|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
The name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" (Genesis 14:3; Numbers 34:12), the "sea of the plain" (Deuteronomy 3:17), the "east sea" (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20), and simply "the sea" (Ezek. 47:8). The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles in a straight line to the east of Jerusalem. Its surface is 1,292 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea. It covers an area of about 300 square miles. Its depth varies from 1,310 to 11 feet. From various phenomena that have been observed, its bottom appears to be still subsiding. It is about 53 miles long, and of an average breadth of 10 miles. It has no outlet, the great heat of that region causing such rapid evaporation that its average depth, notwithstanding the rivers that run into it (see JORDAN), is maintained with little variation. The Jordan alone discharges into it no less than six million tons of water every twenty-four hours.
The waters of the Dead Sea contain 24.6 per cent. of mineral salts, about seven times as much as in ordinary sea-water; thus they are unusually buoyant. Chloride of magnesium is most abundant; next to that chloride of sodium (common salt). But terraces of alluvial deposits in the deep valley of the Jordan show that formerly one great lake extended from the Waters of Merom to the foot of the watershed in the Arabah. The waters were then about 1,400 feet above the present level of the Dead Sea, or slightly above that of the Mediterranean, and at that time were much less salt.
Nothing living can exist in this sea. "The fish carried down by the Jordan at once die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it is a fable that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no living creatures on its banks. Dr. Tristram found on the shores three kinds of kingfishers, gulls, ducks, and grebes, which he says live on the fish which enter the sea in shoals, and presently die. He collected one hundred and eighteen species of birds, some new to science, on the shores, or swimming or flying over the waters. The cane-brakes which fringe it at some parts are the homes of about forty species of mammalia, several of them animals unknown in England; and innumerable tropical or semi-tropical plants perfume the atmosphere wherever fresh water can reach. The climate is perfect and most delicious, and indeed there is perhaps no place in the world where a sanatorium could be established with so much prospect of benefit as at Ain Jidi (Engedi).", Geikie's Hours, etc.
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (a.) Deprived of life; -- opposed to alive and living; reduced to that state of a being in which the organs of motion and life have irrevocably ceased to perform their functions; as, a dead tree; a dead man.
2. (a.) Destitute of life; inanimate; as, dead matter.
3. (a.) Resembling death in appearance or quality; without show of life; deathlike; as, a dead sleep.
4. (a.) Still as death; motionless; inactive; useless; as, dead calm; a dead load or weight.
5. (a.) So constructed as not to transmit sound; soundless; as, a dead floor.
6. (a.) Unproductive; bringing no gain; unprofitable; as, dead capital; dead stock in trade.
7. (a.) Lacking spirit; dull; lusterless; cheerless; as, dead eye; dead fire; dead color, etc.
8. (a.) Monotonous or unvaried; as, a dead level or pain; a dead wall.
9. (a.) Sure as death; unerring; fixed; complete; as, a dead shot; a dead certainty.
10. (a.) Bringing death; deadly.
11. (a.) Wanting in religious spirit and vitality; as, dead faith; dead works.
12. (a.) Flat; without gloss; -- said of painting which has been applied purposely to have this effect.
13. (a.) Not brilliant; not rich; thus, brown is a dead color, as compared with crimson.
14. (a.) Cut off from the rights of a citizen; deprived of the power of enjoying the rights of property; as, one banished or becoming a monk is civilly dead.
15. (a.) Not imparting motion or power; as, the dead spindle of a lathe, etc. See Spindle.
16. (adv.) To a degree resembling death; to the last degree; completely; wholly.
17. (n.) The most quiet or deathlike time; the period of profoundest repose, inertness, or gloom; as, the dead of winter.
18. (n.) One who is dead; -- commonly used collectively.
19. (v. t.) To make dead; to deaden; to deprive of life, force, or vigor.
20. (v. i.) To die; to lose life or force.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
(baptizomai huper ton nekron).
_1. Paul's Argument:
Some of the Corinthian Christians denied the resurrection of the dead, and Paul advances three arguments to convince them that the dead will be raised:
(1) "If there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been raised," but Christ is raised (1 Corinthians 15:13, 20).
(2) If the dead are not raised, why are men being baptized for the dead (1 Corinthians 15:29)?
(3) Why should the apostle himself wage his spiritual warfare (1 Corinthians 15:30)? The first argument rests upon the central fact of Christianity, and the other two are appeals to the consistency of the Corinthians, and of Paul himself. Whatever "baptism for the dead" meant, it was, in Paul's opinion, as real, valid and legitimate a premise from which to conclude that the dead would rise as his own sufferings. The natural meaning of the words is obvious. Men in Corinth, and possibly elsewhere, were being continually baptized on behalf of others who were at the time dead, with a view to benefiting them in the resurrection, but if there be no resurrection, what shall they thus accomplish, and why do they do it? "The only legitimate reference is to a practice. of survivors allowing themselves to be baptized on behalf of (believing?) friends who had died without baptism" (Alford in the place cited.).
2. Patristic Evidence:
Tertullian believed that Paul referred to a custom of vicarious baptism (Res., 48c; Adv. Marc., 5.10). There is evidence that the early church knew such a practice. Epiphanius mentions a tradition that the custom obtained among the Cerinthians (Haer., 28 6). And Chrysostom states that it prevailed among the Marcionites.
3. Modern Views:
But commentators have offered between thirty and forty other interpretations, more or less strained, of the passage. (For a summary of different views see T. C. Edwards and Stanley, Comms., at the place) Two of the most reasonable views from recent commentators are: "What shall they do who receive baptism on account of the dead? i.e. with a view to the resurrection of the dead?" and therefore to sharing in it themselves (Canon Evans, Speaker's Comm., at the place); "that the death of Christians led to the conversion of survivors, who in the first instance `for the sake of the dead' (their beloved dead), and in the hope of reunion, turn to Christ" (Findlay, Expositor's Greek Test., at the place). Both ideas may be true, but they are simply imported into this passage, and the latter also is quite irrelevant to the argument and makes Paul identify conversion with baptism.
4. The Difficulty:
But why is all this ingenuity expended to evade the natural meaning? Because
(1) such a custom would be a superstition involving the principle of opus operarum; and
(2) Paul could not share or even tolerate a contemporary idea which is now regarded as superstition.
To reply (with Alford) that Paul does not approve the custom will not serve the purpose, for he would scarcely base so great an argument, even as an argumentum ad hominem, on a practice which he regarded as wholly false and superstitious. The retort of those who denied the resurrection would be too obvious. But why should it be necessary to suppose that Paul rose above all the limitations of his age? The idea that symbolic acts had a vicarious significance had sunk deeply into the Jewish mind, and it would not be surprising if it took more than twenty years for the leaven of the gospel to work all the Jew out of Paul. At least it serves the apostle's credit ill to make his argument meaningless or absurd in order to save him from sharing at all in the inadequate conceptions of his age. He made for himself no claim of infallibility.
ded (muth; nekros): Used in several senses:
(1) as a substantive, denoting the body deprived of life, as when Abraham speaks of burying his dead (Genesis 23);
(2) as a collective noun including all those that have passed away from life (as Revelation 20:12). In several passages dead in this sense is used in contrast to the quick or living (as Numbers 16:48). This collective mode of expression is used when resurrection is described as "rising from the dead";
(3) as an adjective, coupled with body, carcass or man, as Deuteronomy 14:8 the King James Version;
(4) most frequently it is used as a complement of the verb "to be," referring to the condition of being deceased or the period of death, e.g. 2 Samuel 12:19 Mark 5:35;
(5) in the sense of being liable to death it occurs in Genesis 20:3 Exodus 12:33 2 Samuel 16:9;
(6) as an intensive adjective it is used in the phrase "dead sleep," to mean profound sleep simulating death (Psalm 76:6);
(7) figuratively "dead" is used to express the spiritual condition of those who are unable to attain to the life of faith. They are dead in trespasses, as in Ephesians 2:1, or conversely, those who by the New Birth are delivered from sin, are said to be dead to the Law (as Colossians 2:20, etc.). A faith which does not show its life in the practical virtues of Christianity is called dead (James 2:17);
(8) in Romans 4:19 Hebrews 11:12, "dead" signifies the senile condition of loss of vigor and virility.
The passage in Job 26:5, wherein in the King James Version "dead things" seem to mean things that never had life, is more accurately translated in the Revised Version (British and American) as "they that are deceased," i.e. the shades of the dead.
There are few references to the physical accompaniments of the act of dying. Deborah has a poetical account of the death of Sisera (Judges 5:24), and in Ecclesiastes 12, where the failure of the bodily faculties in old age culminates in death, it is pictorially compared to the breaking of a lamp extinguishing the flame ("golden" being probably used of "oil," as it is in Zechariah 4:12), and the loosing of the silver chebhel or chain by which the lamp is suspended in the tent of the Arabic.
The dead body defiled those who touched it (Leviticus 11:31) and therefore sepulture took place speedily, as in the case of Lazarus (John 11:17-39) and Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:6-10). This practice is still followed by the fellahin.
The uselessness of the dead is the subject of proverb (Ecclesiastes 9:4) and the phrase "dead dog" is used as a contemptuous epithet as of a person utterly worthless (1 Samuel 24:14 2 Samuel 9:8; 2 Samuel 16:9).
DEAD SEA, THE
I. PRESENT AREA
II. FORMER ENLARGEMENT
III. LEVEL OF THE DEAD SEA IN EARLY HISTORIC TIMES
IV. CONSTITUTION OF THE WATER
VII. MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS
1. The Plain of the Jordan
2. Ain Jidi (En-gedi)
3. The Fortress of Masada
4. Jebel Usdum (Mount of Sodom)
5. Vale of Siddim
The name given by Greek and Latin writers to the remarkable inland lake occupying the deepest part of the depression of the ARABAH (which see). In the Bible it is called the Salt Sea (Genesis 14:3 Deuteronomy 3:17); the Sea of the Plain (`Ardbhah). (Joshua 3:16); and the (East) Eastern Sea (Ezekiel 47:18 Joel 2:20). Among the Arabs it is still called Bahr Lut (Sea of Lot). By the time of Josephus it was called Lake Asphaltires (Ant., I, ix) from the quantities of bitumen or asphalt occasionally washed upon its shores and found in some of the tributary wadies.
I. Present Area.
The length of the lake from North to South is 47 miles; its greatest width is 10 miles narrowing down to less than 2 miles opposite Point Molyneux on el-Lisan. Its area is approximately 300 square miles. From various levelings its surface is found to be 1,292 ft. below that of the Mediterranean, while its greatest depth, near the eastern shore 10 miles South of the mouth of the Jordan is 1,278 ft. But the level varies from 10 to 15 ft. semiannually, and more at longer intervals; and we are not sure from which one of these levels the above figures have been derived. Throughout the northern half of the lake on the East side the descent to the extreme depth is very rapid; while from the western side the depth increases more gradually, especially at the extreme northern end, where the lake has been filled in by the delta of the Jordan.
About two-thirds of the distance to the southern end, the peninsula, el-Lisan ("the Tongue"), projects from the East more than half-way across the lake, being in the shape, however, of a boot rather than a tongue, with the toe to the North, forming a bay between it and the eastern mainland. The head of this bay has been largely filled in by the debris brought down by Wady Kerak, and Wady Ben Hamid, and shoals very gradually down to the greatest depths to the North. The toe of this peninsula is named Point Costigan, and the heel, Point Molyneux, after two travelers who lost their lives about the middle of the 19th century in pioneer attempts to explore the lake. Over the entire area South of Point Molyneux, the water is shallow, being nowhere more than 15 ft. deep, and for the most part not over 10 ft., and in some places less than 6 ft. In high water, the lake extends a mile or more beyond low-water mark, over the Mud Flat (Sebkah) at the south end.
From the history of the crossing of the Jordan by Joshua and the expedition of Chedorlaomer when Lot was captured, it is evident that the outlines of the sea were essentially the same 3,500 years ago as they are now, showing that there has been no radical change in climatic conditions since then.
II. Former Enlargement.
But if we go back a few thousand years into prehistoric times the evidence is abundant that the valley has witnessed remarkable climatic changes (see ARABAH). At Ain Abu Werideh, about 40 miles beyond the south end of the lake, Hull in 1883 discovered deposits of an abandoned shore line 1,400 ft. above its level (see ARABAH). A pronounced abandoned shore line at the 650 ft. level had been observed first by Tristram, and noted afterward by many travelers. But from the more detailed examination made by Professor Ellsworth Huntington in 1909 (see Palestine and Its Transformation) five abandoned shore lines of marked size have been determined, surrounding the valley at the following approximate heights above the present level of the lake: 1,430, 640, 430, 300 and 250 ft. He writes that "at its greatest extent the sea stretched at least 30 miles south of its present termination, while northward it probably covered the Sea of Galilee and the Waters of Merom, and sent an arm into the Vale of Jezreel.. Lacustrine deposits exist in the Jordan valley shortly south of the Sea of Galilee. A mile north of Jisr el-Mujamiyeh, as the modern railroad bridge is called, a tilted series of clays, apparently lacustrine, lies under some untilted whitish clays, also apparently lacustrine. The elevation here is about 840 ft. below that of the Mediterranean Sea, or 450 above the Dead Sea.. So far as can be detected by the aneroid the highest deposits (about the Dead Sea) lie at the same elevation on all sides of the lake."
There are also numerous minor strands below the 250 ft. major strand. These are estimated by Huntington as 210, 170, 145, 115, 90, 70, 56, 40, 30 and 12 ft. above the lake successively, It is noted, also, that the lower beaches all show less erosion than those above them. This certainly points to a gradual diminution of the water in the basin during the prehistoric period, while on the other hand there is much evidence that there has been a considerable rise in the water within the historic period. Date palms and tamarisks are seen standing out from the water in numerous places some little distance from the present shore where the water is several feet deep. These are of such size as to show that for many years the soil in which they grew was not subject to overflow. As long ago as 1876 Merrill noticed such trees standing in the water 40 ft. from the shore, near the Northeast corner of the lake (East, of the Jordan, 224). Numerous trunks of date palms and tamarisks can now be seen submerged to a similar extent along the western shore. In 1818 Irby and Mangles (Travels, 454) saw a company of Arabs ford the lake from Point Molyneux to the west side, and noted that the line of the ford was marked by branches of trees which had been stuck into the bottom. In 1838 Robinson found the water at such a stage that the ford was impracticable and so it has been reported by all travelers since that time. But Mr. A. Forder, having recently examined the evidence for the Palestine Exploration Fund, learns from the older Arabs that formerly there was a well-known causeway leading from el-Lisan opposite Wady Kerak to Wady Umm Baghek, across which sheep, goats and men could pass, while camels and mules could be driven across anywhere in the water. Moreover the Arab guide said that the channel "was so narrow that the people of his tribe used to sit on the edge of the Lisan and parley with Arabs from the west as to the return of cattle that had been stolen by one or other of the parties." (See PEFS (April, 1910), 112.)
III. Level of, in Early Historic Times.
Numerous general considerations indicate that in the early historic period the level of the water was so much lower than now that much of the bay South of Point Molyneux was dry land. In Joshua 15:2, 5 the south border of Judah is said to extend from "the bay (tongue, Lisan) that looketh southward"; while the "border of the north quarter was from the bay (tongue, Lisan) of the sea at the end of the Jordan; and the border went up to Beth-hoglah, and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah." If the limits of the north end of the Dead Sea were the same then as now the boundary must have turned down to the mouth of the Jordan by a sharp angle. But according to the description it runs almost exactly East and West from beyond Jerusalem to Beth-hoglah, and nothing is said about any change in direction, while elsewhere, any such abrupt change in direction as is here supposed is carefully noted. Furthermore, in detailing the boundary of Benjamin (Joshua 18:19) we are told that "the border passed along to the side of Beth-hoglah northward; and the goings out of the border were at the north bay (tongue, Lisan) of the Salt Sea, at the south end of the Jordan: this was the south border." This can hardly have any other meaning than that the north end of the Dead Sea was at Beth-hoglah. From these data Mr. Clermont-Ganneau (see Recueil d'archeologie orientale, V (1902), 267-80) inferred that in the time of Joshua the level of the sea was so much higher than now that a tongue-like extension reached the vicinity of Beth-hoglah, while the underlying topography was essentially the same as now. On the contrary, our present knowledge of the geologic forces in operation would indicate that at that time the Dead Sea was considerably lower than now, and that its rise to its present level has been partly caused by the silting up of a bay which formerly extended to Beth-hoglah.
The geological evidence concerning this point is so interesting, and of so much importance in its bearing upon our interpretation of various historical statements concerning the region, that it is worth while to present it somewhat in detail. As already stated (see ARABAH), the present level of the Dead Sea is determined by the equilibrium established between the evaporation (estimated at 20,000,000 cubic ft. per diem) over the area and the amount of water brought into the valley by the tributary streams. The present area of the sea is, in round numbers, 300 square miles. The historical evidence shows that this evaporating surface has not varied appreciably since the time of Abraham. But the encroachments of the delta of the Jordan upon this area, as well as of the deltas of several other streams, must have been very great since that period. The effect of this would be to limit the evaporating surface, which would cause the water to rise until it overflowed enough of the low land at the south end to restore the equilibrium.
It is easy to make an approximate calculation of the extent to which these encroachments have tended to narrow the limits of the original lake. The sediment deposited by the Jordan, at the north end of the Dead Sea, is practically all derived from the portion of the drainage basin between it and the Sea of Galilee-the latter serving as a catch-basin to retain the sediment brought down from the upper part of the valley. The Zor, or narrow channel which the Jordan has eroded in the sedimentary plain through which it flows (see JORDAN, VALLEY OF), is approximately half a mile wide, 100 feet deep, and 60 miles long. All the sediment which formerly filled this has been swept into the head of the sea, while the Jarmuk, the Jabbok, and a score of smaller tributaries descending rapidly from the bordering heights of Gilead, three or four thousand ft. above the valley, bring an abnormal amount of debris into the river, as do a large number of shorter tributaries which descend an equal amount from the mountains of Galilee, Samaria, and Judah. The entire area thus contributing to this part of the Jordan is not less than 3,000 square miles.
All writers are impressed by the evidence of the torrential floods which fill these water courses after severe storms. The descent being so rapid, permits the water after each rainfall to run off without delay, and so intensifies its eroding power. The well-known figure of our Lord (Matthew 7:26) in describing the destruction of the house which is built upon the sand, when the rains descend and the winds beat upon it, is drawn from Nature. The delta terraces at the mouths of such mountain streams where they debouch on the lowlands are formed and re-formed with extreme rapidity, each succeeding storm tending to wash the previous delta down to lower levels and carry away whatever was built upon it.
The storms which descend upon the plains of Gilead, as well as those upon the Judean hills, are exceedingly destructive. For though the rainfall at Jerusalem, according to the observations of Chaplin (see J. Glaisher, "On the Fall of Rain at Jerusalem," PEFS (January, 1894), 39) averages but 20 inches annually, ranging from 32, 21 inches in 1878 to 13, 19 inches in 1870, nearly all occurs in the three winter months, and therefore in quantities to be most effective in erosive capacity. And this is effective upon both sides of the Jordan valley, in which the rainfall is very slight. "Day after day," Tristram remarks, "we have seen the clouds, after pouring their fatness on Samaria and Judea, pass over the valley, and then descend in torrents on the hills of Gilead and Moab," a phenomenon naturally resulting from the rising column of heated air coming up from the torrid conditions of the depressed Jordan valley.
Tristram (The Land of Moab, 23, 24) gives a vivid description of the effect of a storm near Jerusalem. As his party was encamped during the night the whole slope upon which they pitched became a shallow stream, while "the deep ravines of the wilderness of Judah (were) covered with torrents, and tiny cascades rolling down from every rock.. So easily disintegrated is the soft limestone of these wadies, that the rain of a few hours. did more to deepen and widen the channels than the storms of several years could effect on a Northumbrian hillside. No geologist could watch the effect of this storm without being convinced that in calculating the progress of denudation, other factors than that of time must be taken into account, and that denudation may proceed most rapidly where rains are most uncertain." Lieutenant Lynch writes that while ascending the Kerak "there came a shout of thunder from the dense cloud which had gathered at the summit of the gorge, followed by a rain, compared to which the gentle showers of our more favored clime are as dew drops to the overflowing cistern.. The black and threatening cloud soon enveloped the mountain tops, the lightning playing across it in incessant flashes, while the loud thunder reverberated from side to side of the appalling chasm. Between the peals we soon heard a roaring and continuous sound. It was the torrent from the rain cloud, sweeping in a long line of foam down the steep declivity, bearing along huge fragments of rocks, which, striking against each other, sounded like mimic thunder."
I can bear similar testimony from observations when traveling in Turkestan where the annual rainfall is only about 4 inches. At one time a storm was seen raging upon the mountains 20 miles away, where it spent its entire force without shedding a drop upon the plain. Upon skirting the base of the mountain the next day, however, the railroad track was covered for a long distance 2 or 3 ft. deep with debris which had been washed down by the cloudburst. No one can have any proper comprehension of the erosive power of the showers of Palestine without duly taking into account the extent and the steepness of the descent from the highlands on either side, and the irregularity of the rainfall. These form what in the Rocky Mountains would be called arroyos. After the debris has been brought into the Jordan by these torrents, and the rise of water makes it "overflow all its banks," the sediment is then swept on to the Dead Sea with great rapidity.
All these considerations indicate that the deltas of the streams coming into the valley of the Jordan and the Dead Sea must be increasing at an unusually rapid rate. It will be profitable, therefore, to compare it with other deltas upon which direct observations have been made. The Mississippi River is sweeping into the Gulf of Mexico sediment at a rate which represents one foot of surface soil over the whole drainage basin, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Alleghenies, in a little less than 5,000 years. The Hoang-Ho is lowering its drainage basin a foot in 1,464 years, while the river Po is reducing its level a foot in 729 years. So rapidly has the river Po filled up its valley that the city of Adria, which was a seaport 2,000 years ago, is now 14 miles from the mouth of the river. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers have silted up the head of the Persian Gulf nearly 100 miles. (See Croll, Climate and Time, 332, 333; Darwin, Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, 233.) From these considerations it is a conservative estimate that the tributaries of the Jordan valley between the Lake of Galilee and the Dead Sea bring down sediment enough to lower the basin one foot in 2,000 years, so that since the time of Abraham 167,270,400,000 cubic feet of solid matter have been added to its delta. This would cover 25 square miles 250 ft. deep. Taking into consideration the probable depth of water at the north end of the sea, it is, therefore, not an extravagant supposition that the Jordan delta has encroached upon the sea to the extent of 15 or 20 square miles, limiting the evaporating surface to that extent and causing the level of the water to rise, and extend an equal amount over the low lands at the south end.
At the same time the other streams coming directly into the lake have been contributing deltas to narrow its margin at various points. The Kerak, the Amen and the Zerka Ma'ain bring in an immense amount of sediment from the East; el-Hessi, el-Jeib and el-Fikri from the South; and Wady el. Muhauwdt, el-Areyeh and the Kedron, with numerous smaller intermediate streams, from the West. A detailed examination of these deposits will serve the double purpose of establishing the point in question and of giving a vivid conception of the sea and its surroundings.
Throughout the lower part of its course the river Jordan flows as has been already said, through a narrow gorge called the Zor, which the river has eroded in the soft sedimentary deposits which cover the bottom of the valley (or Ghor) from side to side. Opposite Jericho the Ghor is about 15 miles wide. The Zor, however, does not average more than one-half mile in width and is about 100 ft. lower than the general level of the Ghor, But at "the Jews' Castle." about 8 miles from the mouth of the Jordan, the Zor begins to enlarge and merge into a true delta. The embankment of the Zor slopes away in a Southwest direction till it reaches the Judean mountains at Khurbet Kumran. 10 miles distant, leaving a triangle of low land between it and the Dead Sea averaging fully one mile in width and being nearly 3 miles wide opposite the mouth of the Jordan. The face of the embankment separating the Zor from the Ghor has in several places been deeply cut into by the small wadies which come down from the western mountains, and the wash from these wadies as well as that from more temporary streams after every shower has-considerably raised the western border of the Zor throughout this distance. But it can safely be estimated that the original boundary of the Dead Sea has here been encroached upon to the extent of 10 or 15 square miles. Again, upon the eastern side of the Jordan the other limb of the delta, though smaller, is equally in evidence. Merrill (East of the Jordan, 223, 224), in describing his survey of the region, says he was compelled to walk for some hours along the shore and then north to reach his horses, which evidently had been coming over the harder and more elevated surface of the Ghor. "The plain." he says, "for many square miles north of the sea is like ashes in which we often. sank over shoe."
Returning to the Northwest corner of the lake we find the delta deposit which we left at Khurbet Kumran extending 2 miles farther south with an average width of one-half mile to Ras Feshkah, which rises abruptly from the water's edge, and renders it impossible for travelers to follow along the shore. But just beyond Ras Feshkah a delta half a mile or more in length and width is projected into the sea at the mouth of Wady en Nar, which comes down from Jerusalem and is known in its upper portions as Kedron. This is the wady which passes the convent of Mar Saba and is referred to in such a striking manner in Ezekiel 47. Like most of the other wadies coming into the Dead Sea, this courses the most of its way through inaccessible defiles and has built up a delta at its mouth covered with "fragments of rock or boulders swept along by the torrent in its periodical overflows" (De Saulcy, I, 137, 138).
From Ras Feshkah to Ras Mersid, a distance of 15 miles, the shore is bordered with a deposit of sand and gravel averaging a half a mile in width, while opposite Wady edition Derajeh and Wady Husasa (which descend from Bethlehem and the wilderness of Tekoah) the width is, fully one mile. At the mouth of one of the smaller gorges De Saulcy noted what geologists call a "cone of dejection" where "the gravel washed down from the heights was heaped up to the extent of nearly 250 yards" (I, 44).
Ras Mersid, again, obstructs the passage along the shore almost as effectually as did Ras Feshkah, but farther south there is no other obstruction. The plain of En-gedi, connected in such an interesting manner with the history of David and with numerous other events of national importance, is described by the Palestine Exploration Fund as "about half a mile broad and a mile in length." This consists of material brought down for the most part by Wady el-'Areijeh, which descends from the vicinity of Hebron with one branch passing through Tekoah. The principal path leading from the west side of the Dead Sea to the hills of Judea follows the direction of this wady.
Between En-gedi and Sebbeh (Masada), a distance of 10 miles, the limestone cliffs retreat till they are fully 2 miles from the shore. Across this space numerous wadies course their way bringing down an immense amount of debris and depositing it as deltas at the water's edge. These projecting deltas were noticed by Robinson as he looked southward from the height above En-gedi, but their significance was not understood.
"One feature of the sea," he says, "struck us immediately, which was unexpected to us, namely, the number of shoal-like points and peninsulas which run into its southern part, appearing at first sight like flat sand-banks or islands. Below us on the South were two such projecting banks on the western shore, composed probably of pebbles and gravel, extending out into the sea for a considerable distance. The larger and more important of these is on the South of the spot called Birket el-Khulil, a little bay or indentation in the western precipice, where the water, flowing into shallow basins when it is high, evaporates, and deposits salt. This spot is just South of the mouth of Wady el-Khubarah" (BR, I, 501). One of these deltas is described by De Saulcy as 500 yds. in breadth and another as indefinitely larger.
Six miles South of Masada, probably at the mouth of Wady Umm Baghek, Lynch notes a delta extending "half a mile out into the sea." Still farther South the combined delta of the Wady Zuweirah and Wady Muhauwat covers an area of 2 or 3 square miles, and is dotted with boulders and fragments of rock a foot or more in diameter, which have been washed over the area by the torrential floods. Beyond Jebel Usdum, Wady el-Fikreh, draining an area of 200 or 300 square miles, has deposited an immense amount of coarse sediment on the West side of the Sebkah (a mud flat which was formerly occupied, probably by a projection of the Dead Sea). Into the South end of the depression, extending from the Sebkah to the Ascent of Akrabbim, deltas of Wady el-Jeib, Wady el-Khanzireh and Wady Tufileh have in connection with Wady Fikreh encroached upon the valley to the extent of 12 or 15 square miles. Although these wadies drain an area of more than 3,000 sq. miles, and the granitic formations over which they pass have been so disintegrated by atmospheric influences that an excessive amount of coarse sediment is carried along by them (see Hull, Mount Seir, etc., 104-106). In ascending them, one encounters every indication of occasional destructive floods.
Following up the eastern shore, Wady el-Hessi coming down from the mountains of Edom has built up the plain of Safieh which pushes out into the neck of the Sebkah and covers an area of 3 or 4 square miles. Farther North, Wady Kerak and Wady Beni Hamid have with their deltas encroached to the extent of 2 or 3 square miles upon the head of the bay, projecting into the Lisan east of Point Costigan. Still farther North, Wady Mojib (the Arnon) and Wady Zerka Ma'ain (coming down from the hot springs of Callirrhoe) have built up less pronounced deltas because of the greater depth of the water on the East side, but even so they are by no means inconsiderable, in each case projecting a half-mile or more into the lake. Putting all these items together, there can be little doubt that the area of the Dead Sea has been encroached upon to the extent of 25 or 30 square miles since the time of Abraham and that this has resulted in a rise of the general level of the water sufficient to overflow a considerable portion of the lagoon at the South end, thus keeping the evaporating area constant. The only escape from this conclusion is the supposition that the rainfall of the region is less than it was at the dawn of history, and so the smaller evaporating area would be sufficient to maintain the former level. But of this we have no adequate evidence. On the contrary there is abundant evidence that the climatic conditions connected with the production of the Glacial Period had passed away long before the conquest of the Vale of Siddim by Amraphel and his confederates (Genesis 14). The consequences of this rise of water are various and significant. It lends credibility to the persistent tradition that the sites of Sodom and Gomorrah are covered by the shallow water at the South end of the sea, and also to the statement of Scripture that the region about these cities (on the supposition that they were at the South end of the sea) was like the garden of the Lord; for that plain was then much larger than it is now, and was well watered, and possessed greater elements of fertility than are now apparent. Furthermore, this supposed lower level of the lake in early times may have greatly facilitated the passage of armies and caravans from one end to the other, thus rendering it more easy to understand the historical statements relating to the earliest periods of occupation. Even now the road at the base of Jebel Usdum which is open at low water is impassable at high water. On the last of December, 1883, Professor Hull (Mount Seir, etc., 133) traversed the shore at the base of the salt cliffs along a gravel terrace 100 ft. wide, which "abruptly terminated in a descent of about 5 ft. to the line of driftwood which marked the upper limit of the waters." On the 1st of January, 1901, the water along the base of the salt cliffs was so deep that it was impossible for my party to pass along the shore. It is easy to believe that the level might have been lowered sufficiently to expose a margin of shore which could be traversed on the West side from one end to the other.
IV. Constitution of the Water.
As in the case of all enclosed basins, the waters of the Dead Sea are impregnated to an excessive degree with saline matter. "The salt which they contain," however, "is not wholly or even principally common salt, but is mostly the chloride and bromide of magnesium and calcium, so that they are not merely a strong brine, but rather resemble the mother liquors of a saltpan left after the common salt has crystallized out" (Dawson, Egypt and Syria, 123). The following analysis is given by Booth and Muckle of water brought by Commander Lynch and taken by him May 5 from 195 fathoms deep opposite the mouth of Wady Zerka Ma'ain. Other analyses vary from this more or less, owing doubtless to the different localities and depths from which the specimens had been obtained. Specific gravity at 60 degrees.... 1, 22742 Chloride of magnesium....... 145, 8971 Chloride of calcium......... 31.0746 Chloride of sodium......... 78, 5537 Chloride of potassium....... 6, 5860 Bromide of potassium....... 1, 3741 Sulphate of lime......... 0, 7012 ---- sub-total: 264, 1867 Water............. 735, 8133 ---- Total: 1000.0000 Total amount of solid matter found
by direct experiment....... 264.0000 What is here labeled bromide of potassium, however, is called by most other analysts bromide of magnesium, it being difficult to separate and distinguish these elements in composition. The large percentage of bromide, of which but a trace is found in the ocean, is supposed to have been derived from volcanic emanations. As compared with sea water, it is worthy of note that that of the Dead Sea yields 26 lbs. of salts to 100 lbs. of water, whereas that of the Atlantic yields only 6 lbs. in the same quantity. Lake Urumiah is as salty as the Dead Sea.
As results of this salinity the water is excessively buoyant and is destructive of all forms of animal life. Lynch found that his metal boats sank an inch deeper in the Jordan when equally heavily laden than they did in the Dead Sea. All travelers who bathe in it relate that when they throw themselves upon their backs their bodies will be half out of the water. Josephus (BJ, IV, viii, 4) relates that the emperor Vespasian caused certain men who could not swim to be thrown into the water with their hands tied behind them, and they floated on the surface. Dead fish and various shells are indeed often found upon the shore, but they have evidently been brought in by the tributary fresh-water streams, or belong to species which live in the brackish pools of the bordering lagoons, which are abundantly supplied with fresh water.
The report extensively circulated in earlier times that birds did not fly over the lake has no foundation in fact, since some species of birds are known even to light upon the surface and frolick upon the waters. The whole depression is subject to frequent storms of wind blowing through its length. These produce waves whose force is very destructive of boats encountering them because of the high specific gravity of the water; but for the same reason the waves rapidly subside after a storm, so that the general appearance of the lake is placid in the extreme.
The source from which these saline matters have been derived has been a subject of much speculation-some having supposed that it was derived from the dissolution of the salt cliffs in Jebel Usdum. But this theory is disproved by the fact that common salt forms but a small portion of the material held in solution by the water. It is more correct to regard this salt mountain as a deposit precipitated from the saturated brine which had accumulated, as we have supposed, during the Cretaceous age. Probably salt is now being deposited at the bottom of the lake from the present saturated solution to appear in some future age in the wreck of progressive geological changes. The salts of the Dead Sea, like those in all similarly enclosed basins, have been brought in by the streams of water from all over the drainage basin. Such streams always contain more or less solid matter in solution, which becomes concentrated through the evaporation which takes. place over enclosed basins. The ocean is the great reservoir of such deposits, but is too large to be affected to the extent noticeable in smaller basins. The extreme salinity of the Dead Sea water shows both the long continuance of the isolation of the basin and the abundance of soluble matter contained in the rocks of the inscribed area. The great extent of recent volcanic rocks, especially in the region East of the Jordan, accounts for the large relative proportion of some of the ingredients.
Because of the great depression below sea level, the climate is excessively warm, so that palms and other tropical trees flourish on the borders of the rivers wherever fresh water finds soil on which to spread itself.
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DEAD, BAPTISM FOR THE
See BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD.
DEAD, STATE OF THE
SEA, DEAD; EASTERN
See DEAD SEA.
Dead (580 Occurrences)
Matthew 2:19 But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, (WEB KJV ASV BBE WBS)
Matthew 2:20 "Arise and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel, for those who sought the young child's life are dead." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 8:22 But Jesus said to him, "Follow me, and leave the dead to bury their own dead." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 8:28 And when he had come to the other side, to the country of the Gadarenes, there came out to him from the place of the dead, two who had evil spirits, so violent that no man was able to go that way. (BBE)
Matthew 9:18 While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. (KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS)
Matthew 9:24 he said to them, "Make room, because the girl isn't dead, but sleeping." They were ridiculing him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Matthew 10:8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give. (KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 11:5 the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 12:10 And there was a man with a dead hand. And they put a question to him, saying, Is it right to make a man well on the Sabbath day? so that they might have something against him. (BBE)
Matthew 13:6 And when the sun was high, it was burned; and because it had no root it became dry and dead. (BBE)
Matthew 14:2 and said to his servants, "This is John the Baptizer. He is risen from the dead. That is why these powers work in him." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 16:21 From that time Jesus went on to make clear to his disciples how he would have to go up to Jerusalem, and undergo much at the hands of those in authority and the chief priests and scribes, and be put to death, and the third day come again from the dead. (BBE)
Matthew 17:9 As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, saying, "Don't tell anyone what you saw, until the Son of Man has risen from the dead." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 17:23 And they will put him to death, and the third day he will come again from the dead. And they were very sad. (BBE)
Matthew 20:19 And will give him up to the Gentiles to be made sport of and to be whipped and to be put to death on the cross: and the third day he will come back again from the dead. (BBE)
Matthew 21:19 And seeing a fig-tree by the wayside, he came to it, and saw nothing on it but leaves only; and he said to it, Let there be no fruit from you from this time forward for ever. And straight away the fig-tree became dry and dead. (BBE)
Matthew 22:23 On the same day there came to him the Sadducees, who say that there is no coming back from the dead: and they put a question to him, saying, (BBE)
Matthew 22:28 When they come back from the dead, then, whose wife will she be of the seven? because they all had her. (BBE)
Matthew 22:30 For when they come back from the dead there are no husbands and wives, but they are as the angels in heaven. (BBE)
Matthew 22:31 But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 22:32 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 23:27 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 23:29 A curse is on you, scribes and Pharisees, false ones! because you put up buildings for housing the dead bodies of the prophets, and make fair the last resting-places of good men, and say, (BBE)
Matthew 24:28 Wherever the dead body is, there will the vultures flock together. (WEY BBE)
Matthew 26:32 But after I am come back from the dead, I will go before you into Galilee. (BBE)
Matthew 27:7 And they made a decision to get with the silver the potter's field, as a place for the dead of other countries. (BBE)
Matthew 27:33 And when they came to the place named Golgotha, that is to say, Dead Man's Head, (BBE)
Matthew 27:52 And the resting-places of the dead came open; and the bodies of a number of sleeping saints came to life; (BBE)
Matthew 27:53 And coming out of their resting-places, after he had come again from the dead, they went into the holy town and were seen by a number of people. (BBE)
Matthew 27:61 And Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, seated by the place of the dead. (BBE)
Matthew 27:63 Saying, Sir, we have in mind how that false man said, while he was still living, After three days I will come again from the dead. (BBE)
Matthew 27:64 Command therefore that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest perhaps his disciples come at night and steal him away, and tell the people,'He is risen from the dead;' and the last deception will be worse than the first." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 28:4 For fear of him, the guards shook, and became like dead men. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 28:7 Go quickly and tell his disciples,'He has risen from the dead, and behold, he goes before you into Galilee; there you will see him.' Behold, I have told you." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 3:1 And he went again into the Synagogue; and there was a man there whose hand was dead. (BBE)
Mark 4:6 And when the sun was high, it was burned; and because it had no root, it became dry and dead. (BBE)
Mark 5:2 And when he had got out of the boat, straight away there came to him from the place of the dead a man with an unclean spirit. (BBE)
Mark 5:3 He was living in the place of the dead: and no man was able to keep him down, no, not with a chain; (BBE)
Mark 5:5 And all the time, by day and by night, in the place of the dead, and in the mountains, he was crying out and cutting himself with stones. (BBE)
Mark 5:35 While he was still speaking, people came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Mark 5:39 When he had entered in, he said to them, "Why do you make an uproar and weep? The child is not dead, but is asleep." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Mark 6:14 King Herod heard this, for his name had become known, and he said, "John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 6:16 But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead." (WEB KJV BBE DBY WBS YLT NIV)
Mark 8:31 And teaching them, he said that the Son of man would have to undergo much, and be hated by those in authority, and the chief priests, and the scribes, and be put to death, and after three days come back from the dead. (BBE)
Mark 9:9 As they were coming down from the mountain, he commanded them that they should tell no one what things they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:10 They kept this saying to themselves, questioning what the "rising from the dead" meant. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:26 Having cried out, and convulsed greatly, it came out of him. The boy became like one dead; so much that most of them said, "He is dead." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:31 For he was giving his disciples teaching, and saying to them, The Son of man is given up into the hands of men, and they will put him to death; and when he is dead, after three days he will come back from the dead. (BBE)
Mark 10:34 And they will make sport of him, and put shame on him, and give him cruel blows, and will put him to death; and after three days he will come back from the dead. (BBE)
Mark 11:20 And when they were going by in the morning, they saw the fig-tree dead from the roots. (BBE)
Mark 11:21 And Peter, having a memory of it, said to him, Master, see, the tree which was cursed by you is dead. (BBE)
Mark 12:18 And there came to him Sadducees, who say there is no coming back from the dead; and they put a question to him, saying, (BBE)
Mark 12:23 In the future life, when they come back from the dead, whose wife will she be? for the seven had her for a wife. (BBE)
Mark 12:25 For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:26 But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying,'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob'? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 12:27 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:28 But after I have come back from the dead, I will go before you into Galilee. (BBE)
Mark 15:22 And they took him to the place named Golgotha, which is, Dead Man's Head. (BBE)
Mark 15:39 And when the Centurion who stood in front of the cross saw that He was dead, he exclaimed, "This man was indeed God's Son." (WEY)
Mark 15:44 Pilate marveled if he were already dead; and summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he had been dead long. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 15:45 When he found out from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph. (See RSV)
Mark 15:46 And he got a linen cloth and, taking him down, put the linen cloth round him, and put him in a place for the dead which had been cut out of a rock; and a stone was rolled against the door. (BBE)
Mark 16:6 And he said to them, Do not be troubled: you are looking for Jesus, the Nazarene, who has been put to death on the cross; he has come back from the dead; he is not here: see, the place where they put him! (BBE)
Mark 16:9 Now when he came back from the dead early on the first day of the week, he went first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had sent out seven evil spirits. (BBE)
Mark 16:14 And later he was seen by the eleven themselves while they were taking food; and he said sharp words to them because they had no faith and their hearts were hard, and because they had no belief in those who had seen him after he had come back from the dead. (BBE)
Luke 6:6 And it came about, on another Sabbath, that he went into the Synagogue and was teaching there. And a man was there whose right hand was dead. (BBE)
Luke 6:8 But he had knowledge of their thoughts; and he said to the man whose hand was dead, Get up and come into the middle. And he got up and came forward. (BBE)
Luke 7:12 Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, behold, one who was dead was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Luke 7:14 And he came near, and put his hand on the stretcher where the dead man was: and those who were moving it came to a stop. And he said, Young man, I say to you, Get up. (BBE)
Luke 7:15 He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 7:22 Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you have seen and heard: that the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 8:6 And some went on the rock, and when it came up it became dry and dead because it had no water. (BBE)
Luke 8:27 And when he had come to the land, there came to him a certain man from the town who had evil spirits; and for a long time he had had no clothing on, and was not living in a house but in the place of the dead. (BBE)
Luke 8:49 While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble the Teacher." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 8:52 All were weeping and mourning her, but he said, "Don't weep. She isn't dead, but sleeping." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 8:53 They were ridiculing him, knowing that she was dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS RSV NIV)
Luke 9:7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him; and he was very perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 9:60 But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce the Kingdom of God." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 10:30 Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 11:44 A curse is on you! for you are like the resting-places of dead men, which are not seen, and men go walking over them without knowledge of it. (BBE)
Luke 14:14 And you will have a blessing, because they will not be able to give you any payment, and you will get your reward when the upright come back from the dead. (BBE)
Luke 15:24 for this, my son, was dead, and is alive again. He was lost, and is found.' They began to celebrate. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 15:32 But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad, for this, your brother, was dead, and is alive again. He was lost, and is found.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 16:30 "He said,'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 16:31 "He said to him,'If they don't listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rises from the dead.'" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 17:37 "Where, Master?" they inquired. "Where the dead body is," He replied, "there also will the vultures flock together." (WEY NIV)
Luke 20:27 And some of the Sadducees came to him, who say that there is no coming back from the dead; and they said to him, (BBE)
Luke 20:33 When they come back from the dead, whose wife will she be? for all the seven had her. (BBE)
Luke 20:35 But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 20:36 And death has no more power over them, for they are equal to the angels, and are sons of God, being of those who will come back from the dead. (BBE)
Luke 20:37 But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 20:38 Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 23:53 And he took it down, and folding it in a linen cloth, he put it in a place cut in the rock for a dead body; and no one had ever been put in it. (BBE)
Luke 24:5 Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 24:46 He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day, (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 2:22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 4:49 The man said, Sir, come down before my boy is dead. (BBE)
John 5:21 For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, even so the Son also gives life to whom he desires. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 5:25 Most certainly, I tell you, the hour comes, and now is, when the dead will hear the Son of God's voice; and those who hear will live. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 5:28 Do not be surprised at this: for the time is coming when his voice will come to all who are in the place of the dead, (BBE)