|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Denotes the whole creation in Romans 8:39; Colossians 1:15; Revelation 5:13; the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Romans 8:19-22.
The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, 17, are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) Anything created; anything not self-existent; especially, any being created with life; an animal; a man.
2. (n.) A human being, in pity, contempt, or endearment; as, a poor creature; a pretty creature.
3. (n.) A person who owes his rise and fortune to another; a servile dependent; an instrument; a tool.
4. (n.) A general term among farmers for horses, oxen, etc.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kre'-tur: The word "creature," as it occurs in the New Testament, is the translation and also the exact English equivalent of the Greek ktisis, or ktisma, from ktizo, "to create." In the Old Testament, on the other hand, it stands for words which have in the original no reference to creation, but which come from other roots. Nephesh, "living creature" (literally, "a breathing thing"), occurs in the accounts of the Creation and the Flood and at the close of the lists of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11:46. Chay, "living creature" (literally, "a living thing"), occurs 13 times in Ezekiel 1; 3 and 10 (see CREATURE, LIVING). Sherets, "moving creature" (literally, "a swarming thing," generally rendered "creeping thing," which see), occurs once in Genesis 1:20. 'Ochim, "doleful creatures," occurs once only in Isaiah 13:21. It appears to be an onomatopoetic word referring to the mournful sounds emitted by the animals in question. From the context it is fair to suppose that owls may be the animals referred to.
See OWL; CREATION.
Alfred Ely Day
(chayyah; zoon): "Living creature" (chayyah) is the designation of each of the composite figures in Ezekiel's visions (Ezekiel 1:5, 13; Ezekiel 3:13; Ezekiel 10:15, 17, 20) and, the Revised Version (British and American), of the similar beings in the visions of the Apocalypse, instead of the extremely unfortunate translation of zoon in the King James Version by "beasts" (Revelation 4:6; Revelation 5:6; 6:1; 7:11; 14:03; 15:07; 19:4), which, however, went back to Wycliff, in whose time the word had not the low meaning which "beast," "beastly" have with us; hence, he translates 1 Corinthians 15:44, "It is sowen beestli body," meaning simply animal (see Trench's Select Glossary); in Re "the beasts of the earth," the "beasts" that came up, the notable "beast" that men worshipped, represent the Greek therion, "a wild beast."
The "living creatures" in Ezekiel's vision (Ezekiel 1:5) were four in number, "with the general appearance of a man, but each with four faces and four wings, and straight legs with the feet of an ox. Under their wings are human hands, and these wings are so joined that they never require to turn. The front face is that of a man; right and left of this are the faces of a lion and (of) an ox, and behind, that of an eagle. out of the midst of them gleam fire, torches, lightnings, and connected with them are four wheels that can turn in every direction, called whirling wheels (Ezekiel 10:12, 13). Like the creatures, these are alive, covered with eyes, the sign of intelligence; the spirit of the living creatures is in them. They are afterward discovered by the prophet to be cherubim" (Schultz, Old Testament Theology, II, 233). See CHERUBIM. In Ezekiel's vision they seem to be the bearers of the throne and glory of God; the bearers of His presence and of His revelation (Ezekiel 9:3; Ezekiel 10:3). They also sound forth His praise (Ezekiel 3:12; Ezekiel 10:2). (See Schultz as above.)
The four living creatures in Revelation 4:6 are not under the throne but "in the midst of the throne" (the American Revised Version, margin "before"; see Revelation 7:17; compare Revelation 5:6) and "round about the throne." They are also cherubim, and seem to represent the four beings that stand at the head of the four divisions of the creation; among the untamed animals the lion; among cattle the calf or ox; among birds the eagle; among all created beings the man. It gives "a perfect picture of true service, which should be as brave as the lion, patient as the ox, aspiring as the eagle, intelligent as man" (Milligan in the place cited.). They represent the powers of Nature-of the creation, "full of eyes" as denoting its permeation with the Divine Reason, the wings signifying its constant, ready service, and the unceasing praise the constant doing of God's will. The imagery is founded on Ezekiel as that had been modified in apocalyptic writings and as it was exalted in the mind of the Seer of Patmos.
W. L. Walker
(1) (nephesh chayyah, or nephesh hachayyah (nephesh, "breath" or "living things"; chayyah, "living"; compare Arabic nefs, "breath," chaiy, "living")): In the account of the creation this term is used of aquatic animals (Genesis 1:21), of mammals (Genesis 1:24) and of any animals whatsoever (Genesis 2:19).
(2) ([chayyoth], plural of chayyah): The name of the "living creatures" of Ezekiel 1:5-25, which had wings and the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle; compare Ezekiel 10:1-22.
(3) (zoon, "living thing," "animal"): The four "living creatures" (the King James Version "beasts") of Revelation 4:6, etc., the first like a lion, the second like a calf, the third having a face as of a man, and the fourth like an eagle, having each six wings.
See CREATURE, LIVING.
Alfred Ely Day
Creature (73 Occurrences)
Mark 16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. (KJV WBS)
Acts 28:4 When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, they said one to another, "No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he has escaped from the sea, yet Justice has not allowed to live." (WEB WEY ASV NAS RSV)
Acts 28:5 However he shook off the creature into the fire, and wasn't harmed. (WEB ASV NAS RSV)
Romans 1:25 who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Romans 8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God. (KJV DBY WBS)
Romans 8:20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope, (KJV DBY WBS)
Romans 8:21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. (KJV DBY WBS)
Romans 8:39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. (KJV ASV DBY WBS)
1 Corinthians 14:10 There are, we will suppose, a great number of languages in the world, and no creature is without a language. (WEY)
1 Corinthians 15:45 so also it hath been written, 'The first man Adam became a living creature,' the last Adam 'is' for a life-giving spirit, (YLT)
2 Corinthians 5:17 Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. (KJV WEY ASV WBS YLT NAS)
Galatians 6:15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature. (KJV ASV WBS)
Colossians 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature: (KJV WBS)
Colossians 1:23 If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel, which ye have heard, and which was preached to every creature which is under heaven; whereof I Paul am made a minister; (KJV WBS RSV NIV)
1 Timothy 4:4 For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS YLT)
Hebrews 2:6 But, as we know, a writer has solemnly said, "How poor a creature is man, and yet Thou dost remember him, and a son of man, and yet Thou dost come to him! (WEY)
Hebrews 4:13 There is no creature that is hidden from his sight, but all things are naked and laid open before the eyes of him with whom we have to do. (WEB KJV ASV DBY WBS NAS RSV)
James 3:7 For every nature, both of beasts and of fowls, both of creeping things and things of the sea, is subdued, and hath been subdued, by the human nature, (See NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 3:17 You say, I am rich, and have wealth stored up, and I stand in need of nothing; and you do not know that if there is a wretched creature it is *you* -- pitiable, poor, blind, naked. (WEY)
Revelation 4:7 The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. (WEB WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 5:13 And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. (KJV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:3 When he opened the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, "Come!" (WEB WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:5 When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come and see!" And behold, a black horse, and he who sat on it had a balance in his hand. (WEB WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:7 When he opened the fourth seal, I heard the fourth living creature saying, "Come and see!" (WEB WEY ASV DBY YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:3 The second angel poured his bowl into the sea, and it became blood, like a dead man's blood, and every living creature in the sea died. (WEY)
Genesis 1:20 God said, "Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of sky." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:21 God created the large sea creatures, and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed, after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind. God saw that it was good. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:24 God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind, livestock, creeping things, and animals of the earth after their kind;" and it was so. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 1:28 And God blessed them; and God said unto them: 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.' (See NIV)
Genesis 2:7 And Jehovah God formeth the man -- dust from the ground, and breatheth into his nostrils breath of life, and the man becometh a living creature. (YLT)
Genesis 2:19 Out of the ground Yahweh God formed every animal of the field, and every bird of the sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 3:1 Now the serpent was more subtle than any animal of the field which Yahweh God had made. He said to the woman, "Has God really said,'You shall not eat of any tree of the garden?'" (See RSV)
Genesis 6:17 I, even I, do bring the flood of waters on this earth, to destroy all flesh having the breath of life from under the sky. Everything that is in the earth will die. (See NIV)
Genesis 6:20 Of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. (See NIV)
Genesis 7:4 In seven days, I will cause it to rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights. Every living thing that I have made, I will destroy from the surface of the ground." (See NIV)
Genesis 7:14 they, and every living creature after its kind, and every beast after its kind, and every creeping thing that is creeping on the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird -- every wing. (YLT NIV)
Genesis 8:17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee of all flesh, both fowl, and cattle, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth; that they may swarm in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.' (See NIV)
Genesis 8:21 Yahweh smelled the pleasant aroma. Yahweh said in his heart, "I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake, because the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again strike everything living, as I have done. (See RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:2 and your fear and your dread is on every beast of the earth, and on every fowl of the heavens, on all that creepeth on the ground, and on all fishes of the sea -- into your hand they have been given. (See NIV)
Genesis 9:10 and with every living creature that is with you: the birds, the livestock, and every animal of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ship, even every animal of the earth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:12 God said, "This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:15 and I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh, and the waters will no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 9:16 The rainbow will be in the cloud. I will look at it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth." (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 5:2 Or when a person cometh against any thing unclean, or against a carcase of an unclean beast, or against a carcase of unclean cattle, or against a carcase of an unclean teeming creature, and it hath been hidden from him, and he unclean, and guilty; (YLT NIV)
Leviticus 7:21 And when a person cometh against any thing unclean, of the uncleanness of man, or of the uncleanness of beasts, or of any unclean teeming creature, and hath eaten of the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace-offerings which 'are' Jehovah's, even that person hath been cut off from his people.' (YLT)
Leviticus 11:10 All that don't have fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are an abomination to you, (Root in WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 11:20 Every teeming creature which is flying, which is going on four -- an abomination it 'is' to you. (YLT)
Leviticus 11:41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten. (See NIV)
Leviticus 11:42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination. (See NIV)
Leviticus 11:44 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. (See NIV)
Leviticus 11:46 "'This is the law of the animal, and of the bird, and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth, (WEB KJV JPS ASV WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Leviticus 11:47 to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.'" (See NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 17:14 For as to the life of all flesh, its blood is with its life: therefore I said to the children of Israel, "You shall not eat the blood of any kind of flesh; for the life of all flesh is its blood. Whoever eats it shall be cut off." (See RSV NIV)
Deuteronomy 14:20 Of all clean birds you may eat. (See NIV)
Job 41:33 On earth there is not his equal, that is made without fear. (See RSV NIV)
Psalms 136:25 Who gives food to every creature; for his loving kindness endures forever. (WEB NIV)
Psalms 145:16 Thou openest thy hand, and satisfiest the desire of every living creature. (WBS)
Psalms 145:21 My mouth will give praise to the Lord; let all flesh be blessing his holy name for ever and ever. (See NIV)
Ecclesiastes 10:20 Say not a curse against the king, even in your thoughts; and even secretly say not a curse against the man of wealth; because a bird of the air will take the voice, and that which has wings will give news of it. (See NAS RSV)
Isaiah 34:14 The wild animals of the desert will meet with the wolves, and the wild goat will cry to his fellow. Yes, the night creature shall settle there, and shall find herself a place of rest. (WEB NAS NIV)
Isaiah 47:8 So now take note of this, you who are given up to pleasure, living without fear of evil, saying in your heart, I am, and there is no one like me; I will never be a widow, or have my children taken from me. (See NIV)
Ezekiel 1:11 Their faces and their wings were separate above; two wings of each one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies. (See RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:15 Now as I saw the living creatures, behold, one wheel on the earth beside the living creatures, for each of the four faces of it. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:20 Wherever the spirit was to go, they went; there was the spirit to go: and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:21 When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up beside them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:22 Over the head of the living creature there was the likeness of an expanse, like the awesome crystal to look on, stretched forth over their heads above. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 1:23 Under the expanse were their wings straight, the one toward the other: each one had two which covered on this side, and every one had two which covered on that side, their bodies. (See RSV)
Ezekiel 10:15 The cherubim mounted up: this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 10:17 When they stood, these stood; and when they mounted up, these mounted up with them: for the spirit of the living creature was in them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 10:20 This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar; and I knew that they were cherubim. (WEB KJV JPS ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 38:20 And rushed from My presence have fishes of the sea, And the fowl of the heavens, And the beast of the field, And every creeping thing that is creeping on the ground, And all men who 'are' on the face of the ground, And thrown down have been the mountains, And fallen have the ascents, And every wall to the earth falleth. (See NIV)
Ezekiel 47:9 It shall happen, that every living creature which swarms, in every place where the rivers come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come there, and the waters of the sea shall be healed, and everything shall live wherever the river comes. (WEB JPS ASV YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 4:12 The leaves of it were beautiful, and its fruit much, and in it was food for all: the animals of the field had shadow under it, and the birds of the sky lived in its branches, and all flesh was fed from it. (See NAS NIV)