|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
(1.) For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire (Genesis 8:20). The ever-burning fire on the altar was first kindled from heaven (Leviticus 6:9, 13; 9:24), and afterwards rekindled at the dedication of Solomon's temple (2 Chronicles 7:1, 3). The expressions "fire from heaven" and "fire of the Lord" generally denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the altar was so called (Exodus 29:18; Leviticus 1:9; 2:3; 3:5, 9).
Fire for a sacred purpose obtained otherwise than from the altar was called "strange fire" (Leviticus 10:1, 2; Numbers 3:4).
The victims slain for sin offerings were afterwards consumed by fire outside the camp (Leviticus 4:12, 21; 6:30; 16:27; Hebrews 13:11).
(2.) For domestic purposes, such as baking, cooking, warmth, etc. (Jeremiah 36:22; Mark 14:54; John 18:18). But on Sabbath no fire for any domestic purpose was to be kindled (Exodus 35:3; Numbers 15:32-36).
(3.) Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were guilty of certain forms of unchastity and incest (Leviticus 20:14; 21:9). The burning of captives in war was not unknown among the Jews (2 Samuel 12:31; Jeremiah 29:22). The bodies of infamous persons who were executed were also sometimes burned (Joshua 7:25; 2 Kings 23:16).
(4.) In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as Jericho (Joshua 6:24), Ai (8:19), Hazor (11:11), Laish (Judges 18:27), etc. The war-chariots of the Canaanites were burnt (Joshua 11:6, 9, 13). The Israelites burned the images (2 Kings 10:26; R.V., "pillars") of the house of Baal. These objects of worship seem to have been of the nature of obelisks, and were sometimes evidently made of wood.
Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle (Judges 7:16).
(5.) Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah's presence and the instrument of his power (Exodus 14:19; Numbers 11:1, 3; Judges 13:20; 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10, 12; 2:11; Isaiah 6:4; Ezek. 1:4; Revelation 1:14, etc.).
God's word is also likened unto fire (Jeremiah 23:29). It is referred to as an emblem of severe trials or misfortunes (Zechariah 12:6; Luke 12:49; 1 Corinthians 3:13, 15; 1 Peter 1:7), and of eternal punishment (Matthew 5:22; Mark 9:44; Revelation 14:10; 21:8).
The influence of the Holy Ghost is likened unto fire (Matthew 3:11). His descent was denoted by the appearance of tongues as of fire (Acts 2:3).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) The evolution of light and heat in the combustion of bodies; combustion; state of ignition.
2. (n.) Fuel in a state of combustion, as on a hearth, or in a stove or a furnace.
3. (n.) The burning of a house or town; a conflagration.
4. (n.) Anything which destroys or affects like fire.
5. (n.) Ardor of passion, whether love or hate; excessive warmth; consuming violence of temper.
6. (n.) Liveliness of imagination or fancy; intellectual and moral enthusiasm; capacity for ardor and zeal.
7. (n.) Splendor; brilliancy; luster; hence, a star.
8. (n.) Torture by burning; severe trial or affliction.
9. (n.) The discharge of firearms; firing; as, the troops were exposed to a heavy fire.
10. (v. t.) To set on fire; to kindle; as, to fire a house or chimney; to fire a pile.
11. (v. t.) To subject to intense heat; to bake; to burn in a kiln; as, to fire pottery.
12. (v. t.) To inflame; to irritate, as the passions; as, to fire the soul with anger, pride, or revenge.
13. (v. t.) To animate; to give life or spirit to; as, to fire the genius of a young man.
14. (v. t.) To feed or serve the fire of; as, to fire a boiler.
15. (v. t.) To light up as if by fire; to illuminate.
16. (v. t.) To cause to explode; as, to fire a torpedo; to discharge; as, to fire a musket or cannon; to fire cannon balls, rockets, etc.
17. (v. t.) To drive by fire.
18. (v. t.) To cauterize.
19. (v. i.) To take fire; to be kindled; to kindle.
20. (v. i.) To be irritated or inflamed with passion.
21. (v. i.) To discharge artillery or firearms; as, they fired on the town.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
BAPTISM OF FIRE
(en pneumati hagio kai puri): This expression is used in Matthew 3:11. The copulative kai requires that the baptism "in the Holy Ghost and in fire," should be regarded as one and the same thing. It does violence to the construction, therefore, to make this statement refer to the fire Of judgment. The difficulty has always been in associating fire with the person of the Holy Ghost. But in the connection of fire with the work or influence of the Holy Ghost the difficulty disappears. The thought of John is that the Saviour would give them the Divine Sanctifier as purifying water to wash away their sins and as a refining fire to consume their dross; to kindle in their hearts the holy flame of Divine love and zeal; to illuminate their souls with heavenly wisdom. The statement, therefore, in this verse indicates the manner in which Christ will admit them to discipleship and prepare them for His service.
See BAPTISM; FIRE.
Jacob W. Kapp
fir ('esh; pur):
These are the common words for fire, occurring very frequently. 'Ur, "light" (Isaiah 24:15 the King James Version; compare the Revised Version (British and American); Isaiah 31:9, and see FIRES), nur (Aramaic) (Daniel 3:22) are found a few times, also 'eshshah (Jeremiah 6:29), and be`erah (Exodus 22:6), once each. Acts 28:2, 3 has pura, "pyre," and Mark 14:54 Luke 22:56, phos, "light," the Revised Version (British and American) "in the light (of the fire)." "To set on fire," yatsath (2 Samuel 14:31), lahat (Deuteronomy 32:22, etc.), phlogizo (James 3:6).
Fire was regarded by primitive peoples as supernatural in origin and specially Divine. Molech, the fire-god, and other deities were worshipped by certain Canaanitish and other tribes with human sacrifices (Deuteronomy 12:31 2 Kings 17:31 Psalm 106:37), and, although this was specially forbidden to the Israelites (Leviticus 18:21 Deuteronomy 12:31; Deuteronomy 18:10), they too often lapsed into the practice (2 Kings 16:3; 2 Kings 21:6 Jeremiah 7:31 Ezekiel 20:26, 31).
See MOLECH; IDOLATRY.
1. Literal Usage:
Fire in the Old Testament is specially associated with the Divine presence, e.g. in the making of the Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15:17), in the burning bush. (Exodus 3:2-4), in the pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21), on Sinai (Exodus 19:18), in the flame on the altar (Judges 13:20). Yahweh was "the God that answereth by fire" (1 Kings 18:24, 38). In the Law, therefore, sacrifices and offerings (including incense) were to be made by fire (Exodus 12:8, 9, 10 Leviticus 1). Fire from Yahweh signified the acceptance of certain special and separate sacrifices (Judges 6:21 1 Kings 18:38 1 Chronicles 21:26). In Leviticus 9:24 the sacrificial fire "came forth from before Yahweh." The altar-fire was to be kept continually burning (Leviticus 6:12, 13); offering by "strange fire" (other than the sacred altar-fire) was punished by "fire from before Yahweh" (Leviticus 10:1, 2). Fire came from heaven also at the consecration of Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles 7:1).
According to APC 2Macc 1:19-22, at the time of the Captivity priests hid the sacred fire in a well, and Nehemiah found it again, in a miraculous way, for the second Temple. Later, Maccabeus is said to have restored the fire by "striking stones and taking fire out of them" (10:3).
Fire was a frequent instrument of the Divine primitive wrath (Genesis 19:24 Exodus 9:23 (lightning); Numbers 11:1; Numbers 16:35, etc.; Psalm 104:4, the American Standard Revised Version "Who maketh. flames of fire his ministers"). Fire shall yet dissolve the world (2 Peter 3:12). It was frequently used by the Israelites as a means of destruction of idolatrous objects and the cities of their enemies (Deuteronomy 7:5, 25; Deuteronomy 12:3; Deuteronomy 13:16 Joshua 6:24; Judges, frequently); sometimes also of punishment (Leviticus 20:14; Leviticus 21:9 Joshua 7:25; APC 2Macc 7:5).
The domestic use of fire was, as among other peoples, for heating, cooking, lighting, etc., but according to the Law no fire could be kindled on the Sabbath day (Exodus 35:3). It was employed also for melting (Exodus 32:24), and refining (Numbers 31:23; Numbers 3:2, 3, etc.). For the sacrificial fire wood was used as fuel (Genesis 22:3, 1 Leviticus 6:12); for ordinary purposes, also charcoal (Proverbs 25:22 Isaiah 6:6, the Revised Version, margin "or hot stone"; Habakkuk 3:5, the Revised Version (British and American) "fiery bolts," margin "or burning coals"; John 21:9, "a fire of coals" the Revised Version, margin "Gr, a fire of charcoal"; Romans 12:20); branches (Numbers 15:32 1 Kings 17:12); thorns (Psalm 58:9; Psalm 118:12 Ecclesiastes 7:6 Isaiah 33:12); grass and other herbage (Matthew 6:30 Luke 12:28).
2. Figurative Use:
Fire was an emblem
(1) of Yahweh in His glory (Daniel 7:9);
(2) in His holiness (Isaiah 6:4);
(3) in His jealousy for His sole worship (Deuteronomy 4:24 Hebrews 12:29 Psalm 79:5; perhaps also Isaiah 33:14);
(4) of His protection of His people (2 Kings 6:17 Zechariah 2:5);
(5) of His righteous judgment and purification (Zechariah 13:9 Malachi 3:2, 3 1 Corinthians 3:13, 15);
(6) of His wrath against sin and punishment of the wicked (Deuteronomy 9:3 Psalm 18:8; Psalm 89:46 Isaiah 5:24; Isaiah 30:33, "a Topheth is prepared of old"; Matthew 3:10-12; Matthew 5:22, the Revised Version (British and American) "the hell of fire," margin "Greek, Gehenna of fire"; see Isaiah 30:33 Jeremiah 7:31 Matthew 13:40, 42; Matthew 25:41, "eternal fire"; Mark 9:45-49; see Isaiah 66:24 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Hebrews 10:27 Jude 1:7);
(7) of the word of God in its power (Jeremiah 5:14; Jeremiah 23:29);
(8) of Divine truth (Psalm 39:3 Jeremiah 20:9 Luke 12:49);
(9) of that which guides men (Isaiah 50:10, 11);
(10) of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:3);
(11) of the glorified Christ (Revelation 1:14);
(12) of kindness in its melting power (Romans 12:20);
(13) of trial and suffering (Psalm 66:12 Isaiah 43:2 1 Peter 1:7; 1 Peter 4:12);
(14) of evil (Proverbs 6:27; Proverbs 16:27 Isaiah 9:18; Isaiah 65:5); lust or desire (Hosea 7:6; APC Sirach 23:16; 1 Corinthians 7:9); greed (Proverbs 30:16);
(15) of the tongue in its evil aspects (James 3:5, 6);
(16) of heaven in its purity and glory (Revelation 15:2; see also Revelation 21:22, 23).
W. L. Walker
See BAPTISM OF FIRE; MOLECH.
LAKE OF FIRE
(limne tou puros): Found in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10, 14 (bis), 15. Revelation 21:8 has "the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone." The brimstone in connection with "the lake of fire" occurs also in Revelation 19:20 and 10, the latter being a backward reference to the former passage. In Revelation 20:14 the words, "This is the second death, even the lake of fire" are either a gloss originally intended to elucidate 20:15 through a reference to 20:6, or, if part of the text, formed originally the close of 20:15, whence they became displaced on account of the identity of the words once immediately preceding them in 20:15 with the words now preceding them in 20:14. The "lake of fire" can be called "the second death" only with reference to the lost among men (20:15), not with reference to death and Hades (20:14). In all the above references "the lake of fire" appears as a place of punishment, of perpetual torment, not of annihilation (20:10). The beast (19:20); the pseudo-prophet (19:20; 20:10); the devil (20:10); the wicked of varying description (20:15; 21:8), are cast into it. When the same is affirmed of death and Hades (20:14), it is doubtful whether this is meant as a mere figure for the cessation of these two evils personified, or has a more realistic background in the existence of two demon-powers so named (compare Isaiah 25:8 1 Corinthians 15:26, 54;; 2 Esdras 7:31). The Scriptural source for the conception of "the lake of fire" lies in Genesis 19:24, where already the fire and the brimstone occur together, while the locality of the catastrophe described is the neighborhood of the Dead Sea. The association of the Dead Sea with this fearful judgment of God, together with the desolate appearance of the place, rendered it a striking figure for the scene of eschatological retribution. The two other Old Testament passages which have "fire and brimstone" (Psalm 11:6 Ezekiel 38:22) are dependent on the Genesis passage, with which they have the figure of "raining" in common. In Revelation 21:8, "their part" seems to allude to Psalm 11:6, "the portion of their cup." In Enoch 67:4; the Dead Sea appears as the place of punishment for evil spirits. Of late it has been proposed to derive "the lake of fire" from "the stream of fire" which destroys the enemies of Ahura in the Zoroastrian eschatology; so Bousset, Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1906, 433, 434. But the figures of a stream and a lake are different; compare 2 Esdras 13:9-11, where a stream of fire proceeds from the mouth of the Messiah for the destruction of His enemies. Besides, the Persian fire is, in part, a fire of purification, and not of destruction only (Bousset, 442), and even in the apocalyptic Book of Enoch, the fires of purification and of punishment are not confounded (compare Enoch 67:4 with 90:20). The Old Testament fully explains the entire conception.
stranj ('esh zarah, "alien fire"): These words are mentioned in connection with the fatal sin committed by the two oldest sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, in "offering strange fire before Yahweh," on the occasion of the formal consecration of the Aaronitic priesthood (Leviticus 10:1, 2). The fact is mentioned again in Numbers 3:4; Numbers 26:61. The greatest calamity of all befell them in that they were cut off childless, which for every true Israelite was the darkest fate imaginable. This fact is mentioned twice (Numbers 3:4 1 Chronicles 24:2). The power which cut off the lives of Nadab and Abihu (Leviticus 10:1, 2) is the same as that which shortly before had consumed the consecratory burnt offering (Leviticus 9:24). What was its true character, whether, as Rosenmuller and Dachsel surmise, it was a lightning stroke or some other supernatural agency, is not worth while debating. It is enough for us to know that "there came forth fire from before Yahweh and devoured them." Yet this latter word is not to be taken literally, since they were carried out for burial in their own linen garments (Leviticus 10:5). They were therefore merely killed, not incinerated. What was their sin? The words "strange fire" have been explained either as common fire, which they placed in their censers, or as unholy incense, which they put thereon (Exodus 39:38). But the text plainly points to the former. The sacred fire, once kindled on the altar, was never to be permitted to go out (Leviticus 6:12 f). When later the temple was dedicated Yahweh again lighted the fire on the altar from heaven, as in the case of the dedication of the tabernacle. As, however, the injunction to take fire for the censers of the incense offering only from the coals of the altar is not found before (Leviticus 16:12), Rosenmuller's observation would seem to be very much to the point: "Quamquam enim in iis quae praecedunt, non extat hoc interdictum, tamen est verisimile Mosem vetasse Aaroni et filiis eius ne ignem alienum altari imponerent." ("For although his injunction does not hold in regard to the preceding cases, yet it is very probable that Moses had forbidden Aaron and his sons to place strange fire upon the altar.") A verbal injunction of Moses must have preceded the fatal mistake. But the text leads us to believe there was more than a mistake here. Some find here the sin of drunkenness, from the enjoined abstinence from any intoxicating drink before the priests thereafter minister before Yahweh (Leviticus 10:9). The likeliest explanation is that, inflated with pride on account of the exaltation of the Aaronitic family above all Israel, they broke unbidden into the ritual of the consecration of the tabernacle and priesthood, eager to take part in the ceremony, and in their haste bringing strange fire into the tabernacle, and thus met their death (see Oehler, Old Testament Theol., 126, 282). The fire burning on the altar came from God, it might never go out, since it represented "the unbroken course of adoration of Yahweh, carried on in sacrifice." And this course was interrupted by Nadab and Abihu. The fire on the altar was a symbol of holiness, and they sought to overlay it with unholiness. And thus it became to them a consuming fire, because they approached the Holy One in a profane spirit (compare Isaiah 33:14).
Henry E. Dosker
TONGUES OF FIRE
(glossai hosei puros): The reference in this topic is to the marvelous gift of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-13). After His resurrection the Lord bade His disciples to tarry in Jerusalem until He should fulfill to them the promise of the Father, and until they should be clothed with power from on high (Luke 24:49). Acts 1:8 repeats the same gracious promise with additional particulars: "But ye shall receive power, when the Holy Spirit is come upon you: and ye shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth." These were probably the last words our Lord spoke on earth before He ascended to the right hand of God.
1. Supernatural Manifestations:
When the Day of Pentecost was fully come and the disciples, no doubt by previous arrangement and with one accord, were gathered together in one place, the promise was gloriously fulfilled. On that day, the 50th after the Passover, and so the first day of the week, the Lord's day, the Spirit of God descended upon them in marvelous copiousness and power. The gift of the Spirit was accompanied by extraordinary manifestations or phenomena. These were three and were supernatural. His coming first appealed to the ear. The disciples heard a "sound from heaven," which rushed with mighty force into the house and filled it even as the storm rushes, but there was no wind. It was the sound that filled the house, not a wind. It was an invisible cause producing audible effects. Next, the eye was arrested by the appearance of tongues of fire which rested on each of the gathered company. Our the King James Version "cloven tongues" is somewhat misleading, for it is likely to suggest that each fire-like tongue was cloven or forked, as one sometimes sees in the pictures representing the scene. But this is not at all the meaning of Luke's expression; rather, tongues parting asunder, tongues distributed among them, each disciple sharing in the gift equally with the others. "Like as of fire," or, more exactly, "as if of fire," indicates the appearance of the tongues, not that they were actually aflame, but that they prefigured the marvelous gift with which the disciples were now endowed.
Finally, there was the impartation to them of a new strange power to speak in languages they had never learned. It was because they were filled with the Holy Spirit that this extraordinary gift was exhibited by them. Not only did the Spirit enable them thus to speak, but even the utterance of words depended on His divine influence-they spake "as the Spirit gave them utterance."
Many attempts have been made by writers on the Acts to explain the phenomenon of Pentecost so as to exclude in whole or in part the supernatural element which Luke unquestionably recognizes. Some try to account for the gift of tongues by saying that it was a new style of speaking, or new forms of expression, or new and elevated thoughts, but this is both unnatural and wholly inconsistent with the narrative where a real difference of language is implied. Others imagine that the miracle was wrought upon the ears of the hearers, each of whom supposed what he heard to be uttered in his mother-tongue. But this view contradicts the distinct statement in Acts 2:4: they "began to speak with other tongues," i.e. the disciples did. It contradicts what the multitude affirmed, namely, "How hear we, every man in our own language, wherein we were born?" (2:8). Furthermore, the view contains an element of falsehood, for in this case the miracle was wrought to make men believe what was not actually the fact. The only reasonable explanation of the phenomena is that which the record bears on its face, and which Luke obviously meant his readers to believe, namely, that the Holy Spirit enabled the disciples to speak in the various languages represented by the multitude gathered together at the time.
2. Sinai and Pentecost:
The scenes witnessed at Pentecost were somewhat analogous to the events which occurred at the giving of the Law at Sinai, but the contrast between them is much more pronounced. We are told in Hebrews 12:18, 19 that "tempest," "fire," and "the voice of words" attended the inauguration of the Mosaic dispensation. Something similar was witnessed at Pentecost. But the differences between the two are very marked. At Sinai there were also the blackness and darkness, the quaking earth, the thunderings and lightnings, the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud, the terror of the people, and the fear of Moses (Exodus 19:16-18 Hebrews 12:18, 19). Nothing of this was seen at Pentecost.
The phenomena characterize the two dispensations. That of Sinai was legal. Its substance was: Do and live; disobey and die. Law knows no mercy, extends no grace. Exact justice is its rule, perfect righteousness its requirement, and death its penalty. No wonder terrible things accompanied its proclamation, and Moses trembled with fear. No wonder it was called "a fiery law" (Deuteronomy 33:2).
3. Qualities Imparted by the Spirit:
With the advent of the Spirit came perfect grace, divine power and complete pardon for the worst of men. At Sinai God spoke in one language. At Pentecost the Spirit through the disciples spoke in many tongues (15 in all are mentioned in Acts 2). The Law was for one people alone; the gospel is for the whole race. The sound that accompanied the outpouring of the Spirit filled all the house and all the disciples likewise-token and pledge of the copiousness, the fullness of the gift. The tongues of flame signified the power of speech, boldness of utterance, and persuasiveness which from henceforth were to mark the testimony of the disciples.
The marvelous capabilities which the witnesses display after Pentecost are most noteworthy. It is common to admire their courage and zeal, to contrast their fearlessness in the presence of enemies and danger with their former timidity and cowardice. It is perhaps not so common to recognize in them the qualities that lie at the foundation of all effective work, that which gives to witness-bearing for Christ its real energy and potency. These qualities are such as: knowledge and wisdom, zeal and prudence, confidence and devotion, boldness and love. skill and tact. These and the like gifts appear in their discourses, in their behavior when difficulties arise and dangers impend, and in their conduct before the angry rulers. It is altogether remarkable with what skill and tact they defend themselves before the Sanhedrin, and with what effectiveness they preach the gospel of the grace of God to the multitude, often a scoffing and hostile multitude. In Peter's address on the Day of Pentecost there are the marks of the highest art, the most skillful logic, and the most, persuasive argument. Professor Stifler well says of it: "It is without a peer among the products of uninspired men. And yet it is the work of a Galilean fisherman, without culture or training, and his maiden effort." The like distinguished traits are found in Peter's address recorded in Acts 3, in that to Cornelius and his friends, and in his defense when arraigned by the strict believers at Jerusalem for having gone into the company of men uncircumcised and having eaten with them. No less must be said of the equally wonderful reply of Stephen to the charge brought against him as recorded in Acts 7. It is quite true that Stephen did not share in the effusion of the Spirit on the Day of Pentecost, so far as we know, but he did share in the gift and power of the Spirit soon after, for we are told that he was full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, that he was also full of grace and power. Accordingly, it should be no surprise to read, as the effect of his discourse, that the high priest and all the rest who heard him "were cut to the heart, and they gnashed on him with their teeth" (7:54). Stephen spoke with a tongue of fire.
In the management of the serious complaint made by the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews as to the neglect of their widows in the daily ministration (Acts 6:1), and in their conduct and defense when brought before the council, as they were once and again (Acts 4; Acts 5; Acts 5 12), they exhibited a wisdom and prudence far enough removed from shrewdness and cunning. The qualities they possessed and displayed are uncommon, are more than human, they are the gift of the Holy Spirit with whom they were baptized on Pentecost. So the Lord Jesus had promised (Mark 13:11 John 16:13 Acts 1:8).
4. Distinguished from 1 Corinthians 12; 14:
The tongues of fire which we have been considering appear to have differed in one important aspect from the like gift bestowed on the Corinthians (1 Corinthians 12; 1 Corinthians 14). At Pentecost the disciples spoke in the languages of the various persons who heard them; there needed to be no interpreter, as was provided for at Corinth. Paul distinctly orders that if there be no one to explain or interpret the ecstatic utterance of a speaker, he shall keep silent (1 Corinthians 14:28). At Pentecost many spoke at the same time, for the Spirit had perfect control of the entire company and used each as it pleased Him. At Corinth Paul directed that not more than two or at most three should speak in a tongue, and that by course (one at a time). At Pentecost each one of the 15 nationalities there represented by the crowd heard in his own tongue wherein he was born the wonderful works of God. At Corinth no one understood the tongue, not even the speaker himself, for it seems to have been a rhapsody, an uncontrolled ecstatic outburst, and in case there was no one to interpret or explain it, the speaker was to hold his peace and speak to himself and to God, i.e. he must not disturb the worship by giving voice to his ecstasy unless the whole assembly should be edified thereby. Paul sets prophecy, or preaching the word of God, far above this gift of tongues.
It may not be out of place here to say that the so-called "gift of tongues," so loudly proclaimed by certain excitable persons in our day, has nothing in common with the mighty action of the Spirit of God on the day of Pentecost, and hardly anything with that which the Corinthian Christians enjoyed, and which Paul regulated with a master-hand.
SeeTONGUES, GIFT OF.
Stifler, Introduction to the Book of Acts; Alexander, Commentary on the Acts; Kuyper, Work of the Holy Spirit; Moorehead, Outline Studies in Acts-Ephesians.
William G. Moorehead
un-kwench'-a-b'-l, pur asbestos): The phrase occurs in Matthew 3:12 and its parallel Luke 3:17 in the words of the Baptist on the Messianic judgment: "The chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire"; but also on the lips of Christ Himself in Mark 9:43, where the "unquenchable fire" is equated with "Gehenna" (which see). The same idea lies in 9:48, "The fire is not quenched" (ou sbennutai), and is implied in the numerous allusions to fire as the instrument of punishment and destruction in the Gospels and other parts of the New Testament (e.g. "the Gehenna of fire," Matthew 5:22 margin, etc.; "furnace of fire," Matthew 13:40, 42, 50; "eternal fire," Matthew 25:41; compare also 2 Thessalonians 1:8 2 Peter 3:7; Jude 1:7 Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10, 14, 15; Revelation 21:8). For Old Testament analogies compare Isaiah 1:31; Isaiah 34:10; Isaiah 66:24 Jeremiah 4:4; Jeremiah 7:20; Jeremiah 17:27; Jeremiah 21:12 Ezekiel 20:47, 48. The language is obviously highly metaphorical, conveying the idea of an awful and abiding judgment, but is not to be pressed as teaching a destruction in the sense of annihilation of the wicked. An unquenchable fire is not needed for a momentary act of destruction. Even in the view of Edward White, the wicked survive the period of judgment to which these terms relate.
See PUNISHMENT, EVERLASTING.
FIRE, LAKE OF
See LAKE OF FIRE.
See UNQUENCHABLE FIRE.
Fire (602 Occurrences)
Matthew 3:10 "Even now the axe lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 3:11 I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: (KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 3:12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 5:22 But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother,' Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say,'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Matthew 6:30 But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won't he much more clothe you, you of little faith? (See NIV)
Matthew 7:19 Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 13:40 As therefore the darnel weeds are gathered up and burned with fire; so will it be at the end of this age. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 13:42 and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Matthew 13:50 and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Matthew 17:15 "Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is epileptic, and suffers grievously; for he often falls into the fire, and often into the water. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:8 If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Matthew 18:9 If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Matthew 22:7 But the king was angry; and he sent his armies, and those who had put his servants to death he gave to destruction, burning down their town with fire. (BBE YLT NAS)
Matthew 25:41 Then he will say also to those on the left hand,'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:22 Often it has cast him both into the fire and into the water, to destroy him. But if you can do anything, have compassion on us, and help us." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:43 If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life maimed, rather than having your two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:44 'where their worm doesn't die, and the fire is not quenched.' (WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 9:45 If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off. It is better for you to enter into life lame, rather than having your two feet to be cast into Gehenna, into the fire that will never be quenched- (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 9:46 'where their worm doesn't die, and the fire is not quenched.' (WEB KJV WEY BBE DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 9:47 If your eye causes you to stumble, cast it out. It is better for you to enter into the Kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire, (WEB KJV DBY WBS YLT)
Mark 9:48 'where their worm doesn't die, and the fire is not quenched.' (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 9:49 For everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be seasoned with salt. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:54 Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Mark 14:67 And seeing Peter warming himself by the fire, she gave him a look, and said, You were with this Nazarene, even Jesus. (BBE)
Luke 3:9 Even now the axe also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:16 John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 3:17 whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 9:54 When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did?" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 12:28 But if this is how God clothes the grass in the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith? (See NIV)
Luke 12:49 "I came to throw fire on the earth. I wish it were already kindled. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 16:24 He cried and said,'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue! For I am in anguish in this flame.' (See NIV)
Luke 17:29 but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom, it rained fire and sulfur from the sky, and destroyed them all. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:55 When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Luke 22:56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him. (KJV WEY ASV BBE WBS NAS NIV)
John 2:17 And it came to the minds of the disciples that the Writings say, I am on fire with passion for your house. (BBE)
John 15:6 If a man doesn't remain in me, he is thrown out as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, throw them into the fire, and they are burned. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:18 Now the servants and the officers were standing there, having made a fire of coals, for it was cold. They were warming themselves. Peter was with them, standing and warming himself. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
John 18:25 But Simon Peter was still there warming himself by the fire. They said to him, Are you not one of his disciples? He said, No, I am not. (BBE)
John 21:9 So when they got out on the land, they saw a fire of coals there, and fish laid on it, and bread. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:3 Tongues like fire appeared and were distributed to them, and one sat on each of them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 2:19 I will show wonders in the sky above, and signs on the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 7:30 "When forty years were fulfilled, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, in a flame of fire in a bush. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT RSV)
Acts 19:19 And a great number of those who were experts in strange arts took their books and put them on the fire in front of everyone: and when the books were valued they came to fifty thousand bits of silver. (BBE)
Acts 28:2 The natives showed us uncommon kindness; for they kindled a fire, and received us all, because of the present rain, and because of the cold. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 28:3 But when Paul had gathered a bundle of sticks and laid them on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat, and fastened on his hand. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Acts 28:5 However he shook off the creature into the fire, and wasn't harmed. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Romans 10:19 But again, did Israel fail to understand? Listen to Moses first. He says, "I will fire you with jealousy against a nation which is no nation, and with fury against a nation devoid of understanding." (WEY)
Romans 12:20 Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him. If he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in doing so, you will heap coals of fire on his head." (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT)
1 Corinthians 3:13 each man's work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it, because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sort of work each man's work is. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Corinthians 3:15 If any man's work is burned, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be saved, but as through fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
1 Thessalonians 5:19 Don't quench the Spirit. (See NIV)
2 Thessalonians 1:7 and to give relief to you who are afflicted with us, when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming fire, Paul's Second Letter to Timothy (WEB ASV BBE NAS RSV NIV)
2 Thessalonians 1:8 In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: (KJV WEY DBY WBS YLT)
Titus 2:14 Who gave himself for us, so that he might make us free from all wrongdoing, and make for himself a people clean in heart and on fire with good works. (BBE)
Hebrews 1:7 Of the angels he says, "Who makes his angels winds, and his servants a flame of fire." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 6:8 But if it only yields a mass of thorns and briers, it is considered worthless, and is in danger of being cursed, and in the end will be destroyed by fire. (WEY)
Hebrews 10:27 but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and a fierceness of fire which will devour the adversaries. The Letter from James (WEB WEY ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 11:34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, grew mighty in war, and caused foreign armies to flee. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Hebrews 12:18 For you have not come to a mountain that might be touched, and that burned with fire, and to blackness, darkness, storm, (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hebrews 12:29 for our God is a consuming fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 3:5 So the tongue is also a little member, and boasts great things. See how a small fire can spread to a large forest! (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 3:6 And the tongue is a fire. The world of iniquity among our members is the tongue, which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire by Gehenna. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
James 5:3 Your gold and your silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be for a testimony against you, and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up your treasure in the last days. (WEB KJV WEY ASV DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 1:7 that the proof of your faith, which is more precious than gold that perishes even though it is tested by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ- (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Peter 4:12 Dear brothers, do not be surprised, as if it was something strange, if your faith is tested as by fire: (BBE DBY)
2 Peter 2:6 And sent destruction on Sodom and Gomorrah, burning them up with fire as an example to those whose way of life might in the future be unpleasing to him; (BBE)
2 Peter 3:7 But the heavens that now are, and the earth, by the same word have been stored up for fire, being reserved against the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will be dissolved with fervent heat, and the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. (See RSV NIV)
2 Peter 3:12 Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God, wherein the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat? (KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT RSV NIV)
Jude 1:7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them, having, in the same way as these, given themselves over to sexual immorality and gone after strange flesh, are set forth as an example, suffering the punishment of eternal fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jude 1:23 and some save, snatching them out of the fire with fear, hating even the clothing stained by the flesh. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 1:14 His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 1:15 And his feet like polished brass, as if it had been burned in a fire; and his voice was as the sound of great waters. (BBE YLT)
Revelation 2:18 "To the angel of the assembly in Thyatira write: "The Son of God, who has his eyes like a flame of fire, and his feet are like burnished brass, says these things: (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 3:18 I counsel you to buy from me gold refined by fire, that you may become rich; and white garments, that you may clothe yourself, and that the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed; and eye salve to anoint your eyes, that you may see. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 4:5 Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 8:5 The angel took the censer, and he filled it with the fire of the altar, and threw it on the earth. There followed thunders, sounds, lightnings, and an earthquake. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 8:7 The first sounded, and there followed hail and fire, mixed with blood, and they were thrown to the earth. One third of the earth was burnt up, and one third of the trees were burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 8:8 And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; (KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 9:17 Thus I saw the horses in the vision, and those who sat on them, having breastplates of fiery red, hyacinth blue, and sulfur yellow; and the heads of lions. Out of their mouths proceed fire, smoke, and sulfur. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 9:18 By these three plagues were one third of mankind killed: by the fire, the smoke, and the sulfur, which proceeded out of their mouths. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 10:1 I saw a mighty angel coming down out of the sky, clothed with a cloud. A rainbow was on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 11:5 If anyone desires to harm them, fire proceeds out of their mouth and devours their enemies. If anyone desires to harm them, he must be killed in this way. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 13:13 He performs great signs, even making fire come down out of the sky to the earth in the sight of people. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 14:10 he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of his anger. He will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 14:18 Another angel came out from the altar, he who has power over fire, and he called with a great voice to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, "Send forth your sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for the earth's grapes are fully ripe!" (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 15:2 I saw something like a sea of glass mixed with fire, and those who overcame the beast, his image, and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having harps of God. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 16:8 The fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 17:16 The ten horns which you saw, and the beast, these will hate the prostitute, and will make her desolate, and will make her naked, and will eat her flesh, and will burn her utterly with fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 18:8 Therefore in one day her plagues will come: death, mourning, and famine; and she will be utterly burned with fire; for the Lord God who has judged her is strong. (WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:12 His eyes are a flame of fire, and on his head are many crowns. He has names written and a name written which no one knows but he himself. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:20 The beast was taken, and with him the false prophet who worked the signs in his sight, with which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. These two were thrown alive into the lake of fire that burns with sulfur. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 20:9 They went up over the breadth of the earth, and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God, and devoured them. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 20:10 The devil who deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet are also. They will be tormented day and night forever and ever. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Revelation 20:14 Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 20:15 If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 21:8 But for the cowardly, unbelieving, sinners, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars, their part is in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death." (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Genesis 15:17 Then when the sun went down and it was dark, he saw a smoking fire and a flaming light which went between the parts of the bodies. (BBE DBY YLT RSV NIV)
Genesis 19:24 Then Yahweh rained on Sodom and on Gomorrah sulfur and fire from Yahweh out of the sky. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV)
Genesis 22:6 Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son. He took in his hand the fire and the knife. They both went together. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)