 in Isaiah 25:6 the word is used for the wine as well), from which the "wines on the lees" gather strength and flavor.
At the end of 40 days it was regarded as properly "wine" and could be offered as a drink offering (`Edhuyyoth 6 1). The practice after this point seems to have varied, no doubt depending on the sort of wine that was being made. Certain kinds were left undisturbed to age "on their lees" and were thought to be all the better for so doing, but before they were used it was necessary to strain them very carefully. So Isaiah 25:6, `A feast of wine aged on the lees, thoroughly strained.' But usually leaving the wine in the fermentation vessels interfered with its improvement or caused it to degenerate. So at the end of 40 days it was drawn off into other jars (for storage, 1 Chronicles 27:27, etc.) or wine-skins (for transportation, Joshua 9:4, etc.). So Jeremiah 48:11: `Moab has been undisturbed from his youth, and he has rested on his lees and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel..... Therefore his flavor remains unchanged (or "becomes insipid") and his scent is unimproved (or "lacks freshness")'; compare Zechariah 1:12.
Jars were tightly sealed with caps covered with pitch. The very close sealing needed to preserve sparkling wines, however, was unknown to the Hebrews, and in consequence (and for other reasons) such wines were not used. Hence, in Psalm 75:8, "The wine foameth," the allusion must be to very new wine whose fermentation had not yet subsided, if indeed, the translation is not wrong (the Revised Version margin "The wine is red"). The superiority of old wine to new was acknowledged by the Hebrews, in common with the rest of the world (Sirach 9:10; Luke 5:39), but in the wines of Palestine acetous fermentation, changing the wine into vinegar, was likely to occur at any time. Three years was about the longest time for which such wines could be kept, and "old wine" meant only wines that had been, stored for a year or more (Bab. Bath. 6 3).
See also CRAFTS, II, 19.
III. Use of Wine.
1. Mixed Wine:
In Old Testament times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought to be ruined (Isaiah 1:22). The "mixed" or "mingled wines" (see I, 1, (5), above) were prepared with aromatic herbs of various sorts and some of these compounds, used throughout the ancient world, were highly intoxicating (Isaiah 5:22). Wine mixed with myrrh was stupefying and an anesthetic (Mark 15:23). At a later period, however, the Greek use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Maccabees speaks (15:39) of undiluted wine as "distasteful" (polemion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mishna can take it for granted and, indeed, R. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Berakhoth 7 5). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Niddah 2 7; Pesachim 108b).
The wine of the Last Supper, accordingly, may be described in modern terms as a sweet, red, fermented wine, rather highly diluted. As it was no doubt the ordinary wine of commerce, there is no reason to suppose that it was particularly "pure."
Throughout the Old Testament, wine is regarded as a necessity of life and in no way as a mere luxury. It was a necessary part of even the simplest meal (Genesis 14:18 Judges 19:19 1 Samuel 16:20 Isaiah 55:1, etc.), was an indispensable provision for a fortress (2 Chronicles 11:11), and was drunk by all classes and all ages, even by the very young (Lamentations 2:12 Zechariah 9:17). "Wine" is bracketed with "grain" as a basic staple (Genesis 27:28, etc.), and the failure of the winecrop or its destruction by foreigners was a terrible calamity (Deuteronomy 28:30, 39 Isaiah 62:8; Isaiah 65:21 Micah 6:15 Zephaniah 1:13, etc.). On the other hand, abundance of wine was a special token of God's blessing (Genesis 27:28 Deuteronomy 7:13 Amos 9:14, etc.), and extraordinary abundance would be a token of the Messianic age (Amos 9:13 Joel 3:18 Zechariah 9:17). A moderate "gladdening of the heart" through wine was not looked upon as at all reprehensible (2 Samuel 13:28 Esther 1:10 Psalm 104:15 Ecclesiastes 9:7; Ecclesiastes 10:19 Zechariah 9:15; Zechariah 10:7), and while Judges 9:13 represented a mere verbal remnant of a long-obsolete concept, yet the idea contained in the verse was not thought shocking. "Drink offerings," indeed, were of course a part of the prescribed ritual (Leviticus 23:13, etc.; see SACRIFICE), and a store of wine was kept in the temple (tabernacle) to insure their performance (1 Chronicles 9:29). Even in later and much more moderate times, Sirach writes the laudation of wine in 31:27, and the writer of 2 Maccabees (see above) objects as strongly to pure water as he does to pure wine. Christ adapted Himself to Jewish customs (Matthew 11:19 parallel Luke 7:34 Luke 22:18), and exegetes usually suppose that the celebrated verse 1 Timothy 5:23 is meant as a safeguard against ascetic (Gnostic?) dualism, as well as to give medical advice.
On the temporal conditioning of the Biblical customs, the uncompromising opposition of the Bible to excess, and the non-applicability of the ancient attitude to the totally different modern conditions, see DRUNKENNESS.
The figurative uses of wine are very numerous, but are for the most part fairly obvious. Those offering difficulty have been discussed in the course of the article. For wine in its commercial aspect see TRADE.
Burton Scott Easton
WINEFAT; WINE PRESS; WINEVAT
win'-fat, win'-pres, win'-vat.
See CRAFTS, II, 19; VINE; WINE.
Wine (282 Occurrences)
Matthew 9:17 Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 11:19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children. (Root in KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Matthew 24:49 And is cruel to the other servants, taking his pleasure with those who are overcome with wine; (BBE)
Matthew 26:29 I tell you that I will never again take the produce of the vine till that day when I shall drink the new wine with you in my Father's Kingdom." (WEY)
Matthew 27:34 They gave him sour wine to drink mixed with gall. When he had tasted it, he would not drink. (WEB WEY ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 27:48 One of them ran forthwith, and filling a sponge with sour wine put it on the end of a cane and offered it Him to drink; (WEY BBE NAS NIV)
Mark 2:22 No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:1 He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:25 I solemnly tell you that never again will I taste the produce of the vine till I shall drink the new wine in the Kingdom of God." (WEY)
Mark 15:23 They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he didn't take it. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 15:36 Then a man ran to fill a sponge with sour wine, and he put it on the end of a cane and placed it to His lips, saying at the same time, "Wait! let us see whether Elijah will come and take him down." (WEY BBE NAS NIV)
Luke 1:15 For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 5:37 No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 5:38 But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 5:39 No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says,'The old is better.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:33 For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say,'He has a demon.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:34 The Son of man is come eating and drinking; and ye say, Behold a gluttonous man, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners! (Root in KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Luke 10:34 came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:19 And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have a great amount of goods in store, enough for a number of years; be at rest, take food and wine and be happy. (BBE)
Luke 12:45 But if that servant says to himself, My lord is a long time coming; and goes about giving blows to the men-servants and the women-servants, feasting and taking overmuch wine; (BBE)
Luke 21:34 But give attention to yourselves, for fear that your hearts become over-full of the pleasures of food and wine, and the cares of this life, and that day may come on you suddenly, and take you as in a net: (BBE)
Luke 23:36 And the soldiers also made sport of Him, coming and offering Him sour wine and saying, (WEY BBE NAS NIV)
John 2:3 When the wine ran out, Jesus' mother said to him, "They have no wine." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 2:9 When the ruler of the feast tasted the water now become wine, and didn't know where it came from (but the servants who had drawn the water knew), the ruler of the feast called the bridegroom, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 2:10 and said to him, "Everyone serves the good wine first, and when the guests have drunk freely, then that which is worse. You have kept the good wine until now!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:46 Jesus came therefore again to Cana of Galilee, where he made the water into wine. There was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 19:29 There was a jar of wine standing there. With this wine they filled a sponge, put it on the end of a stalk of hyssop, and lifted it to His mouth. (WEY BBE NAS NIV)
John 19:30 As soon as Jesus had taken the wine, He said, "It is finished." And then, bowing His head, He yielded up His spirit. (WEY BBE NAS)
Acts 2:13 Others, mocking, said, "They are filled with new wine." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:15 For these men are not overcome with wine, as it seems to you, for it is only the third hour of the day; (BBE DBY)
Romans 14:21 It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ephesians 5:18 Don't be drunken with wine, in which is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 3:3 Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; (KJV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
1 Timothy 3:8 Servants, in the same way, must be reverent, not double-tongued, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for money; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 5:23 Be no longer a drinker of water only, but use a little wine for your stomach's sake and your frequent infirmities. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Titus 1:7 For the overseer must be blameless, as God's steward; not self-pleasing, not easily angered, not given to wine, not violent, not greedy for dishonest gain; (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Titus 2:3 and that older women likewise be reverent in behavior, not slanderers nor enslaved to much wine, teachers of that which is good; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Peter 4:3 For the time past of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries: (KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Revelation 6:6 I heard a voice in the midst of the four living creatures saying, "A choenix of wheat for a denarius, and three choenix of barley for a denarius! Don't damage the oil and the wine!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:8 Another, a second angel, followed, saying, "Babylon the great has fallen, which has made all the nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:10 he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:19 The angel thrust his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vintage of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:20 The winepress was trodden outside of the city, and blood came out from the winepress, even to the bridles of the horses, as far as one thousand six hundred stadia. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:19 The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. Babylon the great was remembered in the sight of God, to give to her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Revelation 17:2 with whom the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:6 And I saw the woman overcome as with the wine of the blood of the saints, and the blood of those put to death because of Jesus. And when I saw her, I was overcome with a great wonder. (BBE)
Revelation 18:3 For all the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her sexual immorality, the kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:13 and cinnamon, incense, perfume, frankincense, wine, olive oil, fine flour, wheat, sheep, horses, chariots, and people's bodies and souls. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:15 Out of his mouth proceeds a sharp, double-edged sword, that with it he should strike the nations. He will rule them with an iron rod. He treads the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath of God, the Almighty. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:21 He drank of the wine and got drunk. He was uncovered within his tent. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:24 Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his youngest son had done to him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine: and he was priest of God Most High. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:32 Come, let's make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve our father's seed." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:33 They made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father. He didn't know when she lay down, nor when she arose. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:34 It came to pass on the next day, that the firstborn said to the younger, "Behold, I lay last night with my father. Let us make him drink wine again, tonight. You go in, and lie with him, that we may preserve our father's seed." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:35 They made their father drink wine that night also. The younger went and lay with him. He didn't know when she lay down, nor when she got up. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:25 He said, "Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son's venison, that my soul may bless you." He brought it near to him, and he ate. He brought him wine, and he drank. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:28 God give you of the dew of the sky, of the fatness of the earth, and plenty of grain and new wine. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 27:37 Isaac answered Esau, "Behold, I have made him your lord, and all his brothers have I given to him for servants. With grain and new wine have I sustained him. What then will I do for you, my son?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 40:1 Now after these things the chief servant who had the care of the wine, and the chief bread-maker in Pharaoh's house, did something against Pharaoh's orders; (BBE)
Genesis 43:34 And Joseph sent food to them from his table, but he sent five times as much to Benjamin as to any of the others. And they took wine freely with him. (BBE)
Genesis 44:5 Is not this the cup from which my lord takes wine and by which he gets knowledge of the future? Truly, you have done evil. (BBE)
Genesis 49:11 Binding his foal to the vine, his donkey's colt to the choice vine; he has washed his garments in wine, his robes in the blood of grapes. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 49:12 His eyes will be red with wine, his teeth white with milk. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 29:40 and with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink offering. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 10:9 "Drink no wine nor strong drink, you, nor your sons with you, when you go into the Tent of Meeting, that you don't die: it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 23:13 The meal offering with it shall be two tenth parts of an ephah of fine flour mingled with oil, an offering made by fire to Yahweh for a pleasant aroma; and the drink offering with it shall be of wine, the fourth part of a hin. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 6:3 he shall separate himself from wine and strong drink. He shall drink no vinegar of wine, or vinegar of fermented drink, neither shall he drink any juice of grapes, nor eat fresh grapes or dried. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 6:20 and the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before Yahweh. This is holy for the priest, together with the breast that is waved and the thigh that is offered. After that the Nazirite may drink wine. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 15:5 and wine for the drink offering, the fourth part of a hin, you shall prepare with the burnt offering, or for the sacrifice, for each lamb. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 15:7 and for the drink offering you shall offer the third part of a hin of wine, of a pleasant aroma to Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 15:10 and you shall offer for the drink offering half a hin of wine, for an offering made by fire, of a pleasant aroma to Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 18:12 All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the wheat, the firstfruits of them which they shall offer unto the LORD, them have I given thee. (KJV JPS BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 18:27 Your wave offering shall be reckoned to you, as though it were the grain of the threshing floor, and as the fullness of the winepress. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 18:30 "Therefore you shall tell them,'When you heave its best from it, then it shall be reckoned to the Levites as the increase of the threshing floor, and as the increase of the winepress. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Numbers 28:7 And the drink offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an hin for the one lamb: in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong wine to be poured unto the LORD for a drink offering. (KJV BBE WBS)
Numbers 28:14 Their drink offerings shall be half a hin of wine for a bull, and the third part of a hin for the ram, and the fourth part of a hin for a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 7:13 and he will love you, and bless you, and multiply you; he will also bless the fruit of your body and the fruit of your ground, your grain and your new wine and your oil, the increase of your livestock and the young of your flock, in the land which he swore to your fathers to give you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 11:14 that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that you may gather in your grain, and your new wine, and your oil. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 12:17 You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain, or of your new wine, or of your oil, or the firstborn of your herd or of your flock, nor any of your vows which you vow, nor your freewill offerings, nor the wave offering of your hand; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 14:23 You shall eat before Yahweh your God, in the place which he shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there, the tithe of your grain, of your new wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herd and of your flock; that you may learn to fear Yahweh your God always. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 14:26 and you shall bestow the money for whatever your soul desires, for cattle, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatever your soul asks of you; and you shall eat there before Yahweh your God, and you shall rejoice, you and your household. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 15:14 you shall furnish him liberally out of your flock, and out of your threshing floor, and out of your winepress; as Yahweh your God has blessed you, you shall give to him. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 16:13 You shall keep the feast of tents seven days, after that you have gathered in from your threshing floor and from your winepress: (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 18:4 The first fruits of your grain, of your new wine, and of your oil, and the first of the fleece of your sheep, you shall give him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 28:39 You shall plant vineyards and dress them, but you shall neither drink of the wine, nor gather the grapes; for the worm shall eat them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 28:51 and shall eat the fruit of your livestock, and the fruit of your ground, until you are destroyed; that also shall not leave you grain, new wine, or oil, the increase of your livestock, or the young of your flock, until they have caused you to perish. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 29:6 You have not eaten bread, neither have you drunk wine or strong drink; that you may know that I am Yahweh your God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 32:14 Butter of the herd, and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs, rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats, with the finest of the wheat. Of the blood of the grape you drank wine. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY YLT NAS RSV)
Deuteronomy 32:33 Their wine is the poison of serpents, The cruel venom of asps. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 32:38 Which ate the fat of their sacrifices, And drank the wine of their drink offering? Let them rise up and help you! Let them be your protection. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 33:28 Israel dwells in safety; the fountain of Jacob alone, In a land of grain and new wine. Yes, his heavens drop down dew. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 9:4 they also resorted to a ruse, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks on their donkeys, and wineskins, old and torn and bound up, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 9:13 These wineskins, which we filled, were new; and behold, they are torn. These our garments and our shoes have become old because of the very long journey." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 6:11 The angel of Yahweh came, and sat under the oak which was in Ophrah, that pertained to Joash the Abiezrite: and his son Gideon was beating out wheat in the winepress, to hide it from the Midianites. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 7:25 They took the two princes of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb; and they killed Oreb at the rock of Oreb, and Zeeb they killed at the winepress of Zeeb, and pursued Midian: and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon beyond the Jordan. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 9:13 "The vine said to them,'Should I leave my new wine, which cheers God and man, and go to wave back and forth over the trees?' (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 13:4 Now therefore please beware and drink no wine nor strong drink, and don't eat any unclean thing: (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 13:7 but he said to me,'Behold, you shall conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, and eat not any unclean thing; for the child shall be a Nazirite to God from the womb to the day of his death.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 13:14 She may not eat of anything that comes of the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing; all that I commanded her let her observe." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)