|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Derived from the Latin dux, meaning "a leader;" Arabic, "a sheik." This word is used to denote the phylarch or chief of a tribe (Genesis 36:15-43; Exodus 15:15; 1 Chronicles 1:51-54).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A leader; a chief; a prince.
2. (n.) In England, one of the highest order of nobility after princes and princesses of the royal blood and the four archbishops of England and Ireland.
3. (n.) In some European countries, a sovereign prince, without the title of king.
4. (v. i.) To play the duke.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
duk: The rendering in the King James Version in Genesis 36:15; Exodus 15:15, and 1 Chronicles 1:51 of 'alluph (the American Standard Revised Version and the English Revised Version, margin "chief"), and in Joshua 13:21 of necikhim ("dukes," the Revised Version (British and American) "princes"). It occurs also, as the rendering of strategos, in 1 Maccabees 10:65 (the Revised Version (British and American) "captain"). Elsewhere necikhim is translated "princes" or "principal men." The fact that with two exceptions the term is applied in English Versions of the Bible only to the chiefs of Edom has led to the impression that in the family of Esau the chiefs bore a special and hereditary title. But 'alluph was a general term for tribal chief or prince (compare Zechariah 9:7; Zechariah 12:5, 6; the Revised Version (British and American) "chieftains," the King James Version "governors").
Moreover, at the time the King James Version was made the word "duke" was not used as a title in England: the term had the same general force as dux, the word employed in the Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) So Sir T. Elyot (died 1546) speaks of "Hannibal, duke of Carthage" (The Governor, II, 233); Shakespeare, Henry V, III, 2, 20, "Be merciful, great duke, to men of mould" (compare Midsummer Night's Dream, I, 1, 21); Sylvester (1591) Du Bartas, "The great Duke, that in dreadful aw upon Mt. Horeb learned the eternal law." In a still earlier age Wycliff uses the word of the Messiah (Matthew 2:6); and in Select Works, III, 137, "Jesus Christ, duke of oure batel."
Yet in all probability the Hebrew word was more specific than "chief" or "duke" in the broad sense. For if 'alluph is derived from 'eleph, "thousand," "tribe," the term would mean the leader of a clan, a "chiliarch" (compare Septuagint, Zechariah 9:7; Zechariah 12:5, 6). the American Standard Revised Version has eliminated the word "duke." See CHIEF.
J. R. Van Pelt
Duke (14 Occurrences)
Genesis 36:15 These were dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn son of Esau; duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz, (Root in KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:16 Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah. (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:17 And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes that came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah: these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:29 These are the dukes that came of the Horites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah, (Root in KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:30 Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan: these are the dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes in the land of Seir. (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:40 And these are the names of the dukes that came of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names; duke Timnah, duke Alvah, duke Jetheth, (Root in KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:41 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon, (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar, (KJV WBS)
Genesis 36:43 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram: these be the dukes of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession: he is Esau the father of the Edomites. (KJV WBS)
1 Chronicles 1:51 Hadad died also. And the dukes of Edom were; duke Timnah, duke Aliah, duke Jetheth, (Root in KJV WBS)
1 Chronicles 1:52 Duke Aholibamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon, (KJV WBS)
1 Chronicles 1:53 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mibzar, (KJV WBS)
1 Chronicles 1:54 Duke Magdiel, duke Iram. These are the dukes of Edom. (KJV WBS)