|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Whom Jehovah has strengthened.
(1.) Son of Ahaz (2 Kings 18:1; 2 Chronicles 29:1), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2 Kings 18:20, Isaiah 36-39, and 2 Chronicles 29-32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set himself to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, and among other things which he did for this end, he destroyed the "brazen serpent," which had been removed to Jerusalem, and had become an object of idolatrous worship (Numbers 21:9). A great reformation was wrought in the kingdom of Judah in his day (2 Kings 18:4; 2 Chronicles 29:3-36).
On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and "rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not," but entered into a league with Egypt (Isaiah 30; 31; 36:6-9). This led to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib (2 Kings 18:13-16), who took forty cities, and besieged Jerusalem with mounds. Hezekiah yielded to the demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold (18:14).
But Sennacherib dealt treacherously with Hezekiah (Isaiah 33:1), and a second time within two years invaded his kingdom (2 Kings 18:17; 2 Chronicles 32:9; Isaiah 36). This invasion issued in the destruction of Sennacherib's army. Hezekiah prayed to God, and "that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men." Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings 19:37). (see SENNACHERIB.)
The narrative of Hezekiah's sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2 Kings 20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24, Isaiah 38:1. Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, and among them Merodach-baladan, the viceroy of Babylon (2 Chronicles 32:23; 2 Kings 20:12). He closed his days in peace and prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Manasseh. He was buried in the "chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of David" (2 Chronicles 32:27-33). He had "after him none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him" (2 Kings 18:5). (see ISAIAH.)
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
(1) King of Judah. See special article
(2) A son of Neariah, of the royal family of Judah (1 Chronicles 3:23, the Revised Version (British and American) "Hizkiah").
(3) An ancestor of Zephaniah (Ze 1:1, the King James Version "Hizkiah").
(4) One of the returned exiles from Babylon (Ezra 2:16 Nehemiah 7:21).
(chizqiyah, "Yahweh has strengthened"; also written chizqiyahu, "Yah has strengthened him"; Hezekias): One of the greatest of the kings of Judah; reigned (according to the most self-consistent chronology) from circa 715 to circa 690 B.C.
Old Testament Estimate:
On the Old Testament standard of loyalty to Yahweh he is eulogized by Jesus Sirach as one of the three kings who alone did not "commit trespass" (Sirach 49:4), the other two being David and Josiah. The Chronicler represents him (2 Chronicles 32:31) as lapsing from the wisdom of piety only by his vainglory in revealing the resources of his realm to the envoys of Merodach-baladan. In 2 Kings 18:5, the earliest estimate, his special distinction, beyond all other Judean kings, before or after, was that he "trusted in Yahweh, the God of Israel." It is as the king who "clave to Yahweh" (2 Kings 18:6) that the Hebrew mind sums up his royal and personal character.
I. Sources for His Life and Times.
1. Scripture Annals:
The historical accounts in 2 Kings 18, 20 and 2 Chronicles 29, 32 are derived in the main from the same state annals, though the latter seems also to have had the Temple archives to draw upon. For "the rest of his acts" 2 Kings refers to a source then still in existence but now lost, "the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" (2 Kings 20:20), and 2 Chronicles to "the vision of Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz, in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel" (2 Chronicles 32:32). In this last-named source (if this is the original of our Book of Isaiah.), besides the warnings and directions called out by the course of the history, there is a narrative section (Isaiah 36, 39) recounting the Sennacherib crisis much as do the other histories, but incorporating also a passage of Isaianic prophecy (Isaiah 37:22-32) and a "writing of Hezekiah king of Judah" (Isaiah 38:10-20). Lastly, in Sirach 48:17-25, there is a summary of the good and wise deeds of Hezekiah, drawn from the accounts that we already have.
2. View-point and Colouring:
Of these sources the account in 2 Kings is most purely historianic, originating at a time when religious and political values, in the Hebrew mind, were inseparable. In 2 Chronicles the religious point and coloring, especially in its later developed ritual and legal aspects, has the decided predominance. Sirach, with the mind of a man of letters, is concerned mainly with eulogizing Hezekiah. in his "praise of famous men" (compare Sirach 44-50), of course from the devout Hebrew point of view. In the vision of Isaiah (Isaiah 1, 39), we have the reflection of the moral and spiritual situation in Jerusalem, as realized in the fervid prophetic consciousness; and in the prophecy of his younger contemporary Micah, the state of things in the outlying country districts nearest the path of invasion, where both the iniquities of the ruling classes and the horrors of war were felt most keenly. Doubtless also many devotional echoes of these times of stress are deducible from the Psalms, so far as we can fairly identify them.
It is in Hezekiah's times especially that the Assyrian inscriptions become illuminating for the history of Israel; for one important thing they furnish certain fixed dates to which the chronology of the times can be adjusted. Of Sennacherib's campaign of 701, for instance, no fewer than six accounts are at present known (see G.A. Smith, Jerusalem, II, 154, note), the most detailed being the "Taylor Cylinder," now in the British Museum, which in the main agrees, or at least is not inconsistent, with the Scripture history.
II. Events of His Reign.
1. His Heritage:
From his weak and unprincipled father Ahaz (compare 2 Chronicles 28:16-25), Hezekiah inherited not only a disorganized realm but a grievous burden of Assyrian dominance and tribute, and the constant peril and suspense of greater encroachments from that arrogant and arbitrary power: the state of things foretold in Isaiah 7:20; Isaiah 8:7. The situation was aggravated by the fact that not only the nation's weakness but its spiritual propensities had incurred it: the dominant classes were aping the sentiments, fashions and cult of the East (compare Isaiah 2:6-8), while the neglected common people were exposed to the corruptions of the still surviving heathenism of the land. The realm, in short, was at the spiritual nadir-point from which prophets like Isaiah and Micah were laboring to bring about the birth of a true Hebrew conscience and faith. Their task was a hard one: with a nation smear-eyed, dull-cared, fat-hearted (Isaiah 6:10), whose religion was a precept of men learned by rote (Isaiah 29:13). Clearly, from this point of view, a most difficult career was before him.
2. Religious Reform:
The sense of this unspiritual state of things furnishes the best keynote of Hezekiah's reforms in religion, which according to the Chronicler he set about as soon as he came to the throne (2 Chronicles 29:3). It is the Chronicler who gives the fullest account of these reforms (2 Chronicles 29-31); naturally, from his priestly point of view and access to ecclesiastical archives. Hezekiah began with the most pressing constructive need, the opening and cleansing of the Temple, which his father Ahaz had left closed and desecrated (2 Chronicles 28:24), and went on to the reorganization of its liturgical and choral service. In connection with this work he appointed a Passover observance, which, on a scale and spirit unknown since Solomon (2 Chronicles 30:26), he designed as a religious reunion of the devout-minded in all Israel, open not only to Jerusalem and Judah, but to all who would accept his invitation from Samaria, Galilee, and beyond the Jordan (2 Chronicles 30:5-12, 18). The immediate result of the enthusiasm engendered by this Old Home Week was a vigorous popular movement of iconoclasm against the idolatrous high places of the land. That this was no weak fanatical impulse to break something, but a touch of real spiritual quickening, seems evidenced by one incident of it: the breaking up of Moses' old brazen serpent and calling it what it had come to mean, nechushtan, "a piece of brass" (2 Kings 18:4); the movement seems in fact to have had in it the sense, however crude, that old religious forms had become hurtful and effete superstitions, hindering spirituality. Nor could the movement stop with the old fetish. With it went the demolition of the high places themselves and the breaking down of the pillars (matstsebhoth) and felling of the sacred groves ('asherah), main symbols these of a debasing naturecult. This reform, on account of later reactions (see under MANASSEH), has been deemed ineffective; rather, its effects were inward and germinal; nor were they less outwardly than could reasonably be expected, before its meanings were more deepened and centralized.
3. Internal Improvements:
All this, on the king's part, was his response to the spiritual influence of Isaiah, with whose mind his own was sincerely at one. As a devout disciple in the school of prophetic ideas, he earnestly desired to maintain the prophet's insistent attitude of "quietness and confidence" (compare Isaiah 30:15), that is, of stedfast trust in Yahweh alone, and of abstinence from revolt and entangling alliances with foreign powers. This, however, in the stress and suspense of the times, did not preclude a quiet preparation for emergencies; and doubtless the early years of his reign were notable, not only for mild and just administration throughout his realm, but for measures looking to the fortifying and defense of the capital. His work of repairing and extending the walls and of strengthening the citadel (Millo), as mentioned in 2 Chronicles 32:5, had probably been in progress long before the Assyrian crisis was imminent. Nor was he backward in coming to an understanding with other nations, as to the outlook for revolt against Assyria. He could not learn his lesson of faith all at once, especially with a factious court pulling the other way. He did not escape the suspicion of Sargon (died 705), who for his Egyptian leanings counted him among the "plotters of sedition" (compare COT, 100); while the increasing prosperity and strength of his realm marked him for a leading role in an eventual uprising. He weathered at least one chance of rebellion, however, in 711, probably through the strenuous exertions of Isaiah (see Isaiah 20:1).
4. The Assyrian Crisis:
Hezekiah's opportunity to rise against Assyrian domination seems to have been taken about 704. How so pious a king came to do it in spite of Isaiah's strenuous warnings, both against opposition to Assyria and alliance with other powers, is not very clear. The present writer ventures to suggest the view that the beginning was forced or perhaps sprung upon him by his princes and nobles. In the year before, Sargon, dying, had left his throne to Sennacherib, and, as at all ancient changes of sovereignty, this was the signal for a general effort for independence on the part of subject provinces. That was also the year of Hezekiah's deadly illness (2 Kings 20 Isaiah 38), when for a time we know not how long he would be incapacitated for active administration of affairs. Not unlikely on his recovery he found his realm committed beyond withdrawal to an alliance with Egypt and perhaps the leadership of a coalition with Philistia; in which case personally he could only make the best of the situation. There was nothing for it but to confirm this coalition by force, which he did in his Philistine campaign mentioned in 2 Kings 18:8. Meanwhile, in the same general uprising, the Chaldean Merodach-baladan, who had already been expelled from Babylon after an 11-year reign (721-710), again seized that throne; and in due time envoys from him appeared in Jerusalem, ostensibly to congratulate the king on his recovery from his illness, but really to secure his aid and alliance against Assyria (2 Kings 20:12-15 Isaiah 39:1-4). Hezekiah, flattered by such distinguished attention from so distant and powerful a source, by revealing his resources committed what the Chronicler calls the one impious indiscretion of his life (2 Chronicles 32:31), incurring also Isaiah's reproof and adverse prediction (2 Kings 20:17 Isaiah 39:6 f). The conflict with Sennacherib was now inevitable; and Hezekiah, by turning the water supply of Jerusalem from the Gihon spring to a pool within the walls and closing it from without, put the capital in readiness to stand a siege. The faith evoked by this wise work, confirmed by the subsequent deliverance, is reflected in Psalm 46. That this incurring of a hazardous war, however, with its turmoils and treacheries, and the presence of uncouth Arab mercenaries, was little to the king's desire or disposition, seems indicated in Psalm 120, which with the other Songs of Degrees (Pss 120-134) may well reflect the religious faith of this period of Hezekiah's life.
5. Invasion and Deliverance:
The critical moment came in 701, when Sennacherib, who the year before had reconquered Babylon and expelled Merodach-baladan (perhaps Isaiah 21:1-9 refers to and this), was free to invade his rebellious provinces in the West. It was a vigorous and sweeping campaign; in which, beginning with Sidon and advancing down
through the coast lands, he speedily subdued the Philistine cities, defeating them and their southern allies (whether these were from Egypt proper or from its extension across the Sinai peninsula and Northern Arabia, Mutsri, is not quite clear) at Eltekeh; in which campaign, according to his inscription, he took 46 walled towns belonging to Judah with their spoil and deported over 200,000 of their inhabitants. This, which left Jerusalem a blockaded town (in fact he says of Hezekiah: "Himself I shut up like a bird in a cage in Jerusalem his royal city"), seems referred to in Isaiah 1:7-9 and predicted in Isaiah 6:11. Its immediate effect was to bring Hezekiah to terms and extort an enormous tribute (2 Kings 18:14-16). When later, however, he was treacherous enough to disregard the compact thus implied (perhaps Isaiah 33 refers to this), and demanded the surrender of the city (2 Kings 18:17-19:7 Isaiah 36:2-37:7), Hezekiah besought the counsel of Isaiah, who bade him refuse the demand, and predicted that Sennacherib would "hear tidings" and return to his own land; which prediction actually came to pass, and suddenly Hezekiah found himself free. A deliverance so great, and so signally vindicating the setting forth of faith, could not but produce a momentous revulsion in the nation's mind, like a new spiritual birth in which the faith of the "remnant" became a vital power in Israel; its immediate effect seems portrayed in Psalm 124 and perhaps Psalm 126, and its deep significance as the birth of a nation in a day seems summarized long afterward in Isaiah 66:7-9; compare 37:3; 2 Kings 19:3.
6. The Second Summons:
A second summons to surrender, sent from Libnah by letter (2 Kings 19:1 Isaiah 37:8), is treated by the Scripture historians as a later feature of the same campaign; but recent researches seem to make it possible, nay probable, that this belonged to another campaign of Sennacherib, when Taharka of Ethiopia (Tirhakah, 2 Kings 19:9 Isaiah 37:9) came to power in Egypt, in 691. If this was so, there is room in Hezekiah's latter years for a decade of peace and prosperity (compare Ch 32:22, 23, 27-30), and in Isaiah's old age for a collection and revision of his so wonderfully vindicated prophecies. The historians' evident union of two stories in one makes the new attitude with which this crisis was met, obscure; but the tone of confirmed confidence and courage seems decidedly higher. The discomfiture of Sennacherib in this case was brought about, not by a rumor of rebellions at home, but by an outbreak of plague (2 Kings 19:35 Isaiah 37:36 f), which event the Scripture writers interpreted as a miracle. The prophetic sign of deliverance (2 Kings 19:29 Isaiah 37:30) may be referred to the recovery of the devastated lands from the ravage inflicted by Sennacherib in his first campaign (compare also Psalm 126:5).
III. His Character.
Our estimate of Hezekiah's character is most consistently made by regarding him as a disciple of Isaiah, who was earnestly minded to carry out his prophetic ideas. As, however, these were to begin with only the initial ideas of a spiritual "remnant," the king's sympathies must needs be identified at heart, not with his imperious nobles and princes, but with a minority of the common people, whose religious faith did not become a recognizable influence in the state until after 701. In the meantime his zeal for purer worship and more just domestic administration, which made him virtually king of the remnant, made him a wise and sagacious prince over the whole realm. Isaiah's glowing prophecy (32:1-8) seems to be a Messianic projection of the saner and clearer-seeing era that his domestic policy adumbrated-a time when king and nobles rule in righteousness, when man can lean on man, when things good and evil are seen as they are and called by their right names. When it came to dealing with the foreign situation, however, especially according to the Isaianic program, his task was exceedingly difficult, as it were a pioneer venture in faith. His effort to maintain an attitude of steadfast trust in Yahweh, with the devout quietism which, though really its consistency and strength looked like a supine passivity, would lead his restlessly scheming nobles to regard him as a pious weakling; and not improbably they came to deem him almost a negligible quantity, and forced his hand into diplomacies and coalitions that were not to his mind. Some such insolent attitude of theirs seems to be portrayed in Isaiah 28:14-22. This was rendered all the more feasible, perhaps, by the period of incapacitation that must have attended his illness, in the very midst of the nation's critical affairs. Isaiah's words (33:17) may be an allusion at once to his essential kingliness, to the abeyance of its manifestation due to his disease, and to the constricted condition into which, meanwhile, the realm had fallen. This exceedingly critical episode of Hezekiah's career does not seem to have had its rights with students of the era. Considering the trials that his patient faith must have had, always at cross-purposes with his nobles (compare Psalm 120:6); that now by reason of his sickness they had the whip hand; that his disease cut him off not only from hope of life, but from association with men and access to the sanctuary (compare Isaiah 38:10, 11, 12); that, as his son Manasseh was not born till three years within the fifteen now graciously added to his life (compare 2 Kings 21:1), his illness seemed to endanger the very perpetuity of the Davidic dynasty, we have reason for regarding him as well-nigh a martyr to the new spiritual uprising of faith which Isaiah was laboring to bring about. In the Messianic ideal which, in Isaiah's sublime conception, was rising into personal form, it fell to his lot to adumbrate the first kingly stage, the stage of committal to Yahweh's word and will and abiding the event. It was a cardinal element in that composite ideal which the Second Isaiah pushes to its ultimate in his portrayal of the servant of Yahweh; another element, the element of sacrifice, has yet to be added. Meanwhile, as with the king so with his remnant-realm, the venture of faith is like a precipitation of spiritual vitality, or, as the prophet puts it, a new birth (compare Isaiah 26:17; 37:03:00; 66:7, for the stages of it). The event of deliverance, not by men's policies but by Yahweh's miraculous hand, was the speedy vindication of such trust; and the revulsion of the next decade witnessed a confirming and solidifying of spiritual integrity in the remnant which made it a factor to be reckoned with in the trying times that succeeded (see under MANASSEH). The date of Hezekiah's death (probably not long after 690) is not certainly known; nor of the death of his mentor Isaiah (tradition puts this by martyrdom under Manasseh); but if our view of his closing years is correct, the king's death crowned a consistent character of strength and spiritual steadfastness; while the unapproachable greatness of Isaiah speaks for itself.
IV. Reflection of His Age in Literature.
1. Complication and Revival:
The sublime and mature utterances of Isaiah alone, falling in this time, are sufficient evidence that in Hezekiah's age, Israel reached its golden literary prime. Among the idealists and thinkers throughout the nation a new spiritual vigor and insight were awake. Of their fellowship was the king himself, who emulated the activity of his predecessor Solomon as patron of piety and letters. The compilation of the later Solomonic section of the Proverbs (Proverbs 25-29), attributed to the "men of Hezekiah," indicates the value attached to the accumulations of the so-called Wisdom literature; and it is fair to assume that these men of Hezekiah did not stop with compiling, but stamped upon the body of Proverbs as a whole that sense of it as a philosophy of life which it henceforth bears, and perhaps added the introductory section, Proverbs 1-9. Nor would a king so zealous for the organization and enrichment of the temple-worship (compare Isaiah 38:20) be indifferent to its body of sacred song. It seems certain that his was, in all the nation's history, the greatest single agency in compiling and adapting the older Davidic Psalms, and in the composition of new ones. Perhaps this union of collecting and creative work in psalmody is referred to in the mention of "the words of David, and of Asaph the seer" (2 Chronicles 29:30). To Hezekiah himself is attributed one "writing" which is virtually a psalm, Isaiah 38:20. The custom through all the history of hymnology (in our own day also) of adapting older compositions to new liturgical uses makes uncertain the identification of psalms belonging specifically to this period; still, many psalms of books ii and iii, and especially those ascribed to Asaph and the sons of Korah, seem a close reflection of the spirit of the times. An interesting theory recently advanced (see THIRTLE, Old Testament Problems) that the fifteen Songs of the Steps ("Degrees" or "Ascents," Psalms 120-134) are a memorial of Hezekiah's fifteen added years, when as a sign the shadow went backward on the steps of Ahaz (2 Kings 20:8-11), seems to reveal many remarkable echoes of that eventful time. Nor does it seem unlikely that with this first extensive collection of psalms the titles began to be added.
2. Of More Creative Strain:
This literary activity of Hezekiah's time, though concerned largely with collecting and reviving the treasures of older literature, was pursued not in the cold scribal spirit, but in a fervid creative way. This may be realized in two of the psalms which the present writer ascribes to this period. Psalm 49, a psalm of the sons of Korah, is concerned to make an essential tenet of Wisdom viable in song (compare Psalm 49:3, 4), as if one of the "men of Hezekiah" who is busy with the Solomonic counsels would popularize the spirit of his findings. Psalm 78 in like manner, a Maschil of Asaph, is concerned to make the noble histories of old viable in song (78:2), especially the wilderness history when Israel received the law and beheld Yahweh's wonders, and down to the time when Ephraim was rejected and Judah, in the person of David, was chosen to the leadership in Israel.
Such a didactic poem would not stand solitary in a period so instructed. As in Wisdom and psalmody, so in the domain of law and its attendant history, the literary activity was vigorous. This age of Hezekiah seems the likeliest time for putting into literary idiom that "book of the law" found later in the Temple (2 Kings 22); which book Josiah's reforms, carried out according to its commands, prove to have been our Book of Deuteronomy. This is not the place to discuss the Deuteronomic problem (see under JOSIAH); it is fair to note here, however, that as compared with the austere statement of the Mosaic statutes elsewhere, this book has a literary art and coloring which seem to stamp its style as that of a later age than Moses', though its substance is Mosaic; and this age of Hezekiah seems the likeliest time to put its rewriting and adaptation. Nor did the new spirit of literary creation feed itself entirely on the past. The king's chastening experience of illness and trial, with the steadfast faith that upbore and survived it, must have been fruitful of new ideas, especially of that tremendous conception, now just entering into thought, of the ministry of suffering. Time, of course, must be allowed for the ripening of an idea so full of involvement; and it is long before its sacrificial and atoning values come to light in such utterances as Isaiah 53. But such psalms as Psalm 49 and Psalm 73, not to mention Hezekiah's own psalm (Isaiah 38), show that the problem was a living one; it was working, moreover, in connection with the growing Wisdom philosophy, toward the composition of the Book of Job, which in a masterly way both subjects the current Wisdom motives to a searching test and vindicates the intrinsic integrity of the patriarch in a discipline of most extreme trial. The life of a king whose experience had some share in clarifying the ideas of such a book was not lived in vain.
John Franklin Genung
HEZEKIAH, THE MEN OF
See PROVERBS, THE BOOK OF, II, 5; HEZEKIAH, IV, 2.
Hezekiah (124 Occurrences)
Matthew 1:9 Uzziah became the father of Jotham. Jotham became the father of Ahaz. Ahaz became the father of Hezekiah. (WEB WEY ASV BBE YLT NAS NIV)
Matthew 1:10 Hezekiah became the father of Manasseh. Manasseh became the father of Amon. Amon became the father of Josiah. (WEB WEY ASV BBE YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 16:20 Ahaz slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David: and Hezekiah his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:1 Now it happened in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:9 It happened in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:10 At the end of three years they took it: in the sixth year of Hezekiah, which was the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:13 Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:14 Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying, "I have offended; return from me. That which you put on me, I will bear." The king of Assyria appointed to Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:15 Hezekiah gave him all the silver that was found in the house of Yahweh, and in the treasures of the king's house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:16 At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of Yahweh, and from the pillars which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:17 The king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great army to Jerusalem. They went up and came to Jerusalem. When they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fuller's field. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:19 Rabshakeh said to them, "Say now to Hezekiah,'Thus says the great king, the king of Assyria, "What confidence is this in which you trust? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:22 But if you tell me,'We trust in Yahweh our God;' isn't that he whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah has taken away, and has said to Judah and to Jerusalem,'You shall worship before this altar in Jerusalem?' (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:29 Thus says the king,'Don't let Hezekiah deceive you; for he will not be able to deliver you out of his hand. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:30 Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in Yahweh, saying, "Yahweh will surely deliver us, and this city shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:31 Don't listen to Hezekiah.' For thus says the king of Assyria,'Make your peace with me, and come out to me; and everyone of you eat of his vine, and everyone of his fig tree, and everyone drink the waters of his own cistern; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:32 until I come and take you away to a land like your own land, a land of grain and new wine, a land of bread and vineyards, a land of olive trees and of honey, that you may live, and not die. Don't listen to Hezekiah, when he persuades you, saying, "Yahweh will deliver us." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 18:37 Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, came with Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph the recorder, to Hezekiah with their clothes torn, and told him the words of Rabshakeh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:1 It happened, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he tore his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth, and went into the house of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:3 They said to him, "Thus says Hezekiah,'This day is a day of trouble, of rebuke, and of rejection; for the children have come to the point of birth, and there is no strength to deliver them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:9 When he heard it said of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, "Behold, he has come out to fight against you, he sent messengers again to Hezekiah, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:10 'Thus you shall speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, "Don't let your God in whom you trust deceive you, saying, Jerusalem will not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:14 Hezekiah received the letter from the hand of the messengers, and read it. Then Hezekiah went up to the house of Yahweh, and spread it before Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:15 Hezekiah prayed before Yahweh, and said, "Yahweh, the God of Israel, who sit above the cherubim, you are the God, even you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:20 Then Isaiah the son of Amoz sent to Hezekiah, saying, "Thus says Yahweh, the God of Israel,'Whereas you have prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria, I have heard you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 19:29 "'This shall be the sign to you: You shall eat this year that which grows of itself, and in the second year that which springs of the same; and in the third year sow, and reap, and plant vineyards, and eat its fruit. (See NIV)
2 Kings 20:1 In those days was Hezekiah sick to death. Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz came to him, and said to him, "Thus says Yahweh,'Set your house in order; for you shall die, and not live.'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:3 "Remember now, Yahweh, I beg you, how I have walked before you in truth and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is good in your sight." Hezekiah wept bitterly. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:5 "Turn back, and tell Hezekiah the prince of my people,'Thus says Yahweh, the God of David your father, "I have heard your prayer. I have seen your tears. Behold, I will heal you. On the third day, you shall go up to the house of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:8 Hezekiah said to Isaiah, "What shall be the sign that Yahweh will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of Yahweh the third day?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:10 Hezekiah answered, "It is a light thing for the shadow to go forward ten steps. Nay, but let the shadow return backward ten steps." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:12 At that time Berodach Baladan the son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah; for he had heard that Hezekiah had been sick. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:13 Hezekiah listened to them, and showed them all the house of his precious things, the silver, and the gold, and the spices, and the precious oil, and the house of his armor, and all that was found in his treasures: there was nothing in his house, nor in all his dominion, that Hezekiah didn't show them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:14 Then Isaiah the prophet came to king Hezekiah, and said to him, "What did these men say? From where did they come to you?" Hezekiah said, "They are come from a far country, even from Babylon." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:15 He said, "What have they seen in your house?" Hezekiah answered, "They have seen all that is in my house. There is nothing among my treasures that I have not shown them." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:16 Isaiah said to Hezekiah, "Hear the word of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:19 Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, "The word of Yahweh which you have spoken is good." He said moreover, "Isn't it so, if peace and truth shall be in my days?" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:20 Now the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and all his might, and how he made the pool, and the conduit, and brought water into the city, aren't they written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 20:21 Hezekiah slept with his fathers; and Manasseh his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Kings 21:3 For he built again the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal, and made an Asherah, as did Ahab king of Israel, and worshiped all the army of the sky, and served them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 3:13 Ahaz his son, Hezekiah his son, Manasseh his son, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
1 Chronicles 3:23 And the sons of Neariah; Elioenai, and Hezekiah, and Azrikam, three. (KJV DBY WBS YLT)
1 Chronicles 4:41 These written by name came in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and struck their tents, and the Meunim who were found there, and destroyed them utterly to this day, and lived in their place; because there was pasture there for their flocks. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 28:12 And certain of the heads of the children of Ephraim, Azariah the son of Johanan, Berechiah the son of Meshillemoth, and Hezekiah the son of Shallum, and Amasa the son of Hadlai, stood up against them that came from the war, (DBY)
2 Chronicles 28:27 Ahaz slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the city, even in Jerusalem; for they didn't bring him into the tombs of the kings of Israel: and Hezekiah his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:1 Hezekiah began to reign when he was twenty-five years old; and he reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem: and his mother's name was Abijah, the daughter of Zechariah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:18 Then they went in to Hezekiah the king within the palace, and said, We have cleansed all the house of Yahweh, and the altar of burnt offering, with all its vessels, and the table of show bread, with all its vessels. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:20 Then Hezekiah the king arose early, and gathered the princes of the city, and went up to the house of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:27 Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering on the altar. When the burnt offering began, the song of Yahweh began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David king of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:30 Moreover Hezekiah the king and the princes commanded the Levites to sing praises to Yahweh with the words of David, and of Asaph the seer. They sang praises with gladness, and they bowed their heads and worshiped. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:31 Then Hezekiah answered, Now you have consecrated yourselves to Yahweh; come near and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of Yahweh. The assembly brought in sacrifices and thank offerings; and as many as were of a willing heart brought burnt offerings. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 29:36 Hezekiah rejoiced, and all the people, because of that which God had prepared for the people: for the thing was done suddenly. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 30:1 Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of Yahweh at Jerusalem, to keep the Passover to Yahweh, the God of Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 30:18 For a multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the Passover otherwise than it is written. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying, The good Yahweh pardon everyone (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 30:20 Yahweh listened to Hezekiah, and healed the people. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 30:22 Hezekiah spoke comfortably to all the Levites who had good understanding in the service of Yahweh. So they ate throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace offerings, and making confession to Yahweh, the God of their fathers. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 30:24 For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the assembly for offerings one thousand bulls and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the assembly a thousand bulls and ten thousand sheep: and a great number of priests sanctified themselves. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:2 Hezekiah appointed the divisions of the priests and the Levites after their divisions, every man according to his service, both the priests and the Levites, for burnt offerings and for peace offerings, to minister, and to give thanks, and to praise in the gates of the camp of Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:8 When Hezekiah and the princes came and saw the heaps, they blessed Yahweh, and his people Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:9 Then Hezekiah questioned the priests and the Levites concerning the heaps. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:11 Then Hezekiah commanded to prepare chambers in the house of Yahweh; and they prepared them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:13 Jehiel, and Azaziah, and Nahath, and Asahel, and Jerimoth, and Jozabad, and Eliel, and Ismachiah, and Mahath, and Benaiah, were overseers under the hand of Conaniah and Shimei his brother, by the appointment of Hezekiah the king, and Azariah the ruler of the house of God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 31:20 Hezekiah did so throughout all Judah; and he worked that which was good and right and faithful before Yahweh his God. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:2 When Hezekiah saw that Sennacherib was come, and that he was purposed to fight against Jerusalem, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:8 with him is an arm of flesh; but with us is Yahweh our God to help us, and to fight our battles. The people rested themselves on the words of Hezekiah king of Judah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:9 After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem, (now he was before Lachish, and all his power with him), to Hezekiah king of Judah, and to all Judah who were at Jerusalem, saying, (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:11 Doesn't Hezekiah persuade you, to give you over to die by famine and by thirst, saying, Yahweh our God will deliver us out of the hand of the king of Assyria? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:12 Has not the same Hezekiah taken away his high places and his altars, and commanded Judah and Jerusalem, saying, You shall worship before one altar, and on it you shall burn incense? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:15 Now therefore don't let Hezekiah deceive you, nor persuade you after this manner, neither believe you him; for no god of any nation or kingdom was able to deliver his people out of my hand, and out of the hand of my fathers: how much less shall your God deliver you out of my hand? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:16 His servants spoke yet more against Yahweh God, and against his servant Hezekiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:17 He wrote also letters, to rail on Yahweh, the God of Israel, and to speak against him, saying, As the gods of the nations of the lands, which have not delivered their people out of my hand, so shall the God of Hezekiah not deliver his people out of my hand. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:20 Hezekiah the king, and Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz, prayed because of this, and cried to heaven. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:22 Thus Yahweh saved Hezekiah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem from the hand of Sennacherib the king of Assyria, and from the hand of all others, and guided them on every side. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:23 Many brought gifts to Yahweh to Jerusalem, and precious things to Hezekiah king of Judah; so that he was exalted in the sight of all nations from thenceforth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:24 In those days Hezekiah was sick even to death: and he prayed to Yahweh; and he spoke to him, and gave him a sign. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:25 But Hezekiah didn't render again according to the benefit done to him; for his heart was lifted up: therefore there was wrath on him, and on Judah and Jerusalem. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:26 Notwithstanding Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride of his heart, both he and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the wrath of Yahweh didn't come on them in the days of Hezekiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:27 Hezekiah had exceeding much riches and honor: and he provided him treasuries for silver, and for gold, and for precious stones, and for spices, and for shields, and for all manner of goodly vessels; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:30 This same Hezekiah also stopped the upper spring of the waters of Gihon, and brought them straight down on the west side of the city of David. Hezekiah prospered in all his works. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:32 Now the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and his good deeds, behold, they are written in the vision of Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz, in the book of the kings of Judah and Israel. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 32:33 Hezekiah slept with his fathers, and they buried him in the ascent of the tombs of the sons of David: and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honor at his death. Manasseh his son reigned in his place. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
2 Chronicles 33:3 For he built again the high places which Hezekiah his father had broken down; and he reared up altars for the Baals, and made Asheroth, and worshiped all the army of the sky, and served them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Ezra 2:16 The children of Ater, of Hezekiah, ninety-eight. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Nehemiah 7:21 The children of Ater, of Hezekiah, ninety-eight. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Nehemiah 10:17 Ater, Hezekiah, Azzur, (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY NAS NIV)
Proverbs 25:1 These also are proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied out. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 1:1 The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:1 Now it happened in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria attacked all of the fortified cities of Judah, and captured them. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:2 The king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem to king Hezekiah with a large army. He stood by the aqueduct from the upper pool in the fuller's field highway. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:4 Rabshakeh said to them, "Now tell Hezekiah,'Thus says the great king, the king of Assyria, "What confidence is this in which you trust? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:7 But if you tell me,'We trust in Yahweh our God,' isn't that he whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah has taken away, and has said to Judah and to Jerusalem,'You shall worship before this altar?'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:14 Thus says the king,'Don't let Hezekiah deceive you; for he will not be able to deliver you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:15 Don't let Hezekiah make you trust in Yahweh, saying, "Yahweh will surely deliver us. This city won't be given into the hand of the king of Assyria."' (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:16 Don't listen to Hezekiah, for thus says the king of Assyria,'Make your peace with me, and come out to me; and each of you eat from his vine, and each one from his fig tree, and each one of you drink the waters of his own cistern; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:18 Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you, saying, "Yahweh will deliver us." Have any of the gods of the nations delivered their lands from the hand of the king of Assyria? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 36:22 Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the recorder, came to Hezekiah with their clothes torn, and told him the words of Rabshakeh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 37:1 It happened, when king Hezekiah heard it, that he tore his clothes, covered himself with sackcloth, and went into Yahweh's house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 37:3 They said to him, "Thus says Hezekiah,'This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of rejection; for the children have come to the birth, and there is no strength to bring forth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Isaiah 37:5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)