|Easton's Bible Dictionary|
Always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isaiah 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deuteronomy 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Samuel 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isaiah 30:28) and a curb (Psalm 32:9).
Noah Webster's Dictionary
1. (n.) A hoofed quadruped of the genus Equus; especially, the domestic horse (E. caballus), which was domesticated in Egypt and Asia at a very early period. It has six broad molars, on each side of each jaw, with six incisors, and two canine teeth, both above and below. The mares usually have the canine teeth rudimentary or wanting. The horse differs from the true asses, in having a long, flowing mane, and the tail bushy to the base. Unlike the asses it has callosities, or chestnuts, on all its legs. The horse excels in strength, speed, docility, courage, and nobleness of character, and is used for drawing, carrying, bearing a rider, and like purposes.
2. (n.) The male of the genus horse, in distinction from the female or male; usually, a castrated male.
3. (n.) Mounted soldiery; cavalry; -- used without the plural termination; as, a regiment of horse; -- distinguished from foot.
4. (n.) A frame with legs, used to support something; as, a clotheshorse, a sawhorse, etc.
5. (n.) A frame of timber, shaped like a horse, on which soldiers were made to ride for punishment.
6. (n.) Anything, actual or figurative, on which one rides as on a horse; a hobby.
7. (n.) A mass of earthy matter, or rock of the same character as the wall rock, occurring in the course of a vein, as of coal or ore; hence, to take horse -- said of a vein -- is to divide into branches for a distance.
8. (n.) See Footrope, a.
9. (n.) A breast band for a leadsman.
10. (n.) An iron bar for a sheet traveler to slide upon.
11. (n.) A jackstay.
12. (v. t.) To provide with a horse, or with horses; to mount on, or as on, a horse.
13. (v. t.) To sit astride of; to bestride.
14. (v. t.) To cover, as a mare; -- said of the male.
15. (v. t.) To take or carry on the back; as, the keeper, horsing a deer.
16. (v. t.) To place on the back of another, or on a wooden horse, etc., to be flogged; to subject to such punishment.
17. (v. i.) To get on horseback.
Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia
The common names are (1) cuc, and
(3) The word parash, "horseman," occurs often, and in several cases is translated "horse" or "warhorse" (Isaiah 28:28 Ezekiel 27:14 Joel 2:4 the Revised Version, margin); also in 2 Samuel 16, where the "horsemen" of English Versions of the Bible is ba`ale ha-parashim, "owners of horses"; compare Arabic faris, "horseman," and faras, "horse".
(4) The feminine form cucah, occurs in Songs 1:9, and is rendered as follows: Septuagint he hippos; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) equitatum; the King James Version "company of horses," the Revised Version (British and American) "steed." It is not clear why English Versions of the Bible does not have "mare."
(5) The word 'abbirim, "strong ones," is used for horses in Judges 5:22 Jeremiah 8:16; Jeremiah 47:3; Jeremiah 50:11 (the King James Version "bulls"). In Psalm 22:12 the same word is translated "strong bulls" (of Bashan).
(6) For rekhesh (compare Arabic rakad, "to run"), in 1 Kings 4:28 Esther 8:10, 14 Micah 1:13, the Revised Version (British and American) has "swift steeds," while the King James Version gives "dromedaries" in 1 Kings and "mules" in Est.
(7) For kirkaroth (Isaiah 66:20), the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "swift beasts"; the English Revised Version margin and the American Standard Revised Version "dromedaries"; Septuagint skiddia, perhaps "covered carriages." In Esther 8:10, 14 we find the doubtful words
(8) 'achashteranim, and
(9) bene ha-rammakim, which have been variously translated. the King James Version has respectively "camels" and "young dromedaries," the Revised Version (British and American) "used in the king's service" and "bred of the stud," the Revised Version margin "mules" and "young dromedaries."
The Hebrew and Egyptian names for the horse are alike akin to the Assyrian. The Jews may have obtained horses from Egypt (Deuteronomy 17:16), but the Canaanites before them had horses (Joshua 17:16), and in looking toward the Northeast for the origin of the horse, philologists are in agreement with zoologists who consider that the plains of Central Asia, and also of Europe, were the original home of the horse. At least one species of wild horse is still found in Central Asia.
The horses of the Bible are almost exclusively war-horses, or at least the property of kings and not of the common people. A doubtful reference to the use of horses in threshing grain is found in Isaiah 28:28. Horses are among the property which the Egyptians gave to Joseph in exchange for grain (Genesis 47:17). In Deuteronomy 17:16 it is enjoined that the king "shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he may multiply horses." This and other injunctions failed to prevent the Jews from borrowing from the neighboring civilizations their customs, idolatries, and vices. Solomon's horses are enumerated in 1 Kings 4, and the se`irim and tebhen of 1 Kings 4:28 (5:8) are identical with the sha`ir ("barley") and tibn ("straw") with which the arab feeds his horse today. In war, horses were ridden and were driven in chariots (Exodus 14:9 Joshua 11:4 2 Samuel 15:1, etc.).
4. Figurative and Descriptive:
The horse is referred to figuratively chiefly in Zechariah and Revelation. A chariot and horses of fire take Elijah up to heaven (2 Kings 2:11 f). In Psalm 20:7; Psalm 33:17; and 76:6, the great strength of the horse is recalled as a reminder of the greater strength of God. In James 3:3, the small bridle by which the horse can be managed is compared to the tongue (compare Psalm 32:9). In Job 39:19-25 we have a magnificent description of a spirited war-horse.
Alfred Ely Day
(hippos melas): Symbolic of famine ("balance. measure of wheat for a shilling," etc., Revelation 6:5, 6; compare Zechariah 6:2, 6).
See REVELATION OF JOHN.
(hippos purros): Symbolic of war, bloodshed ("slay one another," etc., Revelation 6:4; compare Zechariah 18; 6:2).
See REVELATION OF JOHN.
(hippos leukos): Symbolic of victory, conquest ("bow. conquering and to conquer," Revelation 6:2; Revelation 19:11, 14; compare Zechariah 1:8; Zechariah 6:3, 1).
See REVELATION OF JOHN.
See HORSE, RED; REVELATION OF JOHN.
GATE, CORNER, FOUNTAIN, HORSE, SUR
See HORSE, WHITE.
Horse (62 Occurrences)
Revelation 6:2 And behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it had a bow. A crown was given to him, and he came forth conquering, and to conquer. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:4 Another came forth, a red horse. To him who sat on it was given power to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another. There was given to him a great sword. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:5 When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come and see!" And behold, a black horse, and he who sat on it had a balance in his hand. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 6:8 And behold, a pale horse, and he who sat on it, his name was Death. Hades followed with him. Authority over one fourth of the earth, to kill with the sword, with famine, with death, and by the wild animals of the earth was given to him. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 9:16 The number of the armies of the horsemen was two hundred million. I heard the number of them. (Root in WEB KJV ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS)
Revelation 14:20 The winepress was trodden outside of the city, and blood came out from the winepress, even to the bridles of the horses, as far as one thousand six hundred stadia. (Root in WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:11 I saw the heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it is called Faithful and True. In righteousness he judges and makes war. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:19 I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him who sat on the horse, and against his army. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Revelation 19:21 The rest were killed with the sword of him who sat on the horse, the sword which came forth out of his mouth. All the birds were filled with their flesh. (WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Genesis 49:17 Dan will be a serpent in the way, an adder in the path, That bites the horse's heels, so that his rider falls backward. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:1 Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to Yahweh, and said, "I will sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and Yahweh brought back the waters of the sea on them; but the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Exodus 15:21 Miriam answered them, "Sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Leviticus 15:9 And any leather seat on a horse on which the unclean man has been seated will be unclean. (BBE)
Deuteronomy 20:1 When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and see horses, and chariots, and a people more than you, you shall not be afraid of them; for Yahweh your God is with you, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Joshua 11:4 They went out, they and all their armies with them, many people, even as the sand that is on the seashore in multitude, with very many horses and chariots. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Judges 5:22 Then the horse hoofs stamped because of the prancings, the prancings of their strong ones. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 10:29 A chariot came up and went out of Egypt for six hundred shekels of silver, and a horse for one hundred fifty; and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and for the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 18:5 Ahab said to Obadiah, "Go through the land, to all the springs of water, and to all the brooks. Perhaps we may find grass and save the horses and mules alive, that we not lose all the animals." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 20:1 Ben Hadad the king of Syria gathered all his army together; and there were thirty-two kings with him, and horses and chariots: and he went up and besieged Samaria, and fought against it. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 20:20 They each killed his man. The Syrians fled, and Israel pursued them. Ben Hadad the king of Syria escaped on a horse with horsemen. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
1 Kings 20:25 Muster an army, like the army that you have lost, horse for horse, and chariot for chariot. We will fight against them in the plain, and surely we will be stronger than them." He listened to their voice, and did so. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 6:15 When the servant of the man of God had risen early, and gone out, behold, an army with horses and chariots was around the city. His servant said to him, "Alas, my master! What shall we do?" (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 7:6 For the Lord had made the army of the Syrians to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of horses, even the noise of a great army: and they said one to another, Behold, the king of Israel has hired against us the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians, to come on us. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 7:10 So they came and called to the porter of the city; and they told them, saying, "We came to the camp of the Syrians, and, behold, there was no man there, neither voice of man, but the horses tied, and the donkeys tied, and the tents as they were." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Kings 9:19 Then he sent out a second on horseback, who came to them, and said, "Thus says the king,'Is it peace?'" Jehu answered, "What do you have to do with peace? Fall in behind me!" (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 1:17 They brought up and brought out of Egypt a chariot for six hundred pieces of silver, and a horse for one hundred fifty: and so for all the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of Syria, did they bring them out by their means. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
2 Chronicles 23:15 So they made way for her; and she went to the entrance of the horse gate to the king's house: and they killed her there. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Nehemiah 3:28 Above the horse gate repaired the priests, everyone over against his own house. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:8 let royal clothing be brought which the king uses to wear, and the horse that the king rides on, and on the head of which a crown royal is set. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:9 Let the clothing and the horse be delivered to the hand of one of the king's most noble princes, that they may array the man whom the king delights to honor with them, and have him ride on horseback through the city square, and proclaim before him,'Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delights to honor!'" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:10 Then the king said to Haman, "Hurry and take the clothing and the horse, as you have said, and do this for Mordecai the Jew, who sits at the king's gate. Let nothing fail of all that you have spoken." (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Esther 6:11 Then Haman took the clothing and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and had him ride through the city square, and proclaimed before him, "Thus shall it be done to the man whom the king delights to honor!" (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 39:18 When she lifts up herself on high, she scorns the horse and his rider. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Job 39:19 "Have you given the horse might? Have you clothed his neck with a quivering mane? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 32:9 Don't be like the horse, or like the mule, which have no understanding, who are controlled by bit and bridle, or else they will not come near to you. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 33:17 A horse is a vain thing for safety, neither does he deliver any by his great power. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 76:6 At your rebuke, God of Jacob, both chariot and horse are cast into a deep sleep. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Psalms 147:10 He doesn't delight in the strength of the horse. He takes no pleasure in the legs of a man. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 21:31 The horse is prepared for the day of battle; but victory is with Yahweh. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 26:3 A whip is for the horse, a bridle for the donkey, and a rod for the back of fools! (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Proverbs 30:31 The war-horse, and the he-goat, and the king when his army is with him. (BBE DBY)
Song of Songs 1:9 I have compared thee, O my love, to a company of horses in Pharaoh's chariots. (Root in KJV BBE WBS)
Isaiah 30:16 but you said, "No, for we will flee on horses;" therefore you will flee; and, "We will ride on the swift;" therefore those who pursue you will be swift. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 43:17 who brings forth the chariot and horse, the army and the mighty man (they lie down together, they shall not rise; they are extinct, they are quenched like a wick): (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Isaiah 63:13 who led them through the depths, as a horse in the wilderness, so that they didn't stumble? (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 8:6 I listened and heard, but they didn't speak aright: no man repents him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done? everyone turns to his course, as a horse that rushes headlong in the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 31:40 The whole valley of the dead bodies and of the ashes, and all the fields to the brook Kidron, to the corner of the horse gate toward the east, shall be holy to Yahweh; it shall not be plucked up, nor thrown down any more forever. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 51:21 and with you will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Jeremiah 51:27 Set up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz: appoint a marshal against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough canker worm. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 26:7 For thus says the Lord Yahweh: Behold, I will bring on Tyre Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, king of kings, from the north, with horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen, and a company, and much people. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Ezekiel 39:20 You shall be filled at my table with horses and chariots, with mighty men, and with all men of war, says the Lord Yahweh. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Hosea 14:3 Assyria can't save us. We won't ride on horses; neither will we say any more to the work of our hands,'Our gods!' for in you the fatherless finds mercy." (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Amos 2:15 neither shall he stand who handles the bow; and he who is swift of foot won't escape; neither shall he who rides the horse deliver himself; (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Micah 1:13 Let the war-carriage be yoked to the quick-running horse, you who are living in Lachish: she was the first cause of sin to the daughter of Zion; for the wrongdoings of Israel were seen in you. (BBE NAS)
Nahum 3:2 The noise of the whip, the noise of the rattling of wheels, prancing horses, and bounding chariots, (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 1:8 "I had a vision in the night, and behold, a man riding on a red horse, and he stood among the myrtle trees that were in a ravine; and behind him there were red, brown, and white horses. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 9:10 I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow will be cut off; and he will speak peace to the nations: and his dominion will be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 10:3 My anger is kindled against the shepherds, and I will punish the male goats; For Yahweh of Armies has visited his flock, the house of Judah, and will make them as his majestic horse in the battle. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS NIV)
Zechariah 12:4 In that day," says Yahweh, "I will strike every horse with terror, and his rider with madness; and I will open my eyes on the house of Judah, and will strike every horse of the peoples with blindness. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 14:15 So will be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the donkey, and of all the animals that will be in those camps, as that plague. (WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)
Zechariah 14:20 In that day there will be on the bells of the horses, "HOLY TO YAHWEH;" and the pots in Yahweh's house will be like the bowls before the altar. (Root in WEB KJV JPS ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)