|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The holder or supporter, the name of several Persian kings.
(1.) Darius the Mede (Dan. 11:1), "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (9:1). On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During his brief reign (B.C. 538-536) Daniel was promoted to the highest dignity (Dan. 6:1, 2); but on account of the malice of his enemies he was cast into the den of lions. After his miraculous escape, a decree was issued by Darius enjoining "reverence for the God of Daniel" (6:26). This king was probably the "Astyages" of the Greek historians. Nothing can, however, be with certainty affirmed regarding him. Some are of opinion that the name "Darius" is simply a name of office, equivalent to "governor," and that the "Gobryas" of the inscriptions was the person intended by the name.
(2.) Darius, king of Persia, was the son of Hystaspes, of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. He did not immediately succeed Cyrus on the throne. There were two intermediate kings, viz., Cambyses (the Ahasuerus of Ezra), the son of Cyrus, who reigned from B.C. 529-522, and was succeeded by a usurper named Smerdis, who occupied the throne only ten months, and was succeeded by this Darius (B.C. 521-486). Smerdis was a Margian, and therefore had no sympathy with Cyrus and Cambyses in the manner in which they had treated the Jews. He issued a decree prohibiting the restoration of the temple and of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:17-22). But soon after his death and the accession of Darius, the Jews resumed their work, thinking that the edict of Smerdis would be now null and void, as Darius was in known harmony with the religious policy of Cyrus. The enemies of the Jews lost no time in bringing the matter under the notice of Darius, who caused search to be made for the decree of Cyrus (q.v.). It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help. It was with the army of this king that the Greeks fought the famous battle of Marathon (B.C. 490). During his reign the Jews enjoyed much peace and prosperity. He was succeeded by Ahasuerus, known to the Greeks as Xerxes, who reigned for twenty-one years.
(3.) Darius the Persian (Nehemiah 12:22) was probably the Darius II. (Ochus or Nothus) of profane history, the son of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was the son and successor of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). There are some, however, who think that the king here meant was Darius III. (Codomannus), the antagonist of Alexander the Great (B.C. 336-331).
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
da-ri'-us: The name of three or four kings mentioned in the Old Testament. In the original Persian it is spelled "Darayavaush"; in Babylonian, usually "Dariamush"; in Susian(?), "Tariyamaush"; in Egyptian "Antaryuash"; on Aramaic inscriptions, d-r-y-h-w-sh or d-r-y-w-h-w-sh; in Hebrew, dareyawesh; in Greek, Dareios; in Latin, "Darius." In meaning it is probably connected with the new Persian word Dara, "king." Herodotus says it means in Greek, Erxeies, coercitor, "restrainer," "compeller," "commander."
(1) Darius the Mede (Daniel 6:1; Daniel 11:1) was the son of Ahasuerus (Xerxes) of the seed of the Medes (Daniel 9:1). He received the government of Belshazzar the Chaldean upon the death of that prince (Daniel 5:30, 31; Daniel 6:1), and was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans.
From Daniel 6:28 we may infer that Darius was king contemporaneously with Cyrus. Outside of the Book of Daniel there is no mention of Darius the Mede by name, though there are good reasons for identifying him with Gubaru, or Ugbaru, the governor of Gutium, who is said in the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle to have been appointed by Cyrus as his governor of Babylon after its capture from the Chaldeans. Some reasons for this identification are as follows:
(a) Gubaru is possibly a translation of Darius. The same radical letters in Arabic mean "king," "compeller," "restrainer." In Hebrew, derivations of the root mean "lord," "mistress," "queen"; in Aramaic, "mighty," "almighty."
(b) Gutium was the designation of the country North of Babylon and was in all possibility in the time of Cyrus a part of the province of Media.
(c) But even if Gutium were not a part of Media at that time, it was the custom of Persian kings to appoint Medes as well as Persians to satrapies and to the command of armies. Hence, Darius-Gubaru may have been a Mede, even if Gutium were not a part of Media proper.
(d) Since Daniel never calls Darius the Mede king of Media, or king of Persia, it is immaterial what his title or position may have been before he was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans. Since the realm of the Chaldeans never included either Media or Persia, there is absolutely no evidence in the Book of Daniel that its author ever meant to imply that Darius the Mede ever ruled over either Media or Persia.
(e) That Gubaru is called governor (pihatu), and Darius the Mede, king, is no objection to this identification; for in ancient as well as modern oriental empires the governors of provinces and cities were often called kings.
Moreover, in the Aramaic language, no more appropriate word than "king" can be found to designate the ruler of a sub-kingdom, or province of the empire.
(f) That Darius is said to have had 120 satraps under him does not conflict with this; for the Persian word "satrap" is indefinite as to the extent of his rule, just like the English word "governor." Besides, Gubaru is said to have appointed pihatus under himself. If the kingdom of the Chaldeans which he received was as large as that of Sargon he may easily have appointed 120 of these sub-rulers; for Sargon names 117 subject cities and countries over which he appointed his prefects and governors.
(g) The peoples, nations and tongues of chapter 6 are no objection to this identification; for Babylonia itself at this time was inhabited by Babylonians, Chaldeans, Arabians, Arameans and Jews, and the kingdom of the Chaldeans embraced also Assyrians, Elamites, Phoenicians and others within its limits.
(h) This identification is supported further by the fact that there is no other person known to history that can well be meant. Some, indeed, have thought that Darius the Mede was a reflection into the past of Darius Hystaspis; but this is rendered impossible inasmuch as the character, deeds and empire of Darius Hystaspis, which are well known to us from his own monuments and from the Greek historians, do not resemble what Daniel says of Darius the Mede.
(2) Darius, the fourth king of Persia, called Hystaspes because he was the son of a Persian king named Hystaspis, is mentioned in Ezra (4:5, et al.), Haggai (1:1) and Zechariah (1:1). Upon the death of Cambyses, son and successor to Cyrus, Smerdis the Magian usurped the kingdom and was dethroned by seven Persian nobles from among whom Darius was selected to be king. After many rebellions and wars he succeeded in establishing himself firmly upon the throne (Ant., XI, i). He reorganized and enlarged the Persian empire. He is best known to general history from his conflict with Greece culminating at Marathon, and for his re-digging of the Suez Canal. In sacred history he stands forth as the king who enabled the Jews under Jeshua and Zerubbabel to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem.
(3) Darius, called by the Greeks Nothus, was called Ochus before he became king. He reigned from 424 to 404 B.C. In the Scriptures he is mentioned only in Nehemiah 12:22, where he is called Darius the Persian, probably to distinguish him from Darius the Mede.
It is not necessary to suppose that Darius Codomannus who reigned from 336 to 330 B.C., is meant by the author of Nehemiah 12, because he mentions Jaddua; for (a) Johanan, the father of this Jaddua, was high priest about 408 B.C., as is clear from the Aramaic papyrus from Elephantine lately published by Professor Sachau of Berlin, and Jaddua may well have succeeded him in those troubled times before the death of Darius Nothus in 404 B.C. And (b) that a high priest named Jaddua met Alexander in 332 B.C., is attested only by Josephus (Ant., XI, viii, 5). It is not fair to take the testimony of Josephus as to Jaddua without taking his testimony as to the meeting with Alexander and as to the appeal of Jaddua to the predictions of the Book of Daniel. But even if Josephus be right, there may have been two Jadduas, one high priest in 404 B.C., and the other in 332 B.C.; or the one who was alive and exercising his functions in 404 B.C. may still have been high priest in 332 B.C. He need not have exceeded 90 years of age.
According to the Eshki Harran inscription, which purports to have been written by himself, the priest of the temple in that city had served for 104 years. In our own time how many men have been vigorous in mind and body at the age of 90, or thereabouts; Bismarck and Gladstone, for example?
R. Dick Wilson
Darius (26 Occurrences)
Ezra 4:5 and hired counselors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 4:24 Then ceased the work of the house of God which is at Jerusalem; and it ceased until the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 5:5 But the eye of their God was on the elders of the Jews, and they did not make them cease, until the matter should come to Darius, and then answer should be returned by letter concerning it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 5:6 The copy of the letter that Tattenai, the governor beyond the River, and Shetharbozenai, and his companions the Apharsachites, who were beyond the River, sent to Darius the king; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 5:7 they sent a letter to him, in which was written thus: To Darius the king, all peace. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 5:8 To Darius the king, all peace! be it known to the king that we have gone to the province of Judah, to the great house of God, and it is built 'with' rolled stones, and wood is placed in the walls, and this work is done speedily, and prospering in their hand. (YLT)
Ezra 6:1 Then Darius the king made a decree, and search was made in the house of the archives, where the treasures were laid up in Babylon. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:12 and the God who has caused his name to dwell there overthrow all kings and peoples who shall put forth their hand to alter the same, to destroy this house of God which is at Jerusalem. I Darius have made a decree; let it be done with all diligence. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:13 Then Tattenai, the governor beyond the River, Shetharbozenai, and their companions, because that Darius the king had sent, did accordingly with all diligence. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:14 The elders of the Jews built and prospered, through the prophesying of Haggai the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. They built and finished it, according to the commandment of the God of Israel, and according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia. the lowest (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezra 6:15 This house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 12:22 As for the Levites, in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, there were recorded the heads of fathers' houses; also the priests, in the reign of Darius the Persian. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 5:31 Darius the Mede received the kingdom, being about sixty-two years old. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:1 It pleased Darius to set over the kingdom one hundred twenty satraps, who should be throughout the whole kingdom; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:6 Then these presidents and satraps assembled together to the king, and said thus to him, King Darius, live forever. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:9 Therefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:25 Then king Darius wrote to all the peoples, nations, and languages, who dwell in all the earth: Peace be multiplied to you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 6:28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Daniel 11:1 "As for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Haggai 1:1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, the Word of Yahweh came by Haggai, the prophet, to Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua, the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Haggai 1:15 in the twenty-fourth day of the month, in the sixth month, in the second year of Darius the king. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Haggai 2:10 In the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, the Word of Yahweh came by Haggai the prophet, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 1:1 In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, the word of Yahweh came to Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 1:7 On the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Shebat, in the second year of Darius, the word of Yahweh came to Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 7:1 It happened in the fourth year of king Darius that the word of Yahweh came to Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month, the month of Chislev. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)